they urgently requested through their officer to stay and help to fight
the enemy. I will forward their names this evening, my memorandum
not being at hand.
I have the honor to be, very respectfully, &c.,
E. P. SCAMMON,
Colonelj Commanding First Provisional Brigade.
Brigadier-General JACOB D. Cox,
I beg leave to add to this report that the conduct of Colonels White,
Twelfth, and Colernan, of the Eleventh, Begiment was most praise
worthy, as was also that of Lieutenant-Colonel Hines.
* But see revised statement, p. 262.
CHAP. XXIV.] CAMPAIGN IN NORTHERN VIRGINIA. 407
HDQRS. FIRST PROVISIONAL BRIGADE, KANAWHA Div.,
Fort Kamsaij, Va., August 30, 1862.
SIR : I send herewith the reports of Colonel White and Lieutenant-
Colonel Coleman, commanding the Twelfth and Eleventh Ohio Regi
ments in the recent affair at Bull Run. I have already rendered a re
port of the march, and I have only to transmit the detailed reports,
with such remarks as I deem necessary, to preserve a true record of the
I reached Bull Run Bridge at 8.30 a. m. of the 27th. On our near
approach to the bridge I heard the reports of cannon, apparently some
five or six pieces, fired with some degree of rapidity. On reaching the
bridge we found that the New Jersey Brigade, under General Taylor,
was engaged with the enemy, but hearing only cannon, fancied that it
vas only a contest between artillery at long range. I did not then
know that the New Jersey Brigade was unprovided with artillery. I
QO not remember to have heard any musketry beyond what might have
passed for the accidental discharge of a few pieces from carelessness of
soldiers certainly there was nothing bearing the least resemblance to
tie rattle of musketry from four regiments of infantry. We had j ust left
tha cars when the New Jersey troops came pouring along the track of the
railroad in utter disorder, some of them talking of overwhelming numbers
>f the enemy, some censuring because they were ordered to retreat with
out firing a gun. I asked the meaning of what I saw, and was answered
fcat General Taylor had ordered the troops to move back around a
bnd of the road to get out of range of the enemy s cannon. I wrote a
ncte to General Taylor announcing my arrival, and that I would move
uj instantly to his support. The Twelfth Ohio was ordered to the
brdge to hold it, and was moving up as fast as the press of the retreat-
in- force would permit, when I received from the assistant adjutant-
geeral of General Taylor the information that he was disabled and
toed over the command to me. I sent my assistant adjutant-general,
Lietenant Kennedy, of the Twenty-third Ohio Volunteers, to halt the
fugiives and turn them back. He soon returned with the report that
his Corts were in vain. I appealed to those in my own vicinity, the
rear f the retreating troops, to face about and redeem themselves, but
withut effect. They declared that the general had ordered them to
retiremd retire they did most disgracefully, despite the urgent appeals
of As$tant Adjutant-General Dunham, of their own brigade, and my
Abofc this time Lieutenant Wright, of the Fourth New Jersey Regi
ment, vme to me with 10 men, appearing to be very indignant at the
conducof the brigade, and asked to be led back to the enemy. I or
dered >n to report to Colonel White, at the bridge. The names of
the rneiforming this squad, who wished to save their honor, were, as
given mby Lieutenant Wright, Orderly Sergeant Hannery, Sergeant
Pettit, Vrporal Cox, and Privates John Winer, David Pope, John
Connor, )seph Schlab, Joseph Schern, George H. Cherry, and Kilbon
Fender, l. of the Fourth New Jersey Regiment. I beg that they may
be suitay rewarded, and that Captain Dunham and Lieutenant
Wright tpromoted for their gallantry.
I have tie else to add to the report already rendered. I beg leave,
however, ask a suitable notice of the gallant conduct of the officers
and men cthe Eleventh and Twelfth Ohio, whose bearing could not be
excelled biny troops whatever, for there was no faltering among them,
nor was tie the slightest appearance of anything but eagerness to*
engage thenerny and fight against every odds of numbers.
408 OPERATIONS IN N. VA , W. VA., AND MD. [CHAP. XXIV.
I have made especial mention of Colonel White and Lieutenant-
Colonels Coleman and Hines. I should add the name of Major Jack
son, of (he Eleventh, and, though such mention may seem a matter of
course, [ should be unjust were I not to bear witness to the coolness
and efficient energy of Lieutenants Kennedy and Botsford, of my staff.
I have the honor to be. very respectfully, your obedient servant,
E. P. SCAMMON,
Colonel , Commanding First Brigade.
