noncommissioned officer of the guard.
(c) He will allow no one to communicate with
prisoners without permission from proper author-
(d) He will promptly report to the corporal of the
guard any suspicious noise made by the prisoners.
(e) He will be prepared to tell whenever asked
how many prisoners are in the guardhouse and
how many are out at work or elsewhere.
Whenever prisoners are brought to his post returning
from work or elsewhere, he will halt them and call the
corporal of the guard, notifying him of the number of
prisoners returning. Thus: "Corporal of the guard,
(so many) prisoners."
62 MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY.
He will not allow prisoners to pass info the guardhouse
until the corporal of the guard has responded to the call
and ordered him to do so.
300. Whenever practicable special guards will be de-
tailed for the particular duty of guarding working parties
composed of such prisoners as can not be placed under
overseers. (Par. 247.)
301. The prisoner guard and overseers will be com-
manded by the police officer; if there be no police officer,
then by the officer of the day.
302. The provost sergeant is sergeant of the prisoner
guard and overseers, and as such receives orders from the
commanding officer and the commander of the prisoner
303. Details for prisoner guard ^ are marched to the
guardhouse and mounted by being inspected by the com-
mander of the main guard, who determines whether all
of the men are in proper condition to perform their duties
and whether their arms and equipments are in proper
condition, and rejects any men found unfit.
304. When prisoners have been turned over to the pris-
oner guard or overseers, such guards or overseers are
responsible for them under their commander, and all
responsibility and control of the main guard ceases until
they are returned to the main guard. (Par. 306. )_
305. If a prisoner attempts to escape, the sentinal will
call "Halt" If he fails to halt when the sentinel has
once repeated his call, and if there be no other possible
means of preventing his escape, the sentinel will fire upon
MANUAL. OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 63
The following will more fully explain the important
duties of a sentinel in this connection:
(Circular.) War Department,
Adjutant General's Office,
Washington, November 1, 1887.
By direction of the Secretary of "War the following is published for the
information of the Army:
United States Circuit Court, Eastern District of Michigan, August 1, 1887.
The United States v. James Clark.
The circuit court has jurisdiction of a homicide committed by one soldier
upon another within a military reservation of the United States.
If a homicide be committed by a military guard without malice and in
the performance of his supposed duty as a soldier, such homicide is
excusable, unless it was manifestly beyond the scope of his author-
ity or was such that a man of ordinary sense and understanding
would know that it was illegal.
It seems that the sergeant of the guard has a right to shoot a military
convict if there be no other possible means of preventing his escape.
The common-law distinction between felonies and misdemeanors has
no application to military offenses.
While the finding of a court of inquiry acquitting the prisoner of all
blame is not a legal bar to a prosecution, it is entitled to weight as
an expression of the views of the military court of the necessity of
using a musket to prevent the escape of the deceased.
By order of the Secretary of War:
R. C. Drum,
The following is taken from Circular No. 3 of 1883, from
Headquarters Department of the Columbia:
Vancouver Barracks, W. T.,
To the Assistant Adjutant General,
Department of the Columbia.
A sentinel is placed as guard over prisoners to prevent their escape,
and for this purpose he is furnished a musket, with ammunition. To
prevent escape is his first and most important duty.
* * * * *
64 MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY.
I suppose the law to be this: That a sentinel shall not use more force
or violence to prevent the escape of a prisoner than is necessary to effect
that object, but if the prisoner, after being ordered to halt, continues
his flight, the sentinel may maim or even kill him, and it is his duty to
A sentinel who allows a prisoner to escape without firing upon him
and firing to hit him, is, in my judgment, guilty of a most serious military
offense, for which he should and would be severely punished by a general
(Signed) Henry A. Morrow,
Colonel 21st Infantry, Commanding Post.
Office Judge Advocate,
Military Division of the Pacific,
May 11, 1888.
Respectfully returned to the Assistant Adjutant General, Military
Division of the Pacific, concurring fully in the views expressed by Colonel
Morrow. I was not aware that such a view had ever been questioned.
