makes a face and a-half to his right on the right heel,
and breaks off with the left foot; places the right hand
against the head of the left cheek of the carriage, and
with the left hand introduces the cartridge into the
chamber, keeping the legs of the tongs in a vertical
plane; then slightly withdrawing and closing the tongs,
he presses them in the direction of the axis of the
piece against the end of the cartridge, and shoves it
home. Withdrawing the tongs, he makes a face and
a-half to his left on the right heel, and puts the hooks
of the tongs into the ears of the shell, which he lifts
and holds about two feet from the ground, whilst no.
4 wipes it.
No. 1, as soon as the tongs are withdrawn, inserts
the rammer, and holds it with the head against the
cartridge, the staff in the axis of the piece.
48. No. 1 presses firmly upon the cartridge; throws
out the rammer, and places it upon the props; sweeps,
if necessary, his side of the platform; passes the broom
to the left side of the piece; and resumes his post.
No. 2 introduces the shell, and shoves it home in a
manner similar to that prescribed for the cartridge;
24 SERVICE OF THE PIECE. [PART 1.
withdraws the hooks, and looks to see that the fuze is
in the axis of the piece.
If the piece is to be fired horizontally, or at an angle
of depression, no. 4, having replaced the wiper, hands
a splint to no. 2, and resumes his post.
No. 2 presses the splint under the shell with the left
hand; replaces the tongs and broom; and resumes his
The gunner pricks, leaving the priming-wire in the
vent, and resumes his post.
5. In battery.
49. Nos. 1 and 2 unchock the wheels, and with nos
3 and 4, all facing towards the epaulment, embar: nos.
1 and 2 through the front spokes of the wheels, near
the felly, under and perpendicularly to the cheeks; and
nos. 3 and 4 under the rear of the wheels.
The gunner, seizing his handspike, embars under one
of the manoeuvring bolts; gives the command Heave;
and guides the piece to the middle of the embrazure.
As soon as the wheels touch the hurter, he commands
Halt. All unbar, and resume their posts.
50. Nos. 1 and 4 embar under and perpendicularly
to the trail, near the manoeuvring bolts.
No. 2, facing towards the epaulment, embars under
the breech or knob of the cascable.
No. 3 lays down his handspike; passes the hook of
the lanyard through the eye of a tube from front to
rear; and holds the handle of the lanyard with the
right hand, the hook between the thumb and forefinger.
The gunner, placing himself at the stock, as at the
command Load, withdraws the priming-wire, and,
aided by nos. 1 and 4, gives the direction; causing the
trail to be moved by commanding Left, or Right,
tapping, at the same time, on the right side of the
ART. 1.] 8-INCH SIEGE HOWITZER. 25
breech for no. 1 to move the trail to the left, or on the
left side for no. 4 to move it to the right.
He then places the centre point of the breech-sight
accurately upon the chalk mark on the base-ring, and
commands Lower, or Raise, tapping, at the same
time, on the upper side of the knob of the cascable
with the left hand, and drawing out the quoin with the
right, in order to elevate, or tapping upwards on the
lower side, and shoving in the quoin, in order to de-
press the piece; rectifying the direction, if necessary.
If the piece is to be fired point-blank, horizontally,
or at an angle of depression, he does not apply the
If the piece is masked from the object fired at, he
places himself astride the stock, or in rear of the trail,
and gives the direction by the plummet.
To give the elevation when the piece is masked, or
when the desired range is greater than the breech-sight
ranges, he applies the quadrant to the upper surface of
the lock -piece, making the allowance due to its incli-
nation with the axis of the piece, which ought to be
The moment the piece is correctly pointed, he rises
on the left leg, and gives the word Ready, making a
signal with both hands, at which nos. 1, 2 and 4 un-
bar, and resume their posts; takes the breech-sight
with the left hand; and goes to the windward to observe
the effect of the shot.
No. 3 inserts the tube in the vent; drops the handle,
allowing the lanyard to uncoil as he steps back to his
post, holding it slightly stretched with the right hand,
the cord passing between the fingers, back of the hand
up; and breaks to the rear a full pace with the left foot,
the left hand against the thigh.
Nos. 1 and 2, on resuming their posts, break off with
the feet farthest from the epaulment, inclining well to
that side in order to avoid the blast.
26 SERVICE OF THE PIECE. [PART L
7. J^umher one (or the like) â€” Fire.
51. Executed as in no. 26, except that the wheels
are not chocked.
What is prescribed in no, 27 will apply to this piece.
52. To continue the exercise, the instructor resumes
the series of commands beginning with From battery.
