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Cauit Point and Cresta de Gallo with great force, but on the east
coast of Sibuyan it meets the flood stream from eastward by the
Strait of San Bernardino and loses its force. The ebb stream moves
in the reverse direction and by the same passages, and is not felt on
the southwest coast of Sibuyan. The strength of the stream at full
and change of moon is 3^^ knots between Panay and Tablas and 2
knots between Tablas and Sibuyaiu



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220 PAKAT.

Jintotolo Channel is the passage between Masbate and Panay.
Jintotolo Island and the Zapatos divide the channel into three pas-
sages; that between Jintotolo Island and the Zapatos is generally
used.

Cuoaracha Shoal^ lying about 4^ miles north-northeastward of
Manigonigo Lighthouse, is composed of coarse^ white sand and is
clearly indicated by the color of the water. The least depth on the
shoal is a small patch with 1% fathoms. The remainder of the
shoal is covered by depths of 3 to 10 fathoms.

The currents in this vicinity set eastward with the flood and west-
ward with the ebb tide. There are eddies and confused currents
around Olutaya Island, and small tide rips have been observed just
westward of the passage between Olutaya and Nagtig Islands when
the current was running at its full strength.

EAST COAST OF PANAY.

From Bulacaue Point, the northeastern extremity of Panay, the
coast trends in a general southerlv direction for abotit 26 miles to
Mount Apiton on the north side of Apiton Pass. This coast is faced
bv a number of islands, between which are good, sheltered channels.
There are no ports oi importance nor any thoroughly protected
anchorages.

Manigonigo Islet lies about 1% miles eastward of Bulacaue Point,
on the northeast extremity of a shoal with depths of from 2% to 3
fathoms, which extends from the coast of Panay. It is small, flat,
and surrounded bv rocks to a distance of 200 yards on all sides but
the south, where they extend to 400 yards.

A light, visible 14 miles, is shown from a white, cylindrical tower
on the smnmit of Manigonigo Islet

Anegada Socks are two small rocks covered by % and ^ fathoms
lying Vs Jwil® south-southwestward of Manigonigo Islet.

Nabunut Island, 2 miles east-southeastward of Manigonigo Islet, is
wooded and about 100 feet high. It is fringed by A narrow reef and
connected with Tulunanaim Island, 2 miles southeastward of it, by
a shoal with depths of 1 to 3 fathoms.

Tidnnanaun Island is a small, narrow island having a hill 131 feet
high near its northern end. The sides of Tulunanaun Island are
fringed with reefs, partly bare at low water to a distance of about
% mile.

The bank on which Nabunut and Tulunanaun Islands lie is covered
by depths of 2 to 5 fathoms; it extends about 4^^ miles eastward
of Manigonigo Islet and forms the western side of the channel west-
ward of Balbagon Island.

Balbagon Island^ 3^4 miles eastward of Nabunut Island, is narrow,
low, with a little sandhill^ at its southern end and covered with trees
about 100 feet high. It lies on a bank about 4 miles long north and
south and 2 miles wide. It is surrounded by reefs bare at low water,
widest at the northern end, where they extend nearly 1 mile. The
western limit of the shore reefs lies 14 i^il® westward of the north
end of the island. Ojastras Islet, a small, sandy cay, lies 1^ mile
southward of Balbagon, with which it is connected by shoal water.
Tumina Islet is a small islet lying on a detached reef about % mile
eastward of Balbagon.



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EAST COAST OF PANAY. 221

Tacut Eecf, bare at low water, lies nearly 1% miles eastward of
Ojastras Islet on the eastern edge of the banK on which are Balba^on,
Ojastras, and Tumina Islands. At a distance of % and 1% imles
south-southeastward of Ojastras Islet are two small 3-fathom patches.

