1 lb. 1 oz.
' The height of the
object above the
\ level of the bat-
tery being sup-
J posed to be 20 ft.
FIRING HOT SHOT. [PART 1.
Wiring Itot shot.
( Plate VI. )
208. The use of hot shot for setting fire to ships,
buildings, &c., renders some modifications in the ser-
vice of the piece necessary. For the heavier calibres
the detachment consists of seven men.
209. The additional implements required are placed
3 Pokers For stirring the fire.
J8 Iron forks .... For taking out the shot.
1 Rasp For cleaning over-heated shot.
1 Stand For cleaning shot on.
1 Pair of tongs . . For handling shot.
1 Iron rake .... For removing cinders from the ash pit.
1 Trough For cooling the tongs, &c.
1 liadle For carrying hot shot.
1 Tub For soaking wads. Behind no. 2.
1 Bucket Near and outside of the rammer-head.
l^'liudle ^ For carrying hot shot. Leaning against
* \ the epaulment near the pass- box.
1 Worm With the sponge and rammer.
When clay wads are used, the rammer has a circular
iron plate upon its head to remove clay from the sides
of the bore.
210. The cartridge bags are made of woollen stuff, and
the cartridge is inserted, choke foremost, in a cartridge
bag of the next higher calibre, and the end folded under.
ART. 3.] FIRING HOT SHOT. W
The bags should be examined carefully; and too great
care cannot be taken to prevent the powder from spil-
ling or sifting in the bore.
211. The wads are made of clay or hay. Clay wads
should consist of pure clay, or fuller's earth, free from
sand or gravel, well kneaded with just enough mois-
ture to work well. They are cylindrical and one cali-
bre in length.
Hay wads should remain in the tub to soak at least'
ten or fifteen minutes. Before being used the water
is pressed out of them.
When hay wads are used vapor may be seen escaping
from the vent on the insertion of the ball; but as this
is only the effect of the heat of the ball on the water
contained in the wad, no danger need be apprehended
212. With proper precautions in loading, the ball^
may be permitted to cool in the gun without igniting
the charge. The piece, however, should be fired with
as little delay as possible, as the vapor would diminish
the strength of the powder.
Vo Mood with hoi Â»1toi,
213. The piece should be sponged with great care,
and the worm frequently passed into the bore. As a
precaution it is well to insert a wet sponge just before
putting in the ball.
The muzzle being sufficiently elevated to allow the
ball to roll down the bore, the cartridge is inserted, the
mouth of the outer bag foremost, the fold down, and
carefully pushed home without breaking it; a dry hay
wad is placed upon it and rammed once; then a clay
or wet hay wad and rammed twice; and finally, if'
firing at angles of depression, a wad of clay a-half
calibre in length, or a wet hay wad, is put on the ball.
214. At the command Load, no. 6, accompanied by
no. 5, takes the ladle and goes to the furnace for a shot.
Â§8 FIRING HOT SHOT. [PART 1.
In carrying the shot no. 5 is in advance holding his
handle of the ladle with the right hand. On approach-
ing the piece, they halt, if necessary, near the post of
the gunner, until the wads are set home; they then
advance and place themselves behind no. 2, on a line
parallel to the epaulment.
No. 1 throws out the rammer, and allows it to rest
upon the epaulment, or on the sole of the embrazure.
No. 5, stepping between the epaulment and the face
of the piece, gives his handle of the ladle to no. 1, and
no. 6 gives his handle to no. 2.
Nos. 1 and 2 put the shot in the bore; nos. 5 and 6
take the ladle and go to the furnace for another shot;
no. 1 seizes the rammer; and the service of the piece
is continued as heretofore prescribed.
215. In the exercise for instruction, a sawdust car-
tridge enveloped in another as above described, with
the wads and hot shot, should always be put into the
216. When the instructor directs the piece to be un-
loaded, nos. 1 and 2 stand ready with the ladle to
receive the shot; the gunner depresses the muzzle
until the shot rolls out; nos. 5 and 6 return it to the
furnace; and no. 1 draws out the wads and cartridge
with the worm.