53. The piece having been -run from battery, the
instructor directs no. 2 to take out the shell and car-
tridge; no. 4 carrying them to their place in rear of the
piece. No. 3 assists No. 2, by raising the breech until
the shell rolls to the muzzle.
Vo scrape ilte piece,
54. In the course of firing it may become necessary
to scrape the piece. To cause this to be done, the
instructor directs the piece to be moved from battery,
and then commands:
Scrape the piece.
Nos. 1 and 2 lay down their handspikes.
No. 2 takes the scraper and wiper, giving the latter
to no. 1 ; thoroughly scrapes the chamber and bore;
draws out the scrapings with the spoon; rejarns the
scraper to its place; and resumes his post.
No. 1, enveloping the sponge-head in the wiper,
wipes out the bore, and returns the wiper to no. 2,
who replaces it; puts the sponge upon the props; and
resumes his post.
Vo citange posts,
Vo toad fot' action.
To cease living,
Vo secure piece f and replace itnpleutents,
Vo leave tite battery.
ART. 1.] 8-lNCH SIEGE HOWITZER. 27
Executed as in nos. 29, 30, 31, 32 and 33; no. 4
assisting no. 2 to take off the sleeves.
To ferve the piece teith redttced numbers.
Executed as in no. 35.
55. The transportation of an 8-inch siege howitzer
requires eight horses and four drivers.
56. Greatest charge of powder 4 lbs.
Greatest charge, shell filled with bullets 3 lbs.
Charge of the shell filled with powder 3 lbs. 9 oz.
Bursting charge of the shell 1 lb.
Charge to blow out the fuze 4 oz.
. Greatest elevation the carriage admits 15Â°
Greatest depression the carriage admits 10Â°
Range at an angle of 1Â°, charge 4 lbs 430 yards.
Range at an angle of 5Â°, charge 4 lbs 1150 "
Range at an angle of 15Â°, charge 4 lbs 2300 "
E*roof range of powder 300 "
Weight of shell 45 lbs.
Weight of the shell filled with bullets ..... 65 lbs.
The black fuze burns to the inch 2"
The red fuze burns to the inch 3"
The green fuze burns to the inch 4"
The yellow fuze burns to the inch 5"
At 2Â° elevation, black fuze, full charge.
At 30.25 do. red do. do.
At 4Â°. 25 do. green do. do.
At5Â°.25 do. yellow do. do.
A proper charge for enfilading, at the distance of 600
yards, on a horizontal plane, relief of the epaulment
seven feet, elevation 2Â° .75, red fuze, is three pounds.
See Tables in Part III.
Vo prepare autntuniiitw,
51. If the ammunition for howitzers is to be pre-
pared and issued by the artillery, two men, numbered
5 and 6, are added to each detachment for that pur-
500 to 600 yds.
-= K I 800 to 900 Â«
Â« Â£ 900 to 1000 "
^M I 1000 to 1100 Â«
28 SERVICE OF THE PIECE. [PART 1.
pose. They are sent to the magazine, where they are
provided with the following implements and stores:
1 Set of potrder measures.
1 Fnze-plug reamer.
1 Basket. Containing fuze-plugs.
a Crrummet-wads, or ) On which to place the shells while
a Hollow blocks. ) putting in the charge.
1 Budge-bar rel.
1 Bark lantern.
Toiv. For stoppers.
Cartridge bags. Of bombazine.
They first fill and tie a number of cartridges, accord-
ing to the directions received from the battery, and
then prepare a corresponding number of shells.
To fill the cartridges. One holds the bag, while the
other (by means of the funnel) pours in the powder.
The cartridges thus filled are placed upright in a box
until tied, when they are transported to the budge-
Cartridges of reduced charges for ricochet firings may
be made thus:
The charge having been poured into the bag, a wad
of hay about six inches in length is placed upon it.
This wad is made by laying wisps of hay evenly
together so as to form a cylinder nearly of the diameter
of the cartridge bag. The wad is tied about an inch
from each end, and the ends are cut squarely off, so as
to present an even surface to the powder. In handling
these cartridges the powder end of the bag should
always be kept downwards.
Â«> '' Â»'
â€¢^..,.. rl ^ > .V .
* >'â– â€¢
â– V '^-
't c c
â€¢^ , <
ART. 1.] 8-INCH SIEGE HOWITZER. 29
To prepare the shells. No. 5 places one upon a grum-
met-wad; cleans it, if necessary, with a rasp; drives
in a fuze-plug until it does not project more than the
tenth of an inch; and reams it out with the reamer.