Channels. — ^The channel westward of Balbagon Island is the one
generally u$ed by coasting steamers. It has a navigable width of
over 1 mile and is deep and clear. The western hiU on Sicogon Island,
1,129 feet high, just open eastward of the summit of Canas Islet,
bearing 183° (182' mag;) , leads through the middle of it When the
south end of Tulunanaun Island is abeam, all dangers will have been
passed and the vessel may continue, passing either side of Canas
Islet, thence through Sicogon Channel, between Sicoffon and Calag-
naan Islands; or when the south end of Tulunanaun Island is abeam
she may haul southeastward until Baliguian Island bears 180**
(179° mag.) , when it may be steered for. The channel between Tucat
Keef and South Gigante Island is also recommended. Dapdap Point,
the western extremity of South Gigante Island, is clean and steep-to
and may be passed at a distance of ^ mile. After passing this point
the course should be continued southward until Antonia Islet bears
90° (89° mag.) , and then hauled southeastward imtil Baliguian Island
bears 180"* (179" mag.).

Gigante Islands are a group of two high islands and several islets
and detached rocks lying about 10 miles eastward of Bulacaue Point.
The group is clear on the northern side, and the reefs and shoals on
the other sides do not extend over % mile.

North Gigante Island is wooded and 758 feet high near the northern
end. It is fringed by reefs, partly bare at low water, which extend
about y2 mile east and west from it. The northern point of the
island is marked by a light.

About % mile eastward of its north end Hqs XTaydajon Islet, small,
clear, and steep-to, well wooded, and 263 feet high to the tops of the
trees. The channel between it and North Gigante is dear and has
depths of 7 to 9 fathoms in it. On the southeastern edge of the reef
surrounding North Gigante Island are three small, rocky islets, Gi-
gantillo, Gigantuna, and Bulubadiang.

South Gigante Island, ^ mile south of the northern island, is well
wooded and 763 feet high near the southern end. On the northern
side there is a wide reef, bare at low water, between which and the
reef on the south side of the northern island is a channel with a least
depth of V/2 fathoms. About 1 mile southeastward of South Gigante
Island are three small islets, Bantigui, Cabugao, and Antonia, all lying
on the same reef, 60, 357, and 322 feet high, respectively. About %
mile eastward of Antonia, the southern islet, is a small shoal with a
least depth of 2^4 fathoms. The channel between these islets and
South Gigante is over 1^ mile wide and has depths of 7 and 9 fathoms.

In the northeast monsoon vessels can anchor off the southwest coast
of South Gigante in a depth of 7 fathoms ; muddy and sandy bottom.
In the southwest monsoon very small vessels can anchor in the chan-
nel between the islands. A shoal covered by 4 fathoms lies 3^/^ miles
north-northwestward of Gigantes light ; 5iJ^ miles northward of the
same point is a 4^-fathom shoal; 5 miles east-northeastward of
the same point is a 4-fathom shoal, and 7 miles east-southeastward
of the same point is a small, 3i^-f athom shoal. These shoals are the



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222 PANAY,

only shoals within a radius of 8 miles from Gigante light with a
dei)th less than 5 fathoms. There are numerous other shoals in this
vicinity whose locations will be best understood by reference to
the chart.

Bancal Bay, between Blanca Point 2 miles southeastward from
Bulacaue Point, and Gogo Point is fronted by Binuluangan and sev-
eral smaller islands. The shore is low and intersected by a number
of rivers. This bay is very shoal, and at low water sand banks block
the passage to the rivers emptying into it. This shoal water extends
around Blanca Point northward and surrounds Manigonigo Islet.

Bimduangan Island is fringed with reefs on which lie the islets
Tabu^n and Tabugun Chico off the north end, NUidlaran off the
east side, and Adcalayao and Himamylan off the southeast side.
Binuluangan is well wooded and rises in hills 160 to 198 feet high.

Gogo Pass, between the southwest point of Binuluangan Island and
Gogo Point, is shoal and of no value to navigation.