Capt. G. M. BASCOM,
Assistant Adjutant- General.
Report of Lieut. Robert P. Kennedy, Acting Assistant Adjutant- General,
of action at Bull Run Bridge.
HEADQUARTERS FIRST BRIGADE, KANAWHA DIVISION,
August 31, 1862,
SIR : I have the honor to report my knowledge of the connection (f
the First New Jersey Brigade with the engagement at Bull Eun Brid/e
on Wednesday, August 27 :
This brigade, falling back before the forces of the enemy, cros&d
the bridge, passing through the lines of the Eleventh and Twelfth Qio
Eegiments, which were formed with the right of the Twelfth Eegimsnt
resting upon or near the bridge. At the rear of the Twelfth an attempt
was made by some person, as also by myself, by your order, to halt he
string of refugees from the New Jersey Brigade. I was informed tiat
they were ordered back by General Taylor and were commande- to
form on the left of the First Brigade. Of this I informed you. A>out
this time Captain Dunham, assistant adjutant-general of the First-Sew
Jersey Brigade, brought back the word that they had received ncsuch
orders and they were to be halted. A fruitless attempt was iade.
The Twelfth Regiment having been ordered forward to protft the
bridge, by your orders I went forward to Colonel White, whom found
fighting bravely under a heavy fire. Having accomplished the>rders
on which I was sent, I returned with a report of the condition oaffairs
in front. In accordance with orders I then directed the Sleuth up
the hill on the left bank of the river, where I left it under the gidance
of Lieut. James L. Botsford, acting aide-de-camp, and then - turned
to the rear to rally the New Jersey troops, if possible, and corct one
regiment up to the front on the right and protecting the tleatened
fiank of the Twelfth Regiment. Having passed down the ra^oad for
some distance I endeavored to stop the retreating columns, fr to men
and officers I appealed in vain until, having thrown a guard TOSS the
road, a force of some 150 or 200 was gathered together.
About this time General Taylor, suffering from his WOUT, passed,
borne upon a litter, and appealed to me to rally the men anfor God s
sake to prevent another Bull Eun. I promised to do $ I could.
Shortly after Captain Dunham, assistant adjutant-general, me to my
assistance. I requested him to take a horse and go to frd off the
retreating columns, move some distance down the railroadnd bring
the force back to the front, and to do so by throwing a &rd across
the road, with instructions to bayonet the first man who tempted to
CHAP. XXIV.] CAMPAIGN IN NORTHERN VIRGINIA. 409
pers. He readily consented, and finally succeeded in bringing back a
force gathered by great exertion, but too late for action.
I desire to particularly notice the conduct of Captain Dunham, assist
ant adjutant-general First New Jersey Brigade, whose exertions to rally
the broken columns of his brigade were untiring.
Very respectfully, &c.,
EOBT. P. KENNEDY,
Lieutenant and A. A. A. G., First Brigade.
Col. E. P. SCAMMON,
Commanding First Brigade.
Report of Lieut. Col. Augustus H. Coleman, Eleventh Ohio Infantry, of
action at Bull Run Bridge.
HDQRS. ELEVENTH KEGT. OHIO VOLUNTEER INFANTRY,
Munsorts Hill, Va., August 30, 1862.
SIR: I have the honor to submit the following report of the part
taken by the Eleventh Ohio Volunteers in the engagement at Bull Eun
on the 27th instant:
The regiment arrived at the scene of action about % a. m., the Twelfth
Ohio in the advance. Almost immediately upon halting the rebels
began shelling our troops. My regiment was then moved to the left,
out of range of the enemy s guns, by Major Jackson (he being in com
mand at that time), and afterward crossed the river agreeably to your
order and proceeded about 500 yards when the enemy was discovered
in overwhelming numbers. The regiment was then moved along the
hill to the rescue of the Twelfth Ohio, which was then nearly sur
rounded by a force vastly outnumbering them. My regiment then
charged upon the enemy and drove them from their position at the
bridge. The rebels returned almost immediately in superior numbers,
when we retired across the river. It was at this juncture that I ar
rived and assumed command of my regiment. My regiment was then
deployed to the left of the railroad and about 150 yards in rear of the
bridge and across Bull Run, the Twelfth on our right, when a sharp en
gagement ensued, the Twelfth suffering severely, but not an officer or
man of either regiment wavered, so far as I was able to observe. The
Twelfth Ohio fought like veterans. It was also at this point that my
adjutant fell mortally wounded. Lieutenant McClure and 4 men of the
Eleventh were captured while carrying him from the field.
