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here described. Fifteen units are required for admission, a unit
meaning the equivalent • of five recitations a week in one branch of
study for one year, amounting in the aggregate to not less than one
hundred twenty sixty-minute hours in the clear. Two or three hours
of laboratory, drawing, or shop-work will be counted as equivalent
to one of recitation.


The fifteen units presented for admission on examination must
all be chosen from Group I. They must embrace two subjects of
three units each, and must include three units of English Composition
and Literature, two units of a Foreign Language, one unit of Algebra,
and one of Geometry, and one unit of one of the sciences. Physics,
Chemistry, Botany, or Zoology.

School credits are not accepted in lieu of the examination given
by this University. Those earned by taking the examinations of the
College Entrance Examination Board and of the Regents of the State
of New York are so accepted as far as they go.


Only those applicants are admitted on certificate who are offi-
cially recommended graduates of high schools accredited to this Uni-
versity and have completed a full four-year curriculum in a standard
high school, covering at least fifteen imits.

It is expected that the principal will recommend not all gradu-
ates, but only those whose ability, application, and scholarship are
so clearly superior that the school is willing to stand sponsor for
their success at the University.

The principals of approved schools are urged to send directly to
the Registrar, immediatdy upon the close of the school year, the
recommendation of each graduate intending to enter this College at
the beginning of the ensuing year. If, on inspection, the recom-»
mendation is found satisfactory, the Registrar will forward to the
applicant a certificate entitling him to admission without examina-
tion. The address of the applicant and all other data asked for are
to be entered on this blank.

No applicant will be admitted who presents less than fifteen units.

There are two plans for admission on certificate:

Plan A. — For the graduates of all the accredited schools except
those entitled to the optional privileges of Plan B.

Plan B. — For graduates of the schools on the approved list of
the North Central Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools,
and other especially approved schools.


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122 College of Literature, Science, and the Arts

Plan A. The fifteen units presented for admission on certificate,
must include twelve units from Group I and three additional units
from either Group I or Group II. The fifteen units must include
the following:

English 3 unite

Foreign Language, any one .... 2 unite

Greek, Latin, French, Spanish, or German

Algebra . . . i unit

(leomctry ........ i unit

Science, any one ...... 1 unit

Physics, Chemistry, Zoology, or Botany.

Plan B. Graduates of schools on the approved list of the North
Central Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools will be 'ad-
mitted upon the presentation of a recommendation covering not less
than fifteen units, of which at least twelve must be from Group I.
The other three units may be from either Group I or Group II.
Admission on this basis of recommendation may be granted also to
the graduates of other especially approved schools.


The subjects from which choice may be made, and the number
of units which will be accepted in each subject are as follows:

Group I*

(Twelve units must be chosen from this group.)

English Composition, 3 units. Trigonometry, J^ unit.

English Literature, I unit. Physics, I unit.

Greek, 2 or 3 units. Chemistry, I unit.

Latin, 2, 3, or 4 units. Zoology, J^ or I unit.

French, 2, 3, or 4 units. Botany, H or I unit.

German, 2, 3, or 4 units. Introductory Science, J4 or I
Spanish. 2, 3, or 4 units. unit.

History, i, 2, or 3 units. Physiology, J^ unit.

Algebra, i, ij/, or 2 units. Geography and Geology, ]/^, i,
Geometry, i or VA units. or 1J/2 units.

• A single unit of a foroign language may be counted among the
twelve from Group I upon the satisfactory completion in the University
of a second course in the same language.

In order that a half unit in science may be accepted it must be sup-
plemented by a second half unit in science.


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Requirements for Admission 123

Group II

(Three units may be chosen from this group.)

Group II comprises any subjects not listed in Group I which are
counted toward graduation by the accredited high school from which
the applicant receives his diploma.

Subjects from Group II will not be accepted for admission on

Pre-Medical and Pre-DenUl Requirements

Applicants for admission who intend later to study Medicine or
Dentistry should offer two units of Latin and one unit each of Physics
and Chemistry. They are also strongly advised to present French or
German, Botany, and Zoology. Those who. enter without these sub-
jects will ordinarily need to attend one or more Summer Sessions in
addition to the regular term of residence prescribed.