Nilidlaran Pass, between Binuluangan and Calagnaan Islands, is
divided into two channels by Labno Islet, a small, wooded islet lying
about 400 yards southeastward from Himamylan Islet; the western
channel has a width of 150 yards and is the one generally used. Both
channels have a depth of a little over 2 fathoms, but are narrow and
tortuous and, in the absence of any aids to navigation, should not
be attempted by a stranger.

Calagnaan Island, lying southeastward of Binuluangan Island, from
which it is separated by Nilidlaran Pass, is well wooded and 1,112
feet high. The east and south coasts are clean and steep-to, while the
west and northwest coasts are fringed with reefs. On the northwest
coast are two bays blocked by reefs and of no value to navigation.

Canas is a small, high, clean, and steep-to islet lying about %
mile from the eastern coast of Calagnaan Island. It is 310 feet high
in the eastern part. Shoals covered by depths of 4% and 5 fathoms
lie ^ mile from the southwest and northeast points of the islet.
A pinnacle rock, about 30 feet in extent, covered by % fathom, lies
about 650 yards northeastward of the eastern end of Caiias Islet.

Sicogon Island, southeastward of Calagnaan, is 1,142 feet high in
the southeastern part. In the northwestern part of the island is a
hill, 1,128 feet high, which forms, with Caiias Islet, a good range for
navi^ting the channel westward of Balbagon Island. The north-
east side of Sicogon is fringed by a wide reef, bare at low water, on
the eastern edge of which is Tuma^in Islet, a small prominent islet
369 feet high. The southeastern side of Sicogon is clean, while the
western side is fringed by a reef nowhere exceeding % mile in
width. About 2% miles eastward of Tumaguin Islet is a small 4-
f athom patch surrounded by deep water.

Carmencita Shoal, small and composed of sand and rock, has a least
depth of % fathom and deep water aroimd it. It lies 1 mile south-
eastward of Canas Islet. The navigable channel between it and
Canas Islet is % mile wide and that between it and Sicogon is
% mile wide.

Sicogon Channel, between Calagnaan and Sicogon Islands, is over
% mile wide and has a depth of 12 fathoms in the middle. It is clear
and free from danger and is the channel usually used by coasting
vessels.



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EAST COAST OF PANAY. 223

Between Gogo Point and Salong Point, 6 miles southward, is a
large bay fronted by Loguingut, Bolubadiang, Bayas, Maliaya, and
Magalumbi Islands.

^tancia is a small town on the northwest shore of the bay. It
contains two large houses with iron roofs visible a considerable dis-
tance. A small steamer which plies between Capiz and Iloilo occa-
sionally calls, and some fish, sugar, and rice are shipped. Good
anchorage may be found between Estancia and the Bayas Islets in
5 fathoms; muddy bottom. This is the only place in this vicinity
where anchorage, protected at all seasons, may be found. A small,
rocky shoal, with a least depth of % fathom, lies about midway be-
tween Bayas and Loguingut Islands. This shoal constitutes the only
danger in the anchorage.

Bayas Islets are a group of four islets lying 3 to 4 miles south-
eastward of Gogo Pomt. Bayas, the eastern and largest islet, is 216
feet high; Uanipulon, lying immediately westward of Bayas, from
which it is separated by a narrow 5-fathom channel, is 168 feet high.
The others are small and low. They are surrounded by sand baris
and rocks, and there are no channels between them. There is a 4^4-
fathom channel nearly % mile wide between Pangalan, the western
islet, and the island of Panay. A rock awash lies % mile southward
of Pangalan Islet and 1% miles westward of the south point of
Bayas Islet.

Magalumbi Islet is a small islet 159 feet high lying about ^ mile
northeastward of Salong Point. It is surrounded by reefs which
narrow the channel between it and the mainland to about 200 yards.

Culebra Islet, 4 miles east-southeastward of Magalumbi Islet, is very
small and 116 feet high. A reef, partly awash at low water, extends
y2 mile westward.

A small rocky shoal, with a least depth of 4^4 fathoms, sur-
rounded by deep water, lies 2 miles south westward of Culebra Islet.
Northeastward and southeastward of Culebra Islet are six shoals
with depths of 2^^ and 3 fathoms and surrounded by deep water
as shown on the chart.

