makes a face and a-half to his right on the right heel,
and breaks off with the left foot; places the right hand
against the head of the left cheek of the carriage, and
with the left hand introduces the cartridge into the
chamber, keeping the legs of the tongs in a vertical
plane; then slightly withdrawing and closing the tongs,
he presses them in the direction of the axis of the
piece against the end of the cartridge, and shoves it
Withdrawing the tongs, he makes a face and
a-half to his left on the right heel, and puts the hooks
of the tongs into the ears of the shell, which he lifts
and holds about two feet from the ground, whilst no.
4 wipes it.
No. 1, as soon as the tongs are withdrawn, inserts
the rammer, and holds it with the head against the
cartridge, the staff in the axis of the piece.
48. No. 1 presses firmly upon the cartridge; throws
out the rammer, and places it upon the props; sweeps,
if necessary, his side of the platform; passes the broom
to the left side of the piece; and resumes his post.
No. 2 introduces the shell, and shoves it home in a
manner similar to that prescribed for the cartridge;
24 SERVICE OF THE PIECE. [PART 1.
withdraws the hooks, and looks to see that the fuze is
in the axis of the piece.
If the piece is to be fired horizontally, or at an angle
of depression, no. 4, having replaced the wiper, hands
a splint to no. 2, and resumes his post.
No. 2 presses the splint under the shell with the left
hand; replaces the tongs and broom; and resumes his
The gunner pricks, leaving the priming-wire in the
vent, and resumes his post.
5. In battery.
49. Nos. 1 and 2 unchock the wheels, and with nos
3 and 4, all facing towards the epaulment, embar: nos.
1 and 2 through the front spokes of the wheels, near
the felly, under and perpendicularly to the cheeks; and
nos. 3 and 4 under the rear of the wheels.
The gunner, seizing his handspike, embars under one
of the manoeuvring bolts; gives the command Heave;
and guides the piece to the middle of the embrazure.
As soon as the wheels touch the hurter, he commands
Halt. All unbar, and resume their posts.
50. Nos. 1 and 4 embar under and perpendicularly
to the trail, near the manoeuvring bolts.
No. 2, facing towards the epaulment, embars under
the breech or knob of the cascable.
No. 3 lays down his handspike; passes the hook of
the lanyard through the eye of a tube from front to
rear; and holds the handle of the lanyard with the
right hand, the hook between the thumb and forefinger.
The gunner, placing himself at the stock, as at the
command Load, withdraws the priming-wire, and,
aided by nos. 1 and 4, gives the direction; causing the
trail to be moved by commanding Left, or Right,
tapping, at the same time, on the right side of the
ART. 1.] 8-INCH SIEGE HOWITZER. 25
breech for no. 1 to move the trail to the left, or on the
left side for no. 4 to move it to the right.
He then places the centre point of the breech-sight
accurately upon the chalk mark on the base-ring, and
commands Lower, or Raise, tapping, at the same
time, on the upper side of the knob of the cascable
with the left hand, and drawing out the quoin with the
right, in order to elevate, or tapping upwards on the
lower side, and shoving in the quoin, in order to de-
press the piece; rectifying the direction, if necessary.
If the piece is to be fired point-blank, horizontally,
or at an angle of depression, he does not apply the
If the piece is masked from the object fired at, he
places himself astride the stock, or in rear of the trail,
and gives the direction by the plummet.
To give the elevation when the piece is masked, or
when the desired range is greater than the breech-sight
ranges, he applies the quadrant to the upper surface of
the lock -piece, making the allowance due to its incli-
nation with the axis of the piece, which ought to be
The moment the piece is correctly pointed, he rises
on the left leg, and gives the word Ready, making a
signal with both hands, at which nos. 1, 2 and 4 un-
bar, and resume their posts; takes the breech-sight
with the left hand; and goes to the windward to observe
the effect of the shot.
No. 3 inserts the tube in the vent; drops the handle,
allowing the lanyard to uncoil as he steps back to his
post, holding it slightly stretched with the right hand,
the cord passing between the fingers, back of the hand
up; and breaks to the rear a full pace with the left foot,
the left hand against the thigh.
Nos. 1 and 2, on resuming their posts, break off with
the feet farthest from the epaulment, inclining well to
that side in order to avoid the blast.