No. 6, transferring it to the other grummet-wad,
charges it with powder; puts in a stopper of tow;
marks it with chalk; and places it conveniently for
If the shell is to be loaded with bullets or incen-
diary composition, it is charged before the fuze-plug is
driven. It should contain about three hundred and
twenty bullets, and one pound and a quarter of powder.
If filled only with powder, no. 6 marks the shell
with a cross; if with incendiary composition, he makes
a circle around the fuze-plug; and if with bullets, he
makes two circles on one side. The shells thus dif-
ferently charged are kept separate.
SERVICE OF THE PIECE.
I. essoN III.
Service of a XOHttch Siege JfKwtar,
( Plates VIII and IX. )
Five men are necessary; one gunner and four other
58. The mortar is upon its platform.
The implements, &c., are arranged as follows:
Two on each side of the bed,
against the cheeks, leaning upon
the four mancevring bolts, the
Handspikes .... small ends towards the epaul-
ment, those of the front hand-
spikes even with the front of the
Containing fuzes, and a pair of
sleeves. Attached to the tompion,
and lying upon the mortar.
Containing the priming-wire, fric-
tion tubes, and the lanyard, wound
in St. Andrew's cross upon its
handle. Attached to the tompion,
and lying upon the mortar.
Containing the gunner's level, gim-
let, vent-punch, and chalk. At-
tached to .the tompion, and lying
upon the mortar.
ART. 1.] 10-INCH SIEGE MORTAK. 31
Qnadraiit . . .
Plummet . . .
In a basket, between the cheeks of
the mortar bed.
Tompion In the muzzle.
Qtioin . . . t> . â€¢ .
Under the mortar upon the bolster,
its handle to the left.
With the basket.
When several mortars are served together, there
will be only one gunner's level and two vent-punches to
each battery, not exceeding six pieces. To the same
battery there will be one hammer-wrench.
One shell and one paper cartridge bag for instruction,
are at the magazine or other safe place in rear of the
59. The cannoneers having been marched to their
posts, the instructor directs them to place their muskets
against the epaulment, and then explains to them the
names aiTd uses of the implements, and the nomencla-
tures of the mortar, its bed, and the battery.
60. To cause the pointing-stakes to be established in
position, the instructor commands:
Plant the pointing-stakes.
The gunner, assisted by nos. 1 and 2, plants the
stakes, as prescribed in pointing Mortars, no. 193.
No. 1, having driven the pointing-stakes, drives
another stake one yard behind his post for holding the
wiper, and replaces the maul near the basket.
The gunner lays the slaok of the pointing-cord at the
foot of the epaulment, leaving the plummet at the stake
in rear of the piece.
All resume their posts.
32 SERVICE OF THE PIECE. [PART 1.
61. To cause the implements to be distributed, the
The gunner steps to the front of the piece; gives to
no. 1 the sleeves and the wiper; to no. 2 the basket
and maul; to no. 3 the tube-pouch and broom; and to
no. 4 the havresack; equips himself with the gunner's
pouch; applies his level to ascertain the line of metal,
which he marks with chalk; and resumes his post.
No. 1 places the wiper upon the stake behind him,
and, assisted by no. 3, puts on the sleeves.
No. 2 removes the tompion, which he places with the
basket and maul, one yard behind him, and lays the
shell-hooks on the ground between himself and the
No. 3 lays the broom on the ground behind him, and
equips himself with the tube-pouch.
No. 4 equips himself with the havresack, which he
wears from the right shoulder to the left side.
All take their handspikes.
62. The handspikes are held as in no. 17. When
laid down, they are returned, except in one case, to
their places on the manoeuvring bolts.
63. The instructor causes the service of the piece to
be executed by the following commands:
1. In battery.
The gunner, making a half-face to his right, steps
off, left foot first, and places himself two paces in rear
of the platform, facing the piece.
Nos. 1, 2, 3 and 4, facing towards the epaulment, em-
bar : nos. 1 and 2 under the front manoeuvring bolts,
and nos. 3 and 4 under those in the rear, engaging the
butts of their handspikes about three inches.
ART. 1.] 10-INCH SIEGE MORTAR. 33
All being ready, the gunner gives the command
Heave, which will be repeated as â€¢ often as may be
necessary. As soon as the piece is on the middle of
the platform, he commands Halt. All unbar, and re-
sume their posts.
2. Load by detail â€” Load.
64. Nos. 1, 3 and 4 lay down their handspikes.
The gunner, talking the scraper, places himself in
front of the muzzle, and scrapes the bore and chamber;,
draws out the scrapings with the spoon; returns the
scraper to the basket; and again places himself at the
muzzle, one yard in its front.