Malpal Point, about 3 miles southwestward of Magalumbi Islet, is
a bold, round, steep-to headland 1,151 feet high. Immediately north-
ward of Malpal Point is Odiongan Bay, the head of which is blocked
by reefs; the village of Odiongan lies on its north shore. Bagacay
Bay lies just southwestward of Malpal Point. The head of this bay
is also blocked by a large reef bare at low water; the village of
Bagacay lies near the shore at the head of the bay. From Malpal
Point to the village of Concepcion, 8 miles southward, the shore is
fringed by reefs, outside of which shoal water extends to a con-
siderable distance.

San Dionisio is a village lying in a slight indentation in the shore
line 5 miles southwestward of Malpal Point. Two small islets,
Matagda and Lacdian, lie % mile eastward and east-southeastward
from San Dionisio.

About iy2 miles northeastward of Matagda Islet and about 1 mile
from shore is a large coral reef bare at low water. Depths of 1%
to 2% fathoms lie between this reef and the shore. The channel be-
tween this reef and the reefs northwestward of Tago Island is about
J mile wide and 4i^ fathoms deep.



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224 PANAY.

Fan de Azncar, about 2i^ miles from the coast of Fanay, is the
largest of a group of islands at the northern entrance to Iloilo
Strait. It has two remarkable peaks; the southeastern and highest
is 1,881 feet high. The southeastern side of the island is clean and
steep-to; the remainder is fringed with reefs on which there are
several islets and rocks.

Nabnrnt Islet is a small islet, 143 feet high, lyin^ on the reef off the
northwest point of Fan de Azucar. Magaisl Islet is a small islet, 232
feet high, lying on the shore reef off the north coast. Bocot Islet is a
small islet lying % mile northward of the northeast point of Magaisi
Islet, from which it is separated by a narrow channel 6% fathoms
deep.

Sombrero Islet is a round, conical-shaped islet lying less than ^4
mile from the southeast side of Pan de Azucar, with which it is con-
nected by a sand bar bare at low water. It is about % mile in ex-
tent, well wooded, and 459 feet high.

Botlog Island, 372 feet high, about % mile southward of Pan de
Azucar, is clean and steep-to. It is covered with large, straggling
trees and divides the passage between Pan de Azucar and Igbon Island
into two good channels. The coasting steamers usually take the
channel between Botlog and Igbon Islands.

Tago Island, lying immediately south westward of Pan de Azucar,
from which it is separated by a narrow, impassable channel known as
Pan Pass, is 557 feet high in the southern part. Its entire shore line
is fringed by reefs which are gradually steep-to on the eastern side,
while those on the western side are faced by shoal water. Nearly y^
mile from the southeast point of Tago is a rock awash, and 200 and
350 yards from the southern end are dangerous sunken rocks. A
large coral reef, bare at low water, lies % mile northward of the
northwest point of Tago.

Concepcion Bay, between Panay and Tago Island, is of little value
to navigation. Its area is greatly reduced by reefs and shoal water.
The small and unimportant village of Concepcion lies at the head
of the bay. A small steamer which occasionally runs between Capiz
and Iloilo sometimes calls, but most of the trade is carried on by
small, native craft.

Tago Pass is a very narrow channel between the reefs extending

from Panay^ and those from the south end of Tago Island. It has

a general width of 250 yards between the 1-fathom curves, a depth

of ly^, fathoms at the northern entrance, deeper water in the main

body of the pass, and 3^^ fathoms at the southern entrance. Tago

I Reef, at the northern entrance to the pass, and the sunken rocks lying

off the south end of Tago Island, are the principal dangers. The

I tides run with consideraole velocity in Tago Pass, and, as there is

I no particular advantage in using it, it should not be attempted with-

j out local knowledge.

Tago Eccf is a small dangerous coral reef bare at low water. It
I lies about ^ mile westward of the southern part of Tago Island

i and forms the western entrance point to the northern approach to

, Tago Pass.