That the period is a time of peace does not affect the authority and duty
of the sentinel or guard to fire upon the escaping prisoner, if this escape
can not otherwise be prevented. He should, of course, attempt to stop
the prisoner before firing, by ordering him to halt, and will properly
warn him by the words, "Halt, or I fire," or words to such effect.
Headquarters Military Division of the Pacific,
May 11, 1883.
Respectfully returned to the Commanding General, Department of
the Columbia, approving the opinion of the commanding officer, Twenty-
first Infantry, and of the Judge Advocate of the Division, in respect to
the du ty of and method to be adopted by sentinels in preventing prisoners jf :
By command of Major General Schofield:
J. C. Kelton,
Assistant Adjutant General.
See also Circular No. 53, A. G. O., December 22, 1900.
MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 65
306. On approaching the post of the sentinel at the
guardhouse, a sentinel of the prisoner guard or an overseer
in charge of prisoners will halt them and call, "No. 1, (so
many prisoners." He will not allow them to cross the
post of the sentinel until so directed by the corporal of the
307. Members of the prisoner guard and overseers
placed over prisoners for work will receive specific and
explicit instructions covering the required work ; they will
be held strictly responsible that the prisoners under their
charge properly and satisfactorily perform the designated
308. Under the head of stable guards will be included
guards for cavalry stables, artillery stables and parks,
mounted infantry stables, machine-gun organization sta-
bles and parks and quartermaster stables and parks.
Where the words "troop" and "cavalry" are used they
will be held to include all of these organizations.
309. When troop stable guards are mounted they will
guard the stables of the cavalry (see par. 13). When no
stable guards are mounted, the stables will be guarded by
sentinels posted from the main guard, under the control
of the officer of the day.
The instructions given for troop stable guard will be
observed as far as applicable by the noncommissioned offi-
cers and sentinels of the main guard when in charge of the
TROOP STABLE GUARDS.
310. Troop stable guards will not be used except in the
field, or when it is impracticable to guard the stables by
sentinels from the main guard.
93592°— 17 5
66 MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY.
311. Troop stable guards will be under the immediate
control of their respective troop commanders; they will be
posted in each cavalry stable, or near the picket line, and
will consist of not less than one noncommissioned officer
and ihree privates.
Stable guards are for the protection of the horses, stables,
forage, equipments, and public property generally. They
will in addition enforce the special regulations in regard to
stables, horses, and parks.
312. Sentinels of stable guards will be posted at the sta-
bles or at the picket lines when the horses are kept outside.
The troop stable guard may be used as a herd guard during
the day time or when grazing is practicable.
313. The troop stable guard, when authorized by the
post commander, will be mounted under the supervision
of the troop commander. It will be armed, at the discre-
tion of the troop commander, with either rifle or pistol.
314. The tour continues for 24 hours, or until the guard
is relieved by a new guard.
315. The employment of stable guards for police and
fatigue duties at the stables is forbidden; but this will not
prohibit them from being required to assist in feeding
grain before reveille.
316. The troop stable guard will attend stables with the
rest of the troop and groom their own horses, the sentinels
being taken off post for the purpose.
317. Neither the noncommissioned officer nor the mem-
bers of the stable guard will absent themselves from the im-
mediate vicinity of the stables except in case of urgent
cessity, and then for no longer time than is absolutely
necessary. No member of the guard will leave for any pur-
pose without the authority of the noncommissioned officer
318. The noncommissioned officer and one member of
the stable guard will go for meals at the proper hour; upon
MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 67
their return the other members of the guard will be directed
to go by the noncommissioned officer.
319. When the horses are herded each troop will furnish
its own herd guard. (Par. 14.)