Six- Year High Schools

In June, 1914, the following resolutions relative to six-year high
schools and the admission of graduates from such schools were
adopted by the Faculty of the College and approved by the Board
of Regents. Until the requirements shall have been more explicitly
formulated, they will be administered in the spirit of these reso-

Resolved : i. That school authorities be encouraged to incorpo-
rate the seventh and eighth grades of the elementary schools as an
integral part of the high school, forming a six-year system;

2. That school authorities be recommended to organize the six-
year high school system into a Junior high school of three years and
a Senior high school of three years as soon as local conditions will
admit ;

3. That graduates of six-year high school courses be required
to gain during the last three years at least eight of the fifteen units
required for admission, two of which units shall be obtained during
the senior year;

4. That graduates of six-year high school courses be permitted
to apply for university credit on examination,


The following descriptive outline indicates the amount of prep-
aration expected in each of the subjects named:

English Language and Composition. — The three units in Eng-
lish language and composition should cover the following subjects:

Composition, — As preparation for this requirement, it is expected
that the student will have prepared, under the direction of a compe-


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1^4 College of LitercUi^re, Science, and the Arts

tent instructor, one or more written exercises each week for at least
three years. A sufficient number of these exercises should be cor-
rected by the teacher and revised by the student to secure the desired
accuracy* It is highly desirable that longer and more carefully
planned papers should be a feature of the fourth year. The subjects
upon which the student writes should not be drawn exclusively from
literature; a considerable portion of them should be so distributed
as to give proper training in the various types of discourse, namely,
description, narrative, argument, and exposition.

The student's credentials should show the amount and character
of the work in composition.

Rhetoric. — The student should be grounded in the essentials ot
rhetoric, but those princifJles should receive emphasis which arc most
likely to be of service to hini in his practice in writing, such as the
principles of sentential structure, paragraphing, and the outlining
of the essay. The correction of stock specimens of bad English is
not recommended, and will form no part of the entrance requirement.

Grammar, — The applicant should be prepared to state intelligently
the essential principles of grammar and to explain the syntactical
structure of any sentence encountered in his reading.

Reading of Literature, — The reading, in amount and character,
should be such as is recommended in the Bulletin of the National
Bureau of Education, 19 17, No. 2,* though books of equal merit
covering a similar range of literary types will be accepted as equiv-

It is recommended that in connection with the reading, the mem-
orizing of notable passages, in both prose and poetry, should form
a regular exercise throughout the whole preparatory period. ITiis is
all-important for the development of a correct taste in language and

Applicants who present themselves for examination will be asked
to write two essays oi not less than two hundred words each, one
upon a subject drawn from his reading, and the other upon a sub-
jest drawn from experience or observation. The purpose of this
second paper will be to enable the candidate to show that he has
read, understood, and appreciated a sufficient amount of literature;
but he may also be asked questions which he can answer only by
applying what he has learned to passages of literature which he
has not seen before. The language of these essays must be gram-
matical and clear. The spelling, punctuation, and capitalizing must
be correct. The applicant must show ability to discriminate in the

• The Bulletin is entitled "Reorganization of English in Secondary
Schools." It contains a full statement of the scope of the work in pre-
paratory English, together with graded lists of books and a useful bibliog-
raphy. Courses may be procured from the Superintendent of Documents,
Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C, at twenty cents per copy.


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Requirements for Admission 1^5

use of words and to construct well-organized sentences and para-
graphs. A topical outline should accompany each essay. The appli-
cant should also be prepared to answer questions upon the funda-
mental principles of granunar and rhetoric.

History of English Literature. — The applicant who offers
four units in English composition and literature should have pur-
sued the study throughout the four years of the high school course.
In addition to the foregoing requirement his preparation should
include a systematic study of the outlines of English literary history.
Due emphasis should be laid upon the division of the subject into
periods; and the leading characteristics of each period should be
studied and, so far as possible, illustrated by the reading of repre-
sentative authors. Any of the current manuals of English literature
may serve as the basis of this part of the work, which should occupy
the third or fourth year of the course, tlie historical study should,
however, be associated as closely as possible with the reading of

Greek. — Applicants who offer two units in Greek should have
completed a suitable beginner's book, or else should have mastered
portions chosen by their teacher from a standard grammar. These
grammar selections must be sufficient to cover all the ordinary inflec-
tions and the common principles of syntax.

In reading, a minimum equivalent to three books of Xenophon*s
Anabasis and two books of Homer is required; but the teacher may
select other portions of Attic prose in place of the Anabasis, and the
reading in Homer may be made up of selections from various books.
In general, the Iliad rather than the Odyssey is recommended for
school reading, because the college courses in Homer are based upon
the latter poem.

Exercises in the writing of easy Attic prose should accompany
both the elementary grammar work and the reading. For the latter
part of the course a special book on composition may be employed,
or the teacher may construct exercises bosed upon the current reading.