217. Small charges should be used in hot shot firing,
varying from one-fourth to one-sixth of the weight of
the ball. Balls fired with small velocities split the wood
in a manner which is favorable to its burning; with a
great velocity the hole closes, the ball sinks deep, and,
deprived of air, it chars without setting fire to the sur-
Hot shot should not penetrate deeper than ten or
twelve inches. Thsy do not set fire to the wood until
some time after their penetration. They retain suf-
ART. 3.] FIRING HOT SHOT. 99
ficient heat to ignite wood after having made several
ricochets upon water; though a total immersion of four
or five seconds will deprive them of this property.
Wurnacen for Ueatiug Â»hotÂ»
218. Furnaces for heating shot are erected at the
forts on the sea-coast. These furnaces hold sixty or
more shot. The shot being placed, and the furnace
cold, it requires one hour and fifteen minutes to heat
them to a red heat; but after the furnace is once heated, a
24-pdr. shot is brought to a red heat in twenty-five min-
utes; the 32-pdr. and 42-pdr. shot require a few minutes
longer. Three men are required to attend the furnace;
one takes out the hot shot and places them on the stand
to be scraped; another scrapes them and puts them in
the ladle; and the third supplies cold shot and fuel.
Ctrateg far heating ghoi,
219. In siege or other batteries, where there are no
furnaces, a grate is used for heating shot. This grate
consists of four bars 1.75 inch square, three feet long,
placed four inches apart on three iron stands one foot
in height. It is placed in an excavation one foot in
depth, of the width of the grate, perpendicular at the
back and side, open in front, the legs resting on bricks
or stones rising about four or five inches from the bot-
tom. A roof is made over it with hoops of flat iron,
covered with sods and eighteen inches of earth, having
in the back part a chimney six inches square.
The shot are placed on the back part of the grate,
leaving one-fourth of its front part free; and under and
on the front part the wood is put, cut in pieces about
fourteen inches long and two inches thick. A thick
sod is used as a register to regulate the draught of the
chimney, so that no flame can issue from the front.
This grate, which will contain about fifteen 24-pdr.
balls, heats them to a red heat in an hour, and will
supply three guns. It requires the attendance of one
220. Expansion of shot heated to a white heat:
Expansion . .
Heated shot do not return to their original dimen-
sions on cooling, but retain a permanent enlargement.
221. For calibres below the 24-pdr. a ladle with a
single handle is used; and only one additional man is
required to serve shot.
ART. 3.] NIGHT FIRING. 101
222. When a fixed object is to be fired at by night,
the piece should be directed during the day, and two
narrow and well dressed strips of wood laid on the
inside of the wheels, and two others outside of the
trail, of a siege carriage, and nailed or screwed to the
The traverse wheels of a barbette carriage are
chocked in the proper position.
223. To preserve the elevation, measure the height
of the elevating screw above its box, or take the mea-
sure between two points, one on the gun, the other on
the stock; cut a stick to this length and adjust the gun
on it at each fire.
224. Night firing with guns should be limited to a
small number of rounds, as it consumes ammunition to
225. For mortars, the direction is preserved by nail-
ing or screwinor two boards to the platform outside of
the cheeks. The elevation is marked on the quoin, or
the quoin may be nailed in the proper position.
iv6 PLATFORMS. [PART I.
226. To insure accuracy of fire with heavy guns and
mortars, it is absolutely necessary to have solid and
227. For casemate and barbette batteries in fortifica-
tions, fixed platforms are constructed with the works.
228. Platforms for siege pieces are constructed at the
arsenals, and should accompany every piece. As
these move with the army, it is desirable to have them
as light as is compatible with sufiicient strength to en-
dure the shock of firing.
The platforms for guns, howitzers, and mortars,
hereafter described, combine in a high degree the
essential qualities of strength and portability. All
the pieces composing them are of the same dimensions;
and as the weight of each piece is only fifty pounds,
an infantry soldier can carry one from the dep6t to the
batteries, or any moderate distance, in addition to his
arms and equipments.
Another platform for mortars is described, which is
very simple, strong, and well suited to positions where
trees or timber can be easily procured. This is desig-
nated the rail-platform.