Bagabn Islet is a small, low, wooded islet lying % mile southeast-
ward of the south end of Tago Island. A sand spit, bare at low
water, extends nearly across to a prominent green point on Panay,
leaving a narrow 8^-f athom channel between them.



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EAST COAST OF PANAY. 225

. Halangaban Island^ about 2 miles southeastward of Pan de Azucar,
is wooded, 785 feet high, and clean on all sides except the south-
western, where a reef, bare at low water, extends nearly y2 mile
westward and surrounds the small islet Chico.

Agho is a small islet lying in the middle of the channel between
Malangaban and Igbon Islands. It is fringed by a narrow reef and
surrounded by deep water.

Igbon (Balubadiangan) Island lies about 2 miles eastward of the
south end of Tago Island. It is well wooded and 774 feet high. The
northern and southwestern parts are fringed by steep-to coral reefs ;
the remainder of the shore line is clean and steep-to.

Bulubadiangan and Dunao are two small islets lying off the south
end of Igbon Island. Bulubadiangan, the western islet, is 220 feet
high, and Dunao, the eastern one, is 92 feet. Between these two islets
good but contracted anchorage may be found for small craft.

Baliguian Islet is a small, low, heavily wooded islet lying 9 miles
eastward from Igbon Island. It is fringed by a narrow reef and sur-
rounded by deep water. It is thickly covered with trees, the tops of
which appear like solid land from a distance. This islet is a good
natural mark for vessels making Iloilo Strait from northward or
eastward to clear the numerous shoals along the route. A light,
visible 16 miles, is shown from a white, steel tower on the northwest
point. There is a small, 2-fathom patch surrounded by deep water
2 miles southward of the islet.

Apiton Pass is the southern termination of the inside route to Iloilo
from the northward. It is clear and deep, with the exception of a
small 314-fathom patch," and the shores on either side are steep-to.
Mount Apiton, forming the northern side of the pass, is a bold, round
headland 1,416 feet high. A small 3l^-fathom shoal lies in the
northern end of Apiton Pass 1 mile westward of the south end of
Bulubadiangan Islet.

Tagubanhan Island, lying a little less than 1 mile southeastward
from Mount Apiton, forms the south side of Apiton Pass. It is well
wooded and 980 feet high. The shores are fringed by a very narrow
steep-to reef. A small 3i/^-f athom shoal lies 1 mile south-southwest-
ward of the south end of Tagubanhan Island. There is a good, deep
channel between this shoal and Tagubanhan Island.

Anauayan Islet, nearly 2 miles eastward of the southern end of
Tagubanhan Island, is very small, clean, steep-to, and 178 feet
high. The channel between it and Tagubanhan Island is deep and
clear.

Binanan Island, just southwestward of Mount Apiton, is nearly
round and 440 feet high. It is connected with the mainland by ex-
tensive mangrove swamps and mud flats bare at low water. Apiton
Cove, on the eastern side of the island, is small and shoal and of no
particular value. The southern side of Binanan Island is clean and
steep-to.

From Binanan Island the coast trends westward for 4 miles and
then curves southward for 4i/^ miles to Malauig Balas Point, forming
a large shoal bay, the head of which is known as Ajui Bay.

The village of Ajui lies in the northwest angle of Ajui Bay, about
^ mile above the mouth of the river of the same name. Shoal water

97172'— 19 ^15



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226 PANAY.

extends 2 miles southeastward from the mouth of the Ajui River and
surrounds Salog Islet.

Salog Islet, lying in the entrance to Ajui Bay, is very small and
wooded, 175 feet high, and surrounded by a large reef bare at low
water.

Bnri Islet is a small islet, 160 feet high, i^ mile southward, and
similar to Salog Islet. There are a few inhabitants on both of them.
The pearl banks of Ajui are off these islets, and during the season
large numbers of divers make their headquarters here.

