fense of the capital. The army at Westover continuing to manifest no
intention of resuming active operations, and General Pope s advance
having reached the Eapidau, General A. P. Hill, with his<*li vision, was
ordered on July 27 to join General Jackson. At the same time, in
order to keep McClellan stationary, or if possible to cause him to
withdraw, General D. H. Hill, commanding south of James Eiver, was
directed to threaten his communications by seizing favorable posi
tions below Westover from which to attack the transports in the river.
That officer selected Coggins Point, opposite Westover, and the con
duct of the expedition was committed to Brigadier-General French.
On the night of the 31st General French, accompanied by Brigadier-
*Inclosures relating to operations before Richmond appear in Series I, Vol. XI.
CHAP. XXIV.] CEDAR MOUNTAIN, VA. 177
General Pendletou, chief of artillery, placed forty- three guns in posi
tion within range of the enemy s shipping in the river and of the camps
on the north side, upon both of which fire was opened, causing conster
nation and inflicting serious damage. The guns were withdrawn before
daybreak, with the loss of 1 killed and 2 wounded by the gunboats and
batteries of the enemy. This attack caused General McClellan to send
a strong force to the south bank of the river, which intrenched itself
on Coggins Point.
In the latter part of July the enemy s cavalry from Fredericksburg
attempted to cut Jackson s communications by destroying the Central
Eailroad at Beaver Dam. This force did no serious damage, but to
prevent the repetition of the attempt and to ascertain the strength and
designs of the enemy General Stuart was directed to proceed from
Hanover Court-House, where he was posted, toward Fredericksburg.
His progress was delayed by high water until August 4, when he ad
vanced, with Fitzhugh Lee s brigade and the Stuart Horse Artillery,
upon Port Eoyal. Arriving at that place on the 5th without opposi
tion, he proceeded in the direction of Fredericksburg, and the next
day came into the Telegraph road at Massaponax Church just after two
brigades of the enemy had passed that point on the way to the Central
Eailroad. His vigorous attack caused the expedition to return in haste
to Fredericksburg, and General Stuart retired with a loss of only 2
men, bringing oft 85 prisoners, and a number of horses, wagons, and
arms. No further attempt was made upon the railroad.
On August 5 our cavalry reported that the enemy had advanced in
large force from Westover to Malvern Hill, and the next day the divis
ions of Generals Longstreet and McLaws and that commanded by Gen
eral Eipley were moved down to the Long Bridge road. The enemy
was found occupying the ground on which the action of July 1 was
fought, and seemed ready to deliver battle in as great force as on that
day. McLaws and Eipley s divisions, re- enforced by D. E. Jones
division, formed our left ; Longstreet the right. The heat was intense,
and the progress of the troops necessarily slow. Before the road was
cleared of the enemy s pickets and his line of battle disclosed the sun
had almost set. Orders were given for our left wing to advance to
Willis Church, threatening the communication with Westover by ex
tending well to the left, while two brigades of Longstreet s division were
directed to advance upon Malvern Hill and drive in the enemy on Curl s
Neck. The latter operation was handsomely executed by General
Evans with his own and Cobb s brigade, forcing the enemy back to his
guns on Malvern Hill.
The next morning, upon advancing, it was found that he had with
drawn during the night and retired to Westover. Our pickets were
re-established, and troops returned to their former positions. This ex
pedition, which was the last undertaken by General McClellan on James
Eiver, was attended with small loss on either side. General Hampton,
with his brigade of cavalry, kept the enemy closely confined within his
lines until his final withdrawal.
BATTLE OF CEDAR RUN.
While the main body of the army awaited the development of Mc-
Clellan s intentions, General Jackson, now re-enforced by A. P. Hill,
determined to assume the offensive against General Pope, whose army,
still superior in numbers, lay north of the Eapidan.