No. 1, turning to his right, takes the wiper with the
right hand; faces to his left, and places the left foot
near the manoeuvring bolt, the right in front of the
muzzle, the left hand upon the face of the piece;
thoroughly wipes out the chamber and bore; and re-
sumes his post.
No, 3, as soon as the piece is wiped, clears the vent
with the priming-wire; sweeps the platform, if neces-
sary; and resumes his post and handspike.
Nos. 2 and 4, facing to their right â€” no. 2 holding his
handspike at the middle under the left arm, butt end
foremost, and taking the shell-hooks in the right â€” go to
the rear for a cartridge and shell. While no. 4 is
getting the cartridge, no. 2 inserts the shell-hooks in
the ears of the shell, and passes the small end of the
handspike through the ring. In carrying the shell they
hold the handspike with their right hands, no. 4 at the
small end and in advance of no. 2. Passing by the
left of the piece, between the gunner and the muzzle,
they rest the shell upon the platform against the middle
of the transom.
No. 1, placing the wiper upon the handspike, receives
the small end of the handspike from no. 4, who gives
the cartridge to the gunner.
The gunner advances the left foot, and places the
left hand upon the face of the piece; introduces the
34 SERVICE OF THE PIECE. [PART 1.
cartridge into the mouth of the chamber with the right
hand, and carefully pours in the powder; returns the
cartridge bag to no. 4; and distributes the powder
evenly over the bottom of the chamber. In firing with
paper fuzes, he receives one from no. 4, and inserts it
in the fuze-plug.
No. 4, returning the cartridge bag to the havresack,
takes the wiper.
Nos. 1 and 2 raise the shell and hold it about a foot
from the ground, while no. 4 wipes 'it; they then lift
it into the muzzle.
The gunner steps forward, and with the left hand
over the handspike, the right hand under and nearer to
it, seizes the shell-hooks and assists to lower the shell
gently into its place. No. 2 then withdraws his hand-
spike from the ring, and resumes his post. No. 1 takes
his handspike. The gunner adjusts the shell so that
the fuze is in the axis of the piece; throws the shell-
hooks to their place behind no. 2; and, if firing with
wooden fuzes, uncaps the fuze.
No. 4, as soon as he wipes the shell, returns the
wiper to its place; takes the slack of the pointing-cord,
which he lays over the left manoeuvring bolts, leaving
its end at the rear pointing-stake; and resumes his post
65. Nos. 1 and 2, facing towards the epaulment, em-
bar upon the bolster, under and perpendicularly to the
The gunner taking the quadrant from the basket, ap-
plies it to the left side of the face of the piece with the
left hand, and inserts or draws out the quoin with the
right, giving the command Raise, or Lower, until the
piece is at the elevation required â€” usually 45Â°. Re-
turning the quadrant to the basket â€” nos. 1 and 2 at
the same time unbarring and resuming their posts â€”
he places himself in rear of the rear pointing-stake,
and holding the pointing-cord in the left hand and the
ART. 1.] 10-INCH SIEGE MORTAR. 35
plummet in the right, gives the direction; commanding
Mortar left â€” Mortar right â€” Muzzle left â€” Muz-
zle RIGHT â€” Trail left â€” Trail right, as may be
To throw the mortar to the left. Nos. 2 and 4 facing
each other, embar under the manoeuvring bolts. Nos.
1 and 3 facing towards the epaulment, embar under the
notches near them. When all are ready, the gunner
gives the commands Heave â€” Steady. The cannon-
eers remain embarred until he gives some other com-
mand, or makes the signal to unbar.
To throw the mortar to the right. Nos. 1 and 3 em-
bar under the manoeuvring bolts. Nos. 2 and 4 embar
under the notches.
To throw the muzzle to the left. Nos. 1 and 3, facing
towards the epaulment, embar under the front notches;
no. 1 under the inside of the left notch.
To throw the trail to the left. Nos. 1 and 3, facing
towards the epaulment, embar under the rear notches;
no. 3 under the inside of the left notch.
The muzzle or trail is thrown to the right, in a simi-
lar manner to the preceding, by nos. 2 and 4.
The direction having been given, the gunner gives
the word Ready, and makes a signal with both hands;
leaves the plummet at the stake; returns the pointing-
cord to the foot of the epaulment; and goes to the
windward to observe the effect of the shot.
Nos. 1, 2 and 4, taking their handspikes with them,
go four yards in rear of the platform, and face to the
front; no. 4 between nos. 1 and 2, their handspikes
held erect by the right side, the right arm extended
No. 3 lays down his handspike six inches in his front,
parallel to the edge of the platform, and makes ready
a friction tube, as in no. 25; advancing the right foot,
he puts the tube in the vent; rises on the left leg, and
moves three paces to the rear in prolongation of the
right cheek; faces to the front; holds the handle of the
lanyard with the right hand, the lanyard slightly
stretched, the cord passing between the fingers, back
36 SERVICE OF THE PIECE. [PART 1,
of the hand up; and breaks to the rear a full pace
with the left foot, the left hand against the thigh.