We were at this time compelled to retire before a superior force, I
bringing up the rear with my regiment, skirmishing for some distance
as we moved along the railroad.
Both the officers and men of my regiment exhibited the greatest cool
ness, no oue being in haste to leave, but retiring slowly and in good
order. When about 3 miles from Bull Kun, about 200 cavalry attacked
a small detachment of my rear guard, who were assisting the wounded,
capturing 2 men and slightly wounding a third. Kebel cavalry ap
peared at various points on our march to Fairfax Station.
My loss in killed, wounded, and missing is 21.*
Permit me, colonel, to express the entire satisfaction of the officers
* But see revised statement, p. 26 *J.
410 OPERATIONS IN N. VA., W. VA., AND MD. [CHAP. XXIV.
of my regiment for the coolness with which you conducted the affair at
Bull Bun and the masterly manner in which our retreat was conducted
from Fairfax Station to Ann an dale.
I have the honor to be. very respectfully, your obedient servant,
A. H. COLEMAN,
Lieut. Col., Comdg. Eleventh Ohio Volunteer Infantry.
Col. E. P. SCAMMON,
Commanding First Provisional Brigade.
Report of Col. Carr B. White, Twelfth Ohio Infantry, of action at Bull
FAIRFAX STATION, YA., August 27, 1862.
SIR : I have the honor to report the part taken in the action at Bull
Run Bridge this day by the Twelfth Regiment Ohio Yolunteer Infantry,
under my command.
In obedience to your order the Twelfth Regiment Ohio Yolunteer
Infantry left Alexandria this morning at 4 a. m. by rail for Bull Run
Bridge, where it arrived about 8 o clock, disembarked, and formed on
the railroad track on the left bank of the stream, fronting two rifle pits
on the opposite side. The men were ordered to lie down behind the
embankment of the road, while the Eleventh Regiment Ohio Yolunteer
Infantry was ordered to the left to prevent a flank movement of the
enemy by a ford in that direction. These positions were taken while
the enemy were pressing the First New Jersey Brigade, which had pre
ceded us in the advance across the bridge, and their retiring forces
mixing with ours on the narrow track produced some little delay in
the movement, at the same time the enemy shelling.
Scarcely had we taken position when I received your order to advance
and take position to save the bridge, if possible. The Twelfth Regi
ment was then filed to the right up the hill-side, facing the bridge,
brought to a front, and advanced on hands and knees through the
insufficient covering of grass and low shrubbery to the brow of the hill,
the center overlooking the bridge, the left deflected a little to the rear,
to engage the lower rifle pit and the enemy in the woods on the oppo
site bank of the run. The galling fire poured into their advance soon
hurled them back, but in a short time a regiment was sent to outflank
our right, and another our left, while a. charge was made down the hill
on our front. Companies A and F were at once advanced to the right
and rear to defend our right. Our line of battle was now crescent-
shaped, with three regiments pouring a heavy fire into it, which posi
tion was held against this great odds for two hours and a half; and
had it not been for the timely assistance of the Eleventh Regiment
Ohio Yolunteer Infantry in driving back a column crossing to our left
and rear we should ha.ve been surrounded, but this enabled me to draw
off by the right flank in good order.*
We then formed on the brow of the next hill in our rear on a line
parallel to the first. The enemy advanced his forces in the same man
ner as before, except that the regiments on our right moved farther to
our rear, making a desperate effort to cut us off, and did succeed in
* Nominal list of casualties shows 14 killed, 42 wounded, and 17 missing.
CHAP. XXIV.] CAMPAIGN IN NORTHERN VIRGINIA. 411
passing between the regiment and Capt. H. S. Clement, with 20 men,
who -was sent by Lieutenant-Colonel Hines to the right to observe and
report the enemy s movement in that direction, but fortunately he
effected his escape and joined us 2 miles below. We were finally com
pelled to fall back to the next ridge in the rear, where a stand was
made, and with the assistance of the gallant Eleventh Ohio Eegiment,
which did all that was in the power of men under the circumstances,
put a check to their advance, and enabled us to get off our wounded
and retire in good order, they covering the retreat.
The officers of my command did their whole duty, and deserve great
praise for gallantry and the skillful manner in which they handled
their several commands.
Lieut. Col. J. D. Hiues and Maj. E. M. Carey are deserving of special
commendation, and to their individual exertion in maintaining order
and their prompt assistance in handling the regiment I am in a great
measure indebted for being able to withdraw in an open meadow a
worn-out and exhausted regiment in the face of a foe four to one.