12 R R VOL xn, PT ii
178 OPERATIONS IN N. VA., W. VA., AND MD. [CHAP. XXIV.
On August 2 Col. (now Brig. Gen.) W. E. Jones, with the Seventh
Virginia Cavalry, of Robertson s brigade, was sent to take charge of
the outposts on the Bapidau. Arriving near Orange Court-House, he
found it occupied by a large cavalry force, which by a bold and vigor
ous charge he drove from the town. The enemy rallied, and Colonel
Jones was in turn compelled to fall back before superior numbers to
the place where the engagement began. The enemy soon after with
Learning that only a portion of General Pope s army was at Cul
peper Court-House., General Jackson resolved to attack it before the
arrival of the remainder, and on August 7 moved from Gordonsville for
The next day the Federal cavalry on the north side of the Eapidan
was driven back by General Robertson, and on the Oth Jackson s com
mand arrived within 8 miles of Culpeper Court-House, when the enemy
was found near Cedar Bun, a short distance northwest of Slaughter
Mountain. Early s brigade, of E well s division, was thrown forward
on the road to Culpeper Court-House ; the remaining two brigades
those of Trimble and Hays, the latter under Colonel Forno diverging
to the right, to position on the western slope of Slaughter Mountain.
Jackson s own division, under Brigadier General Winder, was placed
on the left of the road ; Campbell s brigade, Lieutenant-Colonel Garnett
commanding, being on the left ; Taliaferro s parallel to the road, sup
porting the batteries, and Winder s own brigade, under Colonel Ronald,
in reserve. Lawton s brigade, having been detached by General Jack
son to guard the train, was prevented from taking part in the engage
The battle opened with a fierce fire of artillery, which continued for
about two hours, during which Brig. Gen. Charles S. W T inder, while
directing the movements of his batteries, received a wound from the
effects of which he expired in a few hours. I can add nothing to the
well-deserved tribute paid to the courage, capacity, and conspicuous
merit of this lamented officer by General Jackson, in whose brilliant
campaign in the valley and on the Chickahominy he bore a distinguished
The enemy s infantry advanced about 5 p. m. and attacked General
Early in front, while another body, concealed by the irregularity of the
ground, moved upon his right. Thomas brigade, of A. P. Hill s divis
ion, which had now arrived, was sent to his support, and the contest
soon became animated.
In the mean time the main body of the Federal infantry, under cover
of a wood and the undulations of the field, gained the left of Jackson s
division, now commanded by Brigadier-General Taliaferro, and poured
a destructive fire into its flank and rear. Campbell s brigade fell back
in confusion, exposing the flank of Taliaferro, which also gave way, as
did the left of Early s. The rest of his brigade, however, firmly held
its ground. Winder s brigade, with Branch s, of A. P. Hill s division,
on its right, advanced promptly to the support of Jackson s division,
and after a sanguinary struggle the enemy was repulsed with loss.
Pender s and Archer s brigades, also of Hill s division, came up on the
left of Winder s, and by a general charge the enemy was driven back
in confusion, leaving the ground covered with his dead and wounded.
General Ewell, with the two brigades on the extreme right, had been
prevented from advancing by the fire of our own artillery j which swept
his approach to the enemy s left. This obstacle being now removed,
lie pressed forward under a hot fire and came gallantly into action.
CEDAR MOUNTAIN, VA.
Repulsed and vigorously followed on our left and center, and now
hotly pressed on our right, the enemy gave way, and his whole line
was soon in full retreat. Night had now set in, but General Jackson,
desiring to enter Culpeper Court-House before morning, determined to
pursue. Hill s division led the advance, but owing to the darkness it
was compelled to move slowly and with caution. The enemy was
found about 1J miles in rear of the field of battle, and information was
received that re-enforcements had arrived. General Jackson thereupon
halted for the night, and the next daj~, becoming satisfied that the en
emy s strength had been so largely increased as to render a farther
advance on his part imprudent, sent his wounded to the rear, and
proceeded to bury the dead and collect the arms from the battle-field.
On the llth the enemy asked and received permission to bury those
of his dead not already interred. General Jackson remained in position
during the day, and at night returned to the vicinity of Gordonsville.
In this engagement 400 prisoners, including a brigadier-general, were
captured, and 5,300 stand of small-arms, 1 piece of artillery, several
caissons, and 3 colors fell into our hands.
Our casualties will appear from the report of the medical director.
For a more detailed account of the action reference must be made to
the clear report of General Jackson, herewith transmitted, and the
accompanying reports of his officers.
The conduct of his troops is commended in terms of well-deserved
praise by their distinguished leader, and the success achieved was
worthy of the skillful management and bold and vigorous execution of
the entire enterprise.
E, E. LEE, General.
General S. COOPER,
Adjutant and Inspector General, C. S. Army, Richmond, Va.
Report of Surf). Lafayette Guild, C. S. Army, Medical Director, of the
killed and icounded.
JACKSON S DIVISION.