ART. 3.] SIEGE GUN OR HOWITZER. 103
iPtatforut far a Siege â‚¬htn or Bowitxer,
( Plate XX. )
229. To lay this platform, establish the centre line of
the embrazure, and stretch a cord on this line from the
middle of the embrazure to the rear. This is the direc-
trix of the platform.
Lay the two outside sleepers parallel to this directrix,
their outside edges being fifty-four inches distant from
it. The four other sleepers are laid parallel to these,
the edge of each fifteen and a-half inches from the
edge of the next. The upper surface of the front ends
of these sleepers to be fifty inches, on a vertical line,
below the sole of the embrazure.
They are laid with an elevation to the rear of one
and a-half inches to the yard, or four and a-half inches
in their whole length. This elevation may be deter-
mined by placing a block four and a-half inches high
on the front end of the sleeper, and laying a straight
edge, with a gunner's level on it, from this block to the
rear end, then so arrange the earth as to bring the level
true in this position.
The next set of sleepers are laid against and inside
of the first, overlapping them three feet, having the
rear ends inclined outwards, so that the outer edges of
the exterior ones shall each be fifty-four inches from
the directrix, and the spaces between the rear edges of
the others the same as in the first set, viz., fifteen and
a-half inches from the edge of one to the edge of the
next, all having the elevation to the rear of one and
a-half inches to the yard, and perfectly level across.
104 PLATFORMS. [PART 1.
The earth is then rammed firmly around these sleepers,
and made even with their upper surface. The first
deck plank, with a hole through each end for the eye
bolts, is laid in place, perpendicular to the directrix, its
holes corresponding with those in the sleepers. The
hurter is placed on it, and the bolts driven through the
corresponding holes in these pieces.
The hurter should be so placed as to prevent the
wheels from striking against the epaulment when the
piece is in battery. If the interior slope has a base of
two-sevenths of its height, the inner edge of the hurter
should be two and a-half inches from the foot of the
slope. The other planks are then laid, each one forced
against the preceding, the last plank having holes for
the rear eye-bolts. By drawing out or driving in the
outside sleepers, the holes through their rear ends are
made to correspond with those in the last deck plank,
and the bolts are put in.
Drive stakes in rear of each sleeper, leaving their
tops level with the upper surface of the platform.
Raise, ram, and level the earth in rear of the platform,
so as to have a plain hard surface to support the trail
when the recoil is great.
The earth should be raised nearly as high as the plat-
form at the sides, and well rammed, giving it a slight
inclination outwards to allow the water to run off.
ART. 3.] MORTAR. ^^5
r^tatfomt tar a JIMortar,
( Plate XXI. )
230. The mortar platform is composed of only half
the number of sleepers and deck planks required for
the gun or howitzer platform. It is laid level, and the
front and rear deck planks are connected by eye-bolts
to every sleeper.
( Plate XXI. )
231. The rail-platform for siege mortars, composed
of three sleepers and two rails for the cheeks of the
mortar bed to slide on instead of the deck planks, is
very strong, and easily constructed and laid.
The pieces being notched to fit, are driven together
at the battery, the rails being twenty-five and a-half
inches apart from centre to centre for the 10-inch mor-
tar, and twelve and three-fourths inches for the 8-inch
The earth is excavated eight and a-half inches, the
depth of the sleepers, and the bottom made perfectly
level. The directrix being exactly marked by stakes,
the platform is placed in position, its centre line coin-
ciding with a cord stretched between the stakes mark-
ing the line of fire. The earth is filled in as high as
the upper surface of the sleepers, and firmly rammed;
and stakes are driven in the rear angles formed by the
sleepers and rails, and one at the rear end of each rail.
106 PLATFORMS. [PART 1.
Vhe ricochet pMittforu;
232. To lay this platform, place the hurter perpen-
dicular to the line of fire, and secure it by four stakes,
one at each end and two in front, thirty-one and a-half
inches from the middle towards each end; lay the three
sleepers parallel to the hurter, the first sixteen inches
from the rear edge of the hurter, the second forty-three
and a-half inches from the rear edge of the first, and
the third forty-three and a-half inches from the rear
edge of the second. Lay the plank thirty-one and
a-half inches from the directrix of the platform to the
centre of the plank. Place the piece of plank sixty
inches from the rear edge of the last sleeper, and bed
it in the ground. Place on the last sleeper and this
piece of plank the plank, (eighty-four inches long,) its
front end one hundred and six inches from the rear edge
of the hurter.