William B. Xesbitt, lieutenant and adjutant, and James H. Palmer,
sergeant-major, are also deserving a special notice for gallantry and
devotion to duty. In passing with orders along the line while the
command were lying and delivering its fire they were conspicuous and
The non-commissioned officers and privates of my command are de
serving the highest praise for coolness, bravery, and the soldier-like
manner with which they obeyed every order and endured the trials and
fatigues of the day.
I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
C. B. WHITE,
Colonel, Commanding Twelfth Ohio Volunteer Infantry.
Col. E. P. SCAMMON,
Comdg. First Provisional Brigade, Kanawha Division.
Report of Maj. Gen. Samuel P. Heintzelman, U. S. Army, commanding
Third Corps, Army of the Potomac, of operations August 1^- September 2,
including engagement at Kettle Run and battles of Groveton, Bull Run,
HDQES. DEFENSES OF WASHINGTON SOUTH OF THE POTOMAC,
Arlington, Va., October 21, 1862.
COLONEL : I have the honor to make the following report of the
operations of the Third Army Corps immediately previous to and in the
recent battles in the vicinity of Centreville :
On the 14th of August, at o clock p. m., I received orders to retreat
with my corps from Harrison s Bar, on James River. The next morn
ing General Biruey s brigade, of General Kearny s division, marched
for Jones (Soan s) Bridge, on the Chickahominy, which we were to
hold till the troops had well started from our old camp at Harrison s
Bar. On the 16th I fell back to Barhamsville, the next day to Will-
iamsburg, and the day after to Yorktown. This movement was covered
by Colonel Averell s cavalry, thrown out toward Richmond and the
White House. At Williamsburg we united with the main body of the
412 OPERATIONS IN N. VA., W. VA., AND MD. [CHAP. XXIV.
On the 20th the advance of the corps (General Kearny s division)
commenced to embark for Aquia Creek, rapidly followed by the rest
of my troops. Off Aquia Creek I received orders changing my desti
nation to Alexandria. I arrived at Alexandria at 1.30 p. in. on the
22d, and met on the wharf Major Key, of General Halleck s staff, with
orders to hurry forward my corps to the support of General Pope.
Part of General Kearny s division left in the cars that afternoon, soon
followed by my whole force. On the 26th my troops were all in the
vicinity of Warrentou Junction. At dark I received orders to occupy
Weaversville and vicinity, and also learned that the enemy had pos
session of the railroad in our rear. General Pope directed me to send
a regiment and drive them back. This regiment found the enemy in
force and fell back.
The next morning, the 27th, General Hooker was ordered as far as
Bristoe Station, and to advance the day after that to Greenwich, Gen
eral Kearny s division to take a left-hand road and follow General
Reno s division toward Greenwich. 1 was detained at Warren ton
Junction till 3 p. m. to accompany General Pope. When we reached
Bristoe Station the enemy had, after a sharp engagement, retreated
toward Manassas Junction. They belonged to General Ewell s division.
Our troops behaved with their usual gallantry. Our loss was some
300 men, mostly of the Excelsior Brigade. At Bristoe Station we found
the remains of two locomotives and trains of cars that the enemy had
burned. In places the rails and cross ties had been torn up, culverts
destroyed, and bridges burned. I am still without General Hooker s
report and that of the Second Brigade.
The next morning, August 28, General Kearny s division advanced
on Manassas Junction, followed by General Hooker s as a reserve.
About noon General Kearny reached the Junction. Our railroad trains
fired by the enemy were still burning. We here learned that he had
retreated on Centreville and was 30,000 strong. The pursuit was con
tinued. The advance of General Kearny s division found but one regi
ment of rebel cavalry at Centreville, which fell back at his approach.
We now learned that the enemy had fallen Tback on the Warren ton
turnpike. General Kearny s division encamped near Centreville, be
tween there and Bull Run. General Hooker s division encamped on
the south side of Bull Run.
At 11 p. in. I received instructions that General McDowell had inter
cepted the retreat of the enemy, and that General Kearny s division was
ordered to advance at 1 a, m. until he met the enemy s pickets, there
to await daylight, and for me to follow at daylight with General
Hooker s division. From some cause to me unknown General Kearny s
division had not moved at daylight. I ordered it forward and he soon
At 10 a. m. I reached the field of battle, a mile from stone bridge,
on the Warrenton turnpike. General Kearny s division had proceeded
to the right and front. I learned that General Sigel was in command
of the troops then engaged and called on him.