320. Smoking in the stables or their immediate vicinity
is prohibited. No fire or light, other than electric light or
stable lanterns, will be permitted in the stables. A special
place will be designated for trimming, filling, and lighting
NONCOMMISSIONED OFFICER OF THE TROOP STABLE
321. The noncommissioned officer receives his orders
from his troop commander, to whom he will report im-
mediately after posting his first relief, and when Relieved
will turn over all his orders to his successor. He instructs
his sentinels in. their general and special duties; exercises
general supervision over his entire guard; exacts order
and cleanliness about the guardroom; prevents the intro-
duction of intoxicants into the guardhouse and stables;
receives, by count, from his predecessor, the animals, horse
equipments, and all property (both private and public)
pertaining thereto; examines, before relieving his prede-
cessor, all locks, windows, and doors, and should any be
found insecure he will report the fact to his troop com-
mander when he reports for orders. He will personally
post and relieve each sentinel, taking care to verify the
property responsibility of the sentinel who comes off post,
and see that the sentinel who goes on post is aware of the
property responsibility that he assumes.
322. That the noncommissioned officer may be more
thoroughly informed of his responsibility, all horses return-
ing, except those from a regular formation, will be reported
to him. He will then notify the sentinel on post, and,
68 MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY.
in the absence of the stable sergeant, will see that the
horses are promptly cared for.
In case of abuse, he will promptly report to the troop
commander. Should the horse be the private property of
an officer, he will report such abuse to the owner.
323. The noncommissioned officer will report any
unusual occurrence during his tour direct to his troop
324. Horses and other property for which the noncom-
missioned officer is responsible will not be taken from the
stables without the authority of the post or troop com-
325. The noncommissioned officer must answer the sen-
tinel's calls promptly.
326. In case of fire, the noncommissioned officer will see
that the requirements of paragraph 334 are promptly car-
327. Whenever it becomes necessary for the noncom-
missioned officer to leave his guard, he will designate a
member of it to take charge and assume his responsibility
during his absence.
SENTINELS OF THE TROOP STABLE GUARD.
328. The sentinel in the discharge of his duties will be
governed by the regulations for sentinels of the main guard
whenever they are applicable — such as courtesies to officers,
walking post in a soldierly manner, challenging, etc.; he
will not turn out the guard except when ordered by proper
329. The sentinel will receive orders from, the com-
manding officer, the troop commander, and the noncom-
missioned officers of the stable guard only, except when the
commanding officer directs the officer of the day to inspect
the stable guard.
MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 69
330. In the field and elsewhere when directed by the
commanding officer the sentinel when posted will verify
the number of horses for which he is responsible, and when
relieved will give the number to his successor.
331. The sentinel will not permit any horse or equip-
ments to be taken from the stables, except in the presence
of the noncommissioned officer.
332. Should a horse get loose, the sentinel will catch
him and tie him up. If he be unable to catch the horse,
the noncommissioned officer will at once be notified. In
case a horse be cast, or in any way entangled, he will
relieve him, if possible; if unable to relieve him, he will
call the noncommissioned officer. Sentinels are forbidden
to punish or maltreat a horse.
333. When a horse is taken sick, the sentinel will notify
the noncommissioned officer, who in turn will call the
farrier, and see that the horse is properly attended to.
334. In case of fire the sentinel will give the alarm by
stepping outside the stable and firing his pistol or piece
repeatedly, and calling out at the same time, "Fire,
stables, Troop (— )."
As soon as the guard is alarmed, he will take the necessary
precautions in opening or closing the doors so as to prevent
the spreading of the fire and make it possible to remove the
horses; he will drop the chains and bars, and, with the
other members of the guard, proceed to lead out the horses
and secure them at the picket line or such other place as
may have been previously designated.
335. Sentinels over horses, or in charge of prisoners,
receive orders from the stable sergeant, so far as the care of
the horses and the labor of prisoners are concerned.
336. In field artillery and machine-gun organizations,
the guard for the stables has charge of the guns, caissons,
etc., with their ammunition and stores, as well as the
horses, harness, and forage.
70 MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY.
337. The garrison, post 5> and storm flags are national
flags and shall be of bunting. The union of each is as
described in paragraph 216, Army Regulations, and shall
be of the following proportions: Width, seven- thirteenths
of the hoist of the flag; length, seventy-six one-hundredths
of the hoist of the flag.