This platform will bear firing with charges as high as
Platforms of this kind of larger dimensions may be
used for guns and howitzers in firing at a fixed object
with full charges.
ART. 3.] DIMENSIONS, ETC. 1^
233. Eimensions, &c., of siege platforms.
NAMES OF PIECES.
Deck planks . .
Stakes (securing) .
Stakes (pointing) .
Eye-bolts (iron) .
GUNS AND HOW-
234. Dimensions, &c., of the rail-platform.
KAMES OF PIECES.
Stakes (securing) . .
Platform complete . .
108 PLATFORMS. [PART 1.
235. Dimensions, &c., of the ricochet platform.
Kind of timber used.
Hurler . .
Sleepers . .
Planks . .
Plank . .
Pieces of plank
Stakes . .
Beech, yellow pine, or oak.
Beech, yellow pine, or oak.
Beech, yellow pine, or oak.
Hickory or oak.
r 'Jfji^AUini^X^y '\
; ,<:; ',' Â«; ; ..:
(Plates XXII and XXIII. )
236. The mechanical manceuvres are the simplest
application of the mechanical powers for mounting, dis-
mounting, moving, and transporting heavy artillery.
237. The implements generally used for the execu-
tion of the manoeuvres with siege pieces are :
^ IiOn$f rollers.
3 Short rollers.
3 Half rollers.
6 Half blocks,
d Quarter blocks.
6 Oun chocks.
6 Wheel chocks.
6 Roller chocks.
112 MECHANICAL MANffiUVRES. [PART 2.
implements in preparing to manoeuvre; haul upon the
rope; and apply themselves by hand to move the car-
244. When men on the opposite sides of a piece ap-
ply themselves to a handspike, the handspike used is
that of one of the even numbers; the man to whom it
belongs is at the small end, the corresponding odd num-
ber at the butt end. Those who come to their assist-
ance place themselves inside.
245. When two or more men work at the same end
of a handspike, the man to whom it belongs is at the
246. When several handspikes are to be crossed at
the muzzle in order to raise or lower it, they are ap-
plied in the order of the numbers of the men to whom
they belong, those of the highest numbers nearest to
247. The handspikes used in the mechanical ma-
noeuvres are beveled on one side, as these will enter
into places or under bodies where square handspikes
could not be used.
248. When a handspike rests on a fulcrum, and the
weight on one end is to be raised by bearing down on
the other, the weight should never rest on the beveled
side, as the -handspike would not then give a good
hold, and would be liable to split. In this case the
beveled side should be down. But if used for lifting,
as when two handspikes are crossed under the breech
or chase of a gun to heave it upwards, their ends rest-
ing on the ground or platform, the beveled side should
249. At the completion of each movement of a ma-
ncEuvre, the men retain the places they are in at its
conclusion, ready to proceed to the next movement;
ART. 1.] GENERAL DIRECTIONS. 113
resuming their posts only at the command To your
POSTS, which is given at the end of each manceuvre.
250. The front, when a piece is unlimbered or dis-
mounted, is the direction in which its muzzle points;
when limbered it is the direction in which the pole
points. In the execution of the following manoeuvres,
when a piece is put in motion upon rollers, the terms
back and forward are applied to the direction of the
breech and muzzle.
251. A body moving upon a roller gains twice the
distance passed over by the roller.
252. The ground should be level and firm, and the
implements in good order.
253. The number and kind of implements vary with
the manceuvre; but as nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 always
have handspikes, these are omitted from the list of im-
plements given at the head of each manceuvre.
254. Dimensions and weights of the implements used
in the mechanical manceuvres. (Siege.)
> Grooved i in. deep in the middle.
Top rounded 3 inches.
( Pieces of 2 inch plank, or broken
( handspikes, will answer.
) Section a triangle. Top rounded
I ^ of an inch.
Ends beveled on opposite sides.
Ends spliced together.