At 11 a. in. the head of Hooker s division arrived ; General Reno an
hour later. At the request of General Sigel I ordered General Hooker
to place one of his brigades at General Sigel s disposal to re-enforce a
portion ot his line then hard pressed. General Grover reported, and be
fore long hecamt engaged, and was afterward supported by the whole
division. Genera! Pope arrived between 1 and 2 p. m. The enemy
were driven back a short distance toward Sudley Church, where they
made another stand, and again pressed a portion of our line back. All
CHAP. XXIV.] CAMPAIGN IN NORTHERN VIRGINIA. 41 3
this time General Kearny s di vision held its position on our extreme
right. Several orders were sent to him to advance, but he did not
move until after the troops on his left had been forced back, which
was near 6 p. m. He now advanced and reported that he was driving
the enemy. This was not, however, until after the renewed heavy mus
ketry fire on our center had driven General Hooker s troops and those
he was sent to support back. They were greatly outnumbered, and
had behaved with exceeding gallantry.
It was on this occasion that General Grover s brigade made the most
gallant and determined bayonet charge of the war. He broke two of
the enemy s lines, but was finally repulsed by the overwhelming num
bers in the rebel third line. It was a hand-to-hand conflict, using the
bayonet and the butt of the musket. In this fierce encounter, of not
over twenty minutes duration, the Second New Hampshire, Colonel
Marston, suffered the most. The First, Eleventh, and Sixteenth Massa
chusetts and Twenty-sixth Pennsylvania were engaged. The loss of
this brigade, numbering less than 2,000 present, was a total of 484,
nearly all killed and wounded. I refer you to General Grover s accom
Had General Kearuy pushed the enemy earlier, it might have enabled
us to have held our center and have saved some of this heavy loss.
Kearny on the right, with General Stevens and our artillery, drove
the enemy out of the woods they had temporarily occupied. The firing
continued until some time after dark, and when it ceased we remained
in possession of the battle-field. During the night, however, our troops
again fell back from the woods that had been so obstinately disputed
all the afternoon. At 5.30 a. m. August 30 a few shots were fired
on my front. The morning was spent in procuring rations from Gen
eral SigePs train, our own having been left from necessity in our last
camp on Bull Run. After holding a short conference and making
reconnaissances it was decided that General McDowell should take his
corps, mine, and General Porter s to make an attack on the enemy s
left. At 12 m. General McDowell and myself went to our right to
reconuoiter more clearly the enemy s position preparatory to moving.
We saw but few of the enemy, and appearances were that they were
retreating. On our return we met General Sigel, who expressed as the
result of his observations the same opinion. At general headquarters
the impression was that the enemy was retreating during the night. It
was then determined that I should advance with General Eicketts
troops and my corps on the road leading to Sudley Springs and thence
toward Hay Market. The first step in advance brought us in contact
with the enemy s skirmishers. These were driven out of the woods,
but our farther advance was resisted by the rebel artillery, command
ing the road. The enemy was evidently still in force. Soon after (at
2 p. m.) General Porter became engaged with the enemy on our left,
and at 4 p. m. this attack extended to our center. We then learned
that the withdrawal of troops from opposite our right was to mass
them on our center and left. General Hooker s division now advanced
into the woods near our right and drove the enemy back a short dis
tance. At 5.30 our troops on the left and then the center began to
give way. Shortly before night, on the falling back of the troops on
the left and center, I was directed to retire and hold successive posi
tions. General Hooker s division was ordered by General Pope to the
left about dark, and I lost sight of it until after the whole army was in
retreat, when I overtook it on the road beyond the stone bridge. We
fell back to the Wier house (I believe), used as a hospital, and there
414 OPERATIONS IN N. VA:, W. VA., AND MD. [CHAP.
established a new line of battle. I sent General Kearny s division to
the left to close a gap between my left and the main body of the army,
keeping General Stevens and Bicketts troops to hold the right. After
dark I sent my artillery to the rear by a road I had sent Major Hunt
and Dr. Milhau, of my staff, to examine, as it. was too dark to use it
with effect. Somewhat later the enemy attacked General Bicketts
troops, and they gave way. A mile farther to the rear Colonel McLean s
brigade was drawn up and covered the retreat across Bull Bun. Part
of these troops forded Bull Bun a short distance above the stone bridge,
and the others crossed the bridge, which had been repaired the night
before. Where the Sudley Church road joins the Warrentoii turnpike
near Cub Bun I halted some cavalry, and sent it out to obstruct this