Nasiducang and Bayang are two small unimportant islets lying
iy2 and 2^ miles southwestward of Buri Islet and 1 mile from shore;
they are both surrounded by reefs.

Nadidman Island, 188 feet high, is a narrow island % mile from
shore at the southern entrance to Ajui Bay. It is surrounded by a
reef, leaving a 6%-fathom channel between it and the Panay coast.

Calabazas Island is a small, wooded island lying ^ mile eastward
from Nasidman Island.

A group flashing light, visible 16 miles, is shown from a white,
cylindrical tower with gray trimmings on the southern end of Cala-
bazas Island.

Fepitas Bocks are a cluster of black rocks 2% miles southwestward
of Calabazas lighthouse. They are nearly always visible, but are
covered at the highest tides. They are covered by the red sector of
Calabazas light.

Tnria Bock is a small, dangerous rock with ^ fathom 5 miles east-
southeastward of Calabazas lighthouse. TJiis rock does not show
except when close to it, and the sea does not break over it any heavier
than for several miles around it. It is marked" off the northern side
by a horizontally striped buoy. Vessels should give this buoy a berth
of about y2 mile.

A small, rocky patch, with a least depth of 2^4 fathoms, lies l^
mile northeastward of Turia Rock.

From the southern entrance to Ajui Bay the coast trends south-
westward for 14 miles and then southward with a curve eastward for
12 miles to Dumangas Point, on the northern side of the entrance to
Iloilo Strait. The first half of this section is indented by five bays,
Culasi, Pedada, Canas, Barotac, and Banate, all of which are shoal
and of little value to navigation. These bays are separated by high,
prominent headlands, which are clean and steep-to.

Culasi Bay, westward of Nasidman Island, between Bugtung Bato
and Danao Points, is very small and shoal. The village of Culasi
lies at the head of Culasi Bay.

Pedada Bay, just southwestward from Culasi Bay, between Nautin
and Pedada Points, has a depth of 3 fathoms at the entrance and
shoals gradually toward the head. There are no villages on the shore
of this bay.

Mount Bayang, 728 feet high, is the summit of a peninsula separat-
ing Pedada and Canas Bays. This peninsula is connected with the
mainland by a mangrove swamp, through which is a boat channel
passable at high water.

Canas Bay, between Bayang and Bubug Points, has a depth of 5
fathoms at the entrance and shoals gradually toward the head. The
villages of San Fernando and Santiago lie on the shore of Canas Bay.



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KORTH COAST OF NBGROS. 227

Mount San Nicolas is the summit of the headland separating Cansts
and Barotac Bays. It is well wooded, 1,063 feet high, and is promi-
nent.

Barotao Bay, immediately westward of Mount San Nicolas, between
Bagalayog and San Juan Points, is 5 fathoms deep at the entrance
and shoals OTadually toward the head. The village of Barotac Viejo
lies on the Barotac River, about 1 mile inland from the head of the
bay, and there are several small, unimportant villages lying on its
shores.

San Juan Pointy the southwestern entrance point to Barotac Bay,
is a small, prominent headland 197 feet high. About % mile south-
westward of San Juan Point is a rock 2 feet high lying on a small
shoal, with depths of 2^ to 3i/^ fathoms.

Banate Bay is a large shoal bay lying southwestward of San Juan
Point. The town of Banate lies at its head. There is a depth of 3
fathoms 1 mile southward from the town, from which position the
water shoals gradually toward the shore.

From Banate Bay to Dumangas Point the shores are low, fringed
with mangroves, intersected by a number of small, unimportant
streams and fronted by shoal water to a distance of 2^ miles.

A red buoy marks the eastern edge of the shoal water about 2^4
miles southeastward from Bacay Point.

Tomonton Shoal, off Tomonton Point, Negros, extends 3 miles north-
westward and has little depth. A black gas buoy marks its north-
western extremity. Immediately inside of the buoy is a depth of
1% fathoms.

The flood tide in Iloilo Strait passes to the north as far as Pan



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