Winder s brigade:
Jones brigade :
21 st Virginia
18th Virginia ,
1st Virginia Battalion
1 aliaf erro s brigade :
47th Alabama ...
OPERATIONS IN N. VA., W. VA., AND MD, [CHAP. XXIV.
Report of Surg. Lafayette Guild, C. S. Army, Medical Director, of the killed and
JACKSON S DIVISION Continued.
Starke s brigade :
2d Louisiana 5 5
9th Louisiana 246
10th Louisiana 257
15th Louisiana 2 2
Hth Louisiana 134
5th Louisiana 1 9 10
Ashby s brigade :
7th Virginia Cavalry 16 16
17th Virginia Battalion 1 2
Major Andrews, chief of artillery
EWELL S DIVISION.
E ally s brigade:
13th Virginia 9. 32 34
25th Virginia 1 24 25
31st Virginia 3 17 20
52d Virginia 3 10 r*
58thVirginia 2 28 30
Trimble s brigade:
12th Georgia 7 33 40
21st North Carolina 2 2
15th Alabama 3 3
A. P. HILL S DIVISION.
Branch s brigade:
33d North Carolina 6 30 36
7th North Carolina 112
28th North Carolina 3 26 29
37th North Carolina 2 13 13
18th North Carolina 1 13 14
Archer s brigade:
1st. Tennessee 4 20 24
7th Tennessee 4 30 34
14th Tennessee 3 31 34
5th Alabama Battalion 1
Thomas brigade :
19th Georgia 4 27 31
45th Georgia 7 41 48
49th Georgia 9 41 50
14th Georgia 4 24 28
Field s brigade :
55th Virginia 2 2
40th Virginia 4 4
2d [22dj Viigiiiia Battalion 7 7
Purcell Artillery 2 12 14
Total... ... 229 1,047 1,276
L. GUILD, Medical Director.
Reports of Maj. Gen. Thomas J. Jackson, C. S. Army, commanding Valley
.District , with congratMlations from General JR. E. Lee.
NEAR LOCUST DALE, August 9, 1862.
GENERAL : I am not making much progress. The enemy s cavalry
yesterday and last night also threatened my train. Eight of their
number, including 3 officers, were captured by Colonel Flournoy yes
terday. None were captured last night so far as heard.
CEDAR MOUNTAIN, VA. 181
Hill (A. P.), though, at Orange Conrt-Hoiise yesterday morning, hav
ing encamped in a mile of the town on the other side, reported last
night that he was not more than a mile on this side, thus making only
2 miles yesterday. EwelPs division, which is near this point (12 miles
from Culpeper Court-House) and in front, marched about 8 miles.
Yesterday was oppressively hot; several men had sun-strokes. Hill s
division is too large ; I will reduce it by at least the Louisiana Brigade.
To-day I do not expect much more than to close up and clear the coun
try around the train of the enemy s cavalry. I fear that the expedition
will, in consequence of my tardy movements, be productive of but little
good. My plan was to have been at Culpeper Court-House this fore
noon. Should I learn that Burnside has gone in the direction of Eich-
niond I will try to cut him off. Scouts AY ere sent out yesterday to
ascertain. Orders have been given that Pope s officers captured yes
terday be kept in close confinement. Bayard commanded the enemy s
cavalry yesterday. He made a short stand, but finally abandoned his
camp, leaving some stores (quartermaster s, commissary, and ordnance)
behind. The enemy s infantry, from reports brought in last night, is
about 5 miles in front; his cavalry near ours.
I am, general, your obedient servant,
T. J. JACKSON,
General E. E. LEE.
HDQRS. SECOND CORPS, ARMY OF NORTHERN VIRGINIA,
April 4, 1863.
Brig. Gen. E. H. CHILTON,
A. A. and I. <?., Hdqrs. Army of Northern Virginia:
GENERAL : I forward herewith my official report of the battle of
Cedar Eun and accompanying reports of other officers.
I am, general, your obedient servant,
T. J. JACKSON.
HDQRS. SECOND CORPS, ARMY OF NORTHERN VIRGINIA,
April 4, 1863.