26 SERVICE OF THE PIECE. [PART L
7. J^umher one (or the like) — Fire.
51. Executed as in no. 26, except that the wheels
are not chocked.
What is prescribed in no, 27 will apply to this piece.
52. To continue the exercise, the instructor resumes
the series of commands beginning with From battery.
53. The piece having been -run from battery, the
instructor directs no. 2 to take out the shell and car-
tridge; no. 4 carrying them to their place in rear of the
piece. No. 3 assists No. 2, by raising the breech until
the shell rolls to the muzzle.
Vo scrape ilte piece,
54. In the course of firing it may become necessary
to scrape the piece. To cause this to be done, the
instructor directs the piece to be moved from battery,
and then commands:
Scrape the piece.
Nos. 1 and 2 lay down their handspikes.
No. 2 takes the scraper and wiper, giving the latter
to no. 1 ; thoroughly scrapes the chamber and bore;
draws out the scrapings with the spoon; rejarns the
scraper to its place; and resumes his post.
No. 1, enveloping the sponge-head in the wiper,
wipes out the bore, and returns the wiper to no. 2,
who replaces it; puts the sponge upon the props; and
resumes his post.
Vo citange posts,
Vo toad fot' action.
To cease living,
Vo secure piece f and replace itnpleutents,
Vo leave tite battery.
ART. 1.] 8-lNCH SIEGE HOWITZER. 27
Executed as in nos. 29, 30, 31, 32 and 33; no. 4
assisting no. 2 to take off the sleeves.
To ferve the piece teith redttced numbers.
Executed as in no. 35.
55. The transportation of an 8-inch siege howitzer
requires eight horses and four drivers.
56. Greatest charge of powder 4 lbs.
Greatest charge, shell filled with bullets 3 lbs.
Charge of the shell filled with powder 3 lbs. 9 oz.
Bursting charge of the shell 1 lb.
Charge to blow out the fuze 4 oz.
. Greatest elevation the carriage admits 15°
Greatest depression the carriage admits 10°
Range at an angle of 1°, charge 4 lbs 430 yards.
Range at an angle of 5°, charge 4 lbs 1150 "
Range at an angle of 15°, charge 4 lbs 2300 "
E*roof range of powder 300 "
Weight of shell 45 lbs.
Weight of the shell filled with bullets ..... 65 lbs.
The black fuze burns to the inch 2"
The red fuze burns to the inch 3"
The green fuze burns to the inch 4"
The yellow fuze burns to the inch 5"
At 2° elevation, black fuze, full charge.
At 30.25 do. red do. do.
At 4°. 25 do. green do. do.
At5°.25 do. yellow do. do.
A proper charge for enfilading, at the distance of 600
yards, on a horizontal plane, relief of the epaulment
seven feet, elevation 2° .75, red fuze, is three pounds.
See Tables in Part III.
Vo prepare autntuniiitw,
51. If the ammunition for howitzers is to be pre-
pared and issued by the artillery, two men, numbered
5 and 6, are added to each detachment for that pur-
500 to 600 yds.
-= K I 800 to 900 «
« £ 900 to 1000 "
^M I 1000 to 1100 «
28 SERVICE OF THE PIECE. [PART 1.
pose. They are sent to the magazine, where they are
provided with the following implements and stores:
1 Set of potrder measures.
1 Fnze-plug reamer.
1 Basket. Containing fuze-plugs.
a Crrummet-wads, or ) On which to place the shells while
a Hollow blocks. ) putting in the charge.
1 Budge-bar rel.
1 Bark lantern.
Toiv. For stoppers.
Cartridge bags. Of bombazine.
They first fill and tie a number of cartridges, accord-
ing to the directions received from the battery, and
then prepare a corresponding number of shells.
To fill the cartridges. One holds the bag, while the
other (by means of the funnel) pours in the powder.
The cartridges thus filled are placed upright in a box
until tied, when they are transported to the budge-
Cartridges of reduced charges for ricochet firings may
be made thus:
The charge having been poured into the bag, a wad
of hay about six inches in length is placed upon it.
This wad is made by laying wisps of hay evenly
together so as to form a cylinder nearly of the diameter
of the cartridge bag. The wad is tied about an inch
from each end, and the ends are cut squarely off, so as
to present an even surface to the powder. In handling
these cartridges the powder end of the bag should
always be kept downwards.
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