The garrison flag will have 38 feet fly and 20 feet hoist.
It will be furnished only to posts designated in orders from
time to time from the War Department, and will be hoisted
only on holidays and important occasions.
The post flag will have 19 feet fly and 10 feet hoist. It
will be furnished for all garrison posts and will be hoisted
in pleasant weather.
The storm flag will have 9 feet 6 inches fly and 5 feet
hoist. It will be furnished for all occupied posts for use
in stormy and windy weather. It will also be furnished
to national cemeteries. (A. R. 223.)
338. At every military post or station the flag will be
hoisted at the sounding of the first note of the reveille, or of
the first note of the march, if a march be played before the
reveille. The flag will be lowered at the sounding of the
last note of the retreat, and while the flag is being lowered
the band will play "The Star Spangled Banner," or, if
there be no band present, the field music will sound "to
the color.'' When "to the color" is sounded by the field
music while the flag is being lowered the same respect will
be observed as when "The Star Spangled Banner" is
played by the band, and in either case officers and enlisted
men out of ranks will face toward the flag, stand at atten-
tion, and render the prescribed salute at the last note of
the music. (A. R. 437.)
The lowering of the flag will be regulated as to be com-
pleted at the last note of "The Star Spangled Banner" or
"to the color."
MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 71
339. The national flag will be displayed at a seacoast
or lake fort at the beginning of and during an action in
which a fort may be engaged, whether by day or by night.
(A. R. 437.)
340. The national flag will always be displayed at the
time of firing a salute. (A. R. 397.)
3-41. The flag of a military post will not be dipped by
way of salute or compliment. (A. R. 405.)
342. On the death of an officer at a military post the
flag is displayed at half-staff and so remains, between
reveille and retreat, until the last salvo or volley is fired
over the grave; or if the remains are not interred at the
post, until they are removed therefrom. (A. R. 422.)
343. During the funeral of an enlisted man at a military
post the flag is displayed at half-staff. It is hoisted to the
top after the final volley or gun is fired or after the remains
are taken from the post. The same honors are paid on the
occasion of the funeral of a retired enlisted man. (A. R.
344. When practicable, a detail consisting of a non-
commissioned officer and two privates of the guard will
raise or lower the flag. This detail wears side arms or, if
the special equipments do not include side arms, then
The noncommissioned officer, carrying the flag, forms
the detail in line, takes his post in the center, and marches
it to the staff. The flag is then securely attached to the
halyards and rapidly hoisted. The halyards are then
securely fastened to the cleat on the staff and the detail
marched to the guardhouse.
345. When the flag is to be lowered, the halyards are
loosened from the staff and made perfectly free. At retreat
the flag is lowered at the last note of retreat. It is then
neatly folded and the halyards made fast. The detail is
then reformed and marched to the guardhouse, where the
flag is turned over to the commander of the guard.
72 MANUAL OF INTERIOR, GUARD DUTY.
The flag should never be allowed to touch the ground
and should always be hoisted or lowered from the leeward
side of the staff, the halyards being held by two persons.
REVEILLE AND RETREAT GUN.
346. The morning and evening gun will be fired by a
detachment of the guard, consisting, when practicable, of
a corporal and two privates. The morning gun is fired at
the first note of reveille, or, if marches be played before the
reveille, it is fired at the beginning of the first march. The
retreat gun is fired at the last note of retreat.
The corporal marches the detachment to and from the
piece, which is fired, sponged out, and secured under his
347. Guard mounting will be formal or informal as the
commanding officer may direct. It will be held as pre-
scribed in the drill regulations of the arm of the service to
which the guard belongs; if none is prescribed, then as for
infantry. In case the guard is composed wholly of
mounted organizations, guard mounting may be held
348. When infantry and mounted troops dismounted
are united for guard mounting, all details form as pre-
scribed for infantry.
FORMAL GUARD MOUNTING FOR INFANTRY.
349. Formal guard mounting will ordinarily be held
only in posts or camps where a band is present.