GENERAL : I have the honor herewith to submit to you a report of
the operations of my command in the battle of Cedar Euu, on August
Intelligence having reached the commanding general that Gordons-
ville was endangered by the approach of the enemy, I was ordered to
move in that direction with EwelPs and Jackson s divisions from my
position on the Mechanicsville turnpike, near Eichmond. I arrived
near Gordonsville on July 19. From information received respecting
the strength of the opposing Federal army, under General Pope, I re
quested the commanding general to re-enforce me. He accordingly
sent forward Maj. Gen. A. P. Hill, with his division.
On August 2, while Col. (now Brig. Gen.) W. E. Jones, by direction
of Brigadier-General Eobertson, was moving with the Seventh Virginia
Cavalry to take charge of picket posts on the Eapidau, he received
intelligence before he reached Orange Court-House that the enemy
was in possession of the town. Finding the main street tilled with
182 OPERATIONS IN N. VA., \V. VA , AND MD. [CHAV. XXIV.
Federal cavalry, Colonel Jones boldly charged the head of the Federal
column, while its flank was attacked by another portion of the regi
ment, under Major Marshall. Both attacks were successful, and the
enemy was hastily driven from the town ; but as our cavalry was
vastly outnumbered it was soon after forced to fall back, in conse
quence of the enemy s greatly superior force in front and the fire from
his flanking parties. Upon Colonel Jones subsequent show of resist
ance, near where the engagement commenced, the enemy retired a short
distance, and about an hour afterward retreated. While Colonel
.Jones was gallantly leading his men in the charge he received a saber
wound. I regret to say that during the engagement Major Marshall
Having; received information that only part of General Pope s army
was at Culpeper Court-House, and hoping, through the blessing of
Providence, to be able to defeat it before re-enforcements should arrive
there, E well s, Hii/s, and Jackson s divisions were moved on the 7th
in the direction of the enemy from their respective encampments near
On the morning of the 8th the enemy s cavalry north of the Eapidan
was driven back by ours, under Brigadier-General Robertson. Our
cavalry pursued the enemy s on the direct road from Barnett s Ford to
Culpeper Court-House and was followed by the other troops, EwelPs
division leading. As the Federal cavalry subsequently displayed un
usual activity, and, from reports received by me, was seriously endan
gering the train of Jackson s division, I directed General Lawton to
guard it with his brigade. He was thus thrown in rear of the division
and prevented from taking part in the battle of the following day.
On the 9th, as we arrived within about 8 miles of Culpeper Court-
House, we found the enemy in our front, near Cedar Bun, and a short
distance west and north of Slaughter Mountain. When first seen his
cavalry in large force occupied a ridge to the right of the road. A bat
tery under Lieutenant Terry opened upon the cavalry, which soon forced
it to retire. Our fire \vas responded to by some guns beyond the ridge
from which the Federal advance had just been driven. Soon after this
the enemy s cavalry returned to the position where it was first seen.
General Early was ordered forward, keeping near the Culpeper road,
wliile General Ewell, with his two remaining brigades Trimble s and
Hays , the latter commanded by Colonel Forno diverged from the road
to the right, advancing along the western slope of Slaughter Mountain.
General Early, forming his brigade in line of battle, moved into the open
field, and passing a short distance to the right of the road, but parallel
to it, pushed forward, driving the Federal cavalry before him to the crest
of a hill which overlooked the ground between his troops and the oppo
site hill, along which the enemy s batteries were posted. In his front the
country was for some distance open and broken. A corn field, and to the
left of it a wheat field, upon which the shocks were yet stan ding, extended
to the opposite hill, which was coA r ered with timber. So soon as Early
reached the eminence described the Federal batteries were opened upon
him. Large bodies of cavalry were seen in the wheat field to the left.
General Early having retired his troops under the protection of the
hill, Captain Brown, with one piece, and Captain Dement, with three
pieces, of artillery planted their guns in advance of his right and opened
a rapid and well-directed fire upon the Federal batteries. By this time
General Winder, with Jackson s division, had arrived, and alter having
disposed Campbell s brigade, Lieutenant-Colonel Garnett commanding,
to the left, under cover of the wood, near the wheat field j Taliaferro s
CHAP. XXIV.) CEI>A& MOUNTAIN, VA. 183
brigade parallel to the road, in rear of the batteries of Poague, Car
penter, and Caskie, theii being placed near the road, under the direc
tion of Major Andrews, "chief of artillery of the division, and Winder s
brigade, .Colonel Eonald commanding, as a reserve, he was proceed
ing to direct, with his usual skill and coolness, the movements of these
batteries, when he was struck by a shell, from which he expired in a
It is difficult within the proper reserve of an official report to do
justice to the merits of this accomplished officer. Urged by the med
ical director to take no part in the movements of the day because of
the then enfeebled state of his health, his ardent patriotism and mili
tary pride could bear no such restraint. Kiehly endowed with those
qualities of mind and person which fit an officer for command and
which attract the admiration and excite the enthusiasm of troops, he
was rapidly rising to the front rank of his- profession. His loss has
been severely felt.