Remark. To discharge the mortars now in use by
means of a friction tube, the lanyard should be passed
under a rope attached to and tightly drawn between the
rear manoeuvring bolts, or through a loop of rope
attached to the rear right manoeuvring bolt.
4. J^umber one (or the like) â€” Fire.
QQ. Executed as in no. 26.
On the discharge of the piece, all resume their posts
except the gunner, who waits to observe the effect of
the shot. As soon as the shot strikes he resumes his
What is prescribed in no. 27 will apply to this piece,
omitting the word '^ lock.''
67. To continue the exercise, the instructor causes
the piece to be moved towards the rear of the platform,
directs nos. 2 and 4 to take out the shell and carry it
to the rear, and then resumes the series of commands
beginning with In battery.
Vo change posts.
Vo load for acii4tu,
Vo cease Uring.
Executed as in nos. 29, 30 and 31, except that in
changing posts no. 2 passes by the front of the piece.
Vo secure piece^ and replace intptetnents^
68. To discontinue the exercise, the instructor, hav-
ing ordered the firing to cease, and caused the piece to
be placed as at the command In battery, gives the
ART. 1.] 10-INCH SIEGE MORTAR. 37
All lay down their handspikes. No. 2 puts in the
tompion, and assists no. 1 to pull up the pointing-
stakes. The gunner receives the implements from the
cannoneers, and replaces them between the cheeks.
Vo leave the battery.
Executed as in no. 33,
69. One mortar wagon is allowed to each 10-inch
siege mortar and bed; to transport which requires eight
horses and four drivers,
70. Greatest charge of powder 4 lbs.
Ordinary service charge 3 "
Charge of the shell filled with powder ,. 5 "
Bursting charge of the shell 2 "
Charge to blow out the fuze 5 oz.
Range, charge 4 lbs., time of flight 21" 2100 yds.
Range, charge 3 lbs., time of flight 19" 1700 'â€¢
Range, charge 2 lbs., time of flight 14" 1000 "
Proof range of powder 300 "
Weight of the shell 90 lbs.
Fire balls, according to their size, are fired from
mortars of corresponding calibres. With a charge of
one-twenty -ffth of its weight the ball is thrown from
six hundred to seven hundred yards.
See Tables in Part III.
Vo prepare ammunitiau,
71. If the ammunition for mortars is to be prepared
and issued by the artillery, two men, numbered 5 and
6, are added to each detachment for that purpose.
Their duties at the magazine are similar to those pre-
scribed in no. 57.
38 SERVICE OF THE PIECE. [PART 1.
Should wooden fuzes be used, in addition to the
implements therein mentioned, a fuze-saw will be
required for reducing the fuzes to the proper lengths.
The shell being first charged, the fuze, cut at the right
length, is then driven.
The paper fuze is marked with the number of seconds
which it burns per inch. It may be cut with a knife
to any desired length.
Vime of night,
72. The time of flight for siege mortars, at an eleva-
tion of 45Â°, with ordinary charges, is nearly equal to
the square root of the range in feet divided by four.
The experimental length of the fuze may be given ac-
cording to this rule.
Vo ascertain the distance by tite report of nre^mrms*
73. Multiply the number of seconds which elapse
between seeing the flash and hearing the report by
1100; the product will be nearly the distance in feet.
Rapidity of Ariug*
74. Siege mortars can be fired conveniently at the
rate of twelve rounds an hour continuously; but they
may, in case of need, be fired with greater rapidity.
ART. 1.] 8-INCH SIEGE MORTAR. 39
Service mt an S~i9tch Siege Jftortar,
( Plates VIII and IX. )
Three men are necessary; one gunner and two other
75. The mortar is upon its platform.
The implements, Sic, omitting two handspikes, and
adding one grummet-wad, are the same as prescribed
for the 10-inch siege mortar in no. 58. They are
arranged as prescribed in that number. The wad is in
76. The instruction for this piece is the same as that
prescribed in Lesson III, with the following modifica-
At the command Take implements, no. 1 performs
the duties enjoined on no. 3, and no. 2 those of no.
4, each in addition to his own. No. 2 assists no. 1 to
put on the sleeves, and places the wad on the platform
in front of the transom.
77. At the command In battery, no. 1 embars
under the right front manoeuvring bolt. No. 2 embars
under the left rear manoeuvring bolt.