OOOOOO O - ^OOOOOOO rf
(MOCOdCOOO CO (M CO CO Tl< 00 t' ' Oi
t- lO CO CO 1-1 C^ rH t-H 05".^
â– ^ .â€”1
OOOOOO 00 COrfOOOOO "ef
' S gcOOO-* (M (7Â«C0O?00(M 5 2 '
o o o o
' cor-cooooo 00 oi co lo oo o< d r-I '
Handspikes . .
Half rollers. .
Blocks . . .
Half blocks. .
Cluarter blocks .
Gun chocks . .
Wheel chocks .
Roller chocks .
t â– ::.'
â– ^â– Lt.R.HJtiLsk. 2^ Art. Dele.
ART. 2.] PRELIMINARY MANOEUVRES. 115
â€¢jr CrtÂ«tt tying upott tite ground to ptuce block* under the
cttase attd reinforce*
Vo remove the btocks,
Vo stew the gun,
Vo tnove tite gun short distances to the frottt or rear.
To move tite gun short distances hy rolling it,
Vo roll the gun up an iawlined plane.
^55, The implements necessary are :
6 Criin chocks.
â€¢tf â‚¬run lying upon tite ground to place blocks under the
chase and reinforce,
256, The instructor commands :
Raise the chase.
The gunner takes the handspike of no. 4, runs its
small end into the bore, the other end projecting eigh-
teen inches, beveled side up, and chocks it above.
116 MECHANICAL MANOEUVRES. [PART 2.
Nos. 1, 2, 5 and 6 cross their handspikes under and
perpendicular to the handspike in the bore, eighteen
inches from the butt ends, beveled sides up, assisted by
nos. 7, 8, 9 and 10 respectively; nos. 1, 2, 5 and 6
facing the axis of the piece, and nos. 7 and 9 and 8 and
10 facing each other. No. 4 stands ready with a block,
and is assisted to place it by no. 3.
257. The men at the handspikes act together and
raise the chase. Nos. 3 and 4 place a block under and
perpendicular to the direction of the piece, as far in
rear of the chase-ring as it will go.
258. The piece is allowed to rest on the block, and
the men at the handspikes take another purchase under
the swell of the muzzle.
259. Nos. 3 and 4 run the block back until its middle
is under the junction of the chase with the reinforce.
260. The piece is allowed to rest upon the block.
Nos. 3 and 4 chock it.
Raise the breech.
261. Nos. 1 and 2 lay their handspikes evenly across
the handspike in the bore, and are assisted in bearing
down by nos. 7 and 8. Nos. 5 and 6, assisted by nos.
9 and 10, embar under the knob of the cascable. No.
3 stands ready with a block.
ART. 2.] PRELIMINARY MANOEUVRES. 117
262. Nos. 3 and 4 place the block under and perpen-
dicular to the direction of the piece, at the middle of
263. The piece is allowed to rest upon the block.
Nos. 3 and 4 immediately chock it.
To YOUR POSTS.
264. The implements are replaced, and all resume
To retnove the hlocha,
265. The instructor commands:
Raise the breech â€” Heave â€” Ease away.
The gunner puts the handspike of no. 4 in the bore,
as in no. 256. Nos. 1 and 2, assisted by nos. 7 and 8,
cross their handspikes over it and bear down. Nos. 5
and 6, assisted by nos. 9 and 10, embar under the knob
of the cascable. No. 4 takes out the block, and the
breech is allowed to rest on the ground.
Raise the chase â€” Heave â€” Ease away.
266. The men at the handspikes embar under the
swell of the muzzle. Nos. 3 and 4 run the blocks for-
ward just in rear of the chase-ring. The men at the
handspikes take another purchase under the handspike
in the bore.
Heave â€” Ease away.
267. No. 3 takes out the block, and the piece is
allowed to rest upon the ground.
118 MECHANICAL MANCEUVRES. [PART 2.
To YOUR POSTS.
268. The implements are replaced, and all resume
269. This manoeuvre can be performed by using the
limber of a siege carriage as a lever.
A trunnion-ring, or a chain with a hook at one end,
Run the small end of a handspike into the bore, its
butt projecting eighteen inches; back the limber to the
muzzle; raise the pole; put the trunnion-ring, or the
chain, around the handspike in the bore, and fasten it
on the pintle; raise the chase, by bearing down the pole,
and place a block under it.
The breech can be raised in a similar manner by