The command of Jackson s division now devolved upon Brig. Gen.
William B. Taliaferro, whose brigade during the remainder of the action
was commanded by Col. A. G. Taliaferro.
In the mean time General Ewell, with the brigades of Trimble and
Hays, reached the northwest termination of Slaughter Mountain, and
upon an elevated spot, about 200 feet above the valley below, had
planted Latimer s guns, which opened with marked effect upon the
enemy s batteries. For some two hours a rapid and continuous fire of
artillery was kept up on both sides. Our batteries were well served and
damaged the enemy seriously. Especial credit is due to Major Andrews
for the success and gallantry with which his guns were directed until
he was severely wounded and taken from the field.
About 5 o clock the enemy threw forward his skirmishers through
the corn field and advanced his infantry, until then concealed in the
woods, to the rear and left of his batteries. Another body of infantry,
apparently debouching from one of those valleys hid from the view by
the undulating character of the country, moved upon Early s right,
which rested near a clump of cedars, where the guns of Brown and
Dement were posted. The infantry fight soon extended to the left and
center. Early became warmly engaged with the enemy on his right
and front. He had previously called for re-enforcements. As General
Hill had arrived with his division, one of his brigades (General Thomas )
was sent to Early, and joined him in time to render efficient service.
While the attack upon Early was in progress the main body of the
Federal infantry movefl down from the w r ood through the corn and
wheat fields, and fell with great vigor upon our extreme left, and by
the force of superior numbers, bearing down all opposition, turned it
and poured a destructive fire into its rear. Campbell s brigade fell
back in disorder. The enemy pushing forward, and the left flank of
Taliaferro s brigade being by these movements exposed to a flank fire,
fell back, as did also the left of Early s line, the remainder of his com
mand holding its position with great firmness. During the advance
of the enemy the rear of the guns of Jackson s division becoming
exposed they were withdrawn. At this critical moment Branch s bri
gade, of Hill s division, with Winder s brigade, farther to the left, met
the Federal forces, flashed with their temporary triumph, and drove
them back with terrible slaughter through the wood. The fight was
still maintained with obstinacy between the enemy and the two brigades
just named, when, Archer and Fender coming up, a general charge was
made, which drove the enemy across the field into the opposite wood.
184 OPERATIONS IN N. VA., W. VA., AND MD. [CHAP. XXTV.
strewing the narrow valley with their dead. In this charge Archer s
brigade was subjected to a heavy fire. At this time the Federal cav
alry charged upon Taliaferro s brigade with impetuous valor, but were
met with such determined resistance by Taliaferro s brigade in its front,
and by so galling a fire from Branch s brigade in flank, that it was
forced rapidly from the field with loss and in disorder.
In the mean time General Ewell, on the right, found himself kept
back from advancing by the incessant fire from our batteries in the
valley, which swept his only approach to the enemy s left. This diffi
culty no longer existing, he moved with his two brigades (Trimble in
the advance) and pressed forward under a heavy fire from the enemy s
artillery, the front covered by skirmishers from the Fifteenth Alabama,
and the brigades advancing en echelon of regiments. Thus repulsed
from our left and center, and now pressed by our right, center, and
left, the Federal force fell back at every point of their line and com
menced retreating, leaving their dead and wounded on the field of
Though late, I was so desirous of reaching Culpeper Court-House
before morning as to induce me to pursue. The advance was accord
ingly ordered, General Hill, with his division, leading; but owing to
the darkness of the night it was necessary to move cautiously. Staf
ford s brigade, which was in front, captured some prisoners. Before
Ave had probably advanced more than 1J miles Farrow, my most relia
ble scout, reported to me that the enemy was but a few hundred yards
from our advance. Pegram s battery, supported by Field s brigade,
soon took position just beyond the wood through which we had passed
and opened upon the enemy. This well-directed and unexpected fire
produced much disorder and confusion among that portion of the Fed
eral troops. Three batteries were, however, soon opened in reply, and