350. At the assembly, the men designated for the
guard fall in on their coinpany parade grounds as pre-
scribed in paragraph 106, I. D. R. The first sergeant then
MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 73
verifies the detail, inspects it, replaces any man unfit to go-
on guard, turns the detail over to the senior noncommis-
sioned officer, and retires. The band takes its place on the
parade ground so that the left of its front rank shall be
12 paces to the right of the front rank of the guard when the
latter is formed.
351. At adjutant's call, the adjutant, dismounted,
and the sergeant major on his left, marches to the parade
ground. The adjutant halts and takes post so as to be
12 paces in front of and facing the center of the guard
when formed; the sergeant major continues on, moves by
the left flank, and takes post, facing to the left, 12 paces
to the left of the front rank of the band ; the band plays in
quick or double time; the details are marched to the
parade ground by the senior noncommissioned officers;
the detail that arrives first is marched to the line so that,
upon halting, the breast of the front-rank man shall be
near to and opposite the left arm of the sergeant major; the
commander of the detail halts his detail, places himself in
front of and facing the sergeant major, at a distance equal
to or a little greater than the front of his detail, and com-
mands: 1. Right, 2. DRESS. The detail dresses up to
the line of the sergeant major and its commander, the right
front-rank man placing his breast against the left arm of
the sergeant major; the noncommissioned officers take post
two paces in rear of the rear rank of the detail. The detail
aligned, the commander of the detail commands: FRONT,
salutes, and then reports: "The detail is correct;" or
"(So many) sergeants, corporals, or privates are
absent;'' the sergeant major returns the salute with the
right hand after the report is made; the commander then
passes by the right of the guard and takes post in the line
of noncommissioned officers in rear of the right file or his
74 MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY.
Should there be more than one detail, it is formed in
like manner on the left of the one preceding; the privates,
noncommissioned officers, and commander of each detail
dress on those of the preceding details in the same rank
or line; each detail commander closes the rear rank to the
agat and fills blank files, as far as practicable, with the
men i'rom his front rank.
Shculd the guard from a company not include a non-
commissioned officer, one will be detailed to perform the
duties of commander of the detail. In this case the com-
mander of the detail, after reporting to the sergeant major,
passes around the right flank between the guard and the
band and retires.
352. When the last detail has formed, the sergeant major
takes a side step to the right, draws sword, verifies the
detail, takes post two paces to the right and two paces to
the front of the guard, facing to the left, causes the guard
to count off, completes the left squad, if necessary, as in
the school of the company, and if there be more than three
squads, divides the guard into two platoons, again takes
post as described above and commands: 1. Open ranks,
At the command march, the rear rank and file closers
march backward four steps, halt, and dress to the right.
The sergeant major aligns the ranks and file closers and
again, taking post as described above, commands: FRONT,
moves parallel to the front rank until opposite the center,
turns to the right, halts midway to the adjutant, salutes,
and reports: "Sir, the details are correct;" or, "Sir,
(so many) sergeants, corporals, or privates are
absent;" the adjutant returns the salute, directs the
sergeant major: Take your post, and then draws saber;
the sergeant major faces about, approaches to within two
paces of the center of the front rank, turns to the right,
moves three paces beyond the left of the front rank, turns
MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 75
to the left, halts on the line of the front rank, faces about,
and brings his sword to the order. When the sergeant
major has reported, the officer of the guard takes post,
facing to the front, three paces in front of the center of the
guard, and draws saber.
The adjutant then commands: 1. Officer (or officers)
and noncommissioned officers, 2. Front and center,
At the command center, the officers carry saber. At
the command march, the officer advances and halts three
paces from the adjutant, remaining at the carry; the non-
commissioned officers pass by the flanks, along the front,
and form in order of rank from right to left, three paces in
rear of the officer, remaining at the right shoulder; if there
is no officer of the guard the noncommissioned officers halt
on a line three paces from the adjutant; the adjutant then
assigns the officers and noncommissioned officers according