Latin. — An applicant offering two units in Latin must have com-
pleted the beginners' Latin book, and must have read not less in
amount than Caesar, Gallic War, I -IV, which may be selected from
Cjesar, Gallic War and Civil War, and Nepos, Lives; and he must
further, have devoted the equivalent of one recitation period a week
for one year to the writing of exercises in Latin prose composition.

N. B. — This preparation is sufficient to enable the student to
enter Latin A or B in the University,

An applicant offering three units in Latin must have completed
the foregoing requirements for two units. He must, in addition, have
read not less in amount than Cicero, the orations against Catiline,


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126 College of Literatme, Science, and the Arts

for the Manilian Law, and for Archias, or Virgil, Aeneid, I-VI,
which may be selected from Cicero, orations » letters, and De Senec-
tute, and Sal lust, Catiline and Jugurthine War or Virgil, Bucolics,
Georgics, and Aeneid, and Ovid, Metamorphoses, Fasti, and Tristia;
and he must, further, be prepared to meet the requirements in Latin
prose composition described below for four units.

The Latin reading required of applicants offering four units* of
Latin, without regard to the prescription of particular authors and
works, must not be less in amount that. Caesar, Gallic War, I-IV,
Cicero, the orations against Catiline, for the Manilian Law, and for'
Archias, Virgil, Aeneid, I-VI. This amount of reading must be se-
lected from the following authors and works: Caesar, Gallic War
and Civil War, and Nepos, Lives, Cicero, orations, letters, and De
Senectute, and Sallust, Catiline and lugurthine War, Virgil, Bucolics,
Georgics, and Aeneid, and Ovid, Metamorphoses, Fasti, and Tristia,
The applicant must, further, have devoted the equivalent of one reci-
tation period a week for two years to the writing of exercises in Latin
prose composition.

The following is the scope of the examination of apolicants who
wish to offer four units in Latin as specified above, but who are not
entitled to enter on diploma. Such applicants will be examined in
translation at sight of both prose and verse. The vocabulary, con-
struction, and range of ideas of the passages set will be suited to the
preparation secured by the reading indicated above. Applicants will
be examined also upon the following prescribed readings: Cicero,
orations for the Manilian Law and for Archias, and Virgil, Aeneid,
I, II, and either IV, or VI, at the option of the applicant, with
questions on subject matter, literary and historical allusions, and
prosody. Every paper in which passages from the prescribed read-
ing are set for translation will contain also one or more passages
for translation at sight; and applicants must deal satisfactorily with
both these parts of the paper, or they will not be given credit for
either part. The examinations in grammar and composition will
demand thorough knowledge of all regular inflections, all common
irregular forms, and the ordinary syntax and vocabulary of the
prose authors read in school, with ability to use this knowledge in
writing simple Latin prose. The words, constructions, and range
of ideas called for in the examinations in composition will be such
as are common in the reading of the year, or years, covered by the
particular examination.

French. — The applicant who offers two units in French will be
expected to pronounce French intelligently and with some fluency,
to understand French when spoken in simple phrases and about
familiar subjects, to read ordinary prose easily and accurately, and
to write correctly in French simple sentences based on texts studied.
This ability demands a firm grasp of the elements of granunar (such

• According to the recommendations of the Commission of Fifteen on
College Entrance Requirements in Latin.


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Requirements for Admission 127

as the conjugation of the verbs, both regular and irregular, the use
of auxiliaries, the forms of the pronoun, the agreement of adjectives
and particles, the main uses of the articles, and the order of words
in the sentence), and such a familiarity with the structure of the
sentence and common terms of expression and such command of
vocabulary as may be given by the careful, well directed reading of
three or four hundred pages of easy prose.

The applicant who offers three units in French should be able
to read ordinary prose rapidly at sight, with clear understanding of
the distinctions of tense and mode and all the common points of
syntax, to reproduce in simple but connected French the substance
of a narrative or dramatic text, and to follow ordinary explanations
and commentaries made orally in French. In acquiring this ability
accent should be laid on the rapid understanding of the French
phrase, whether it be addressed to the eye or the ear. Much should
be read, spoken, and dictated. At least six hundred pages of prose
should be read, and in the end it should not be too easy.

The applicant who offers four units in French should be able to
read at sight any French not offering very unusual difficulties of
vocabulary or 83mtax, to translate into French a passage of simple
English, and to carry on a conversation in French upon a familiar
subject. He should have had, in addition to what is required for
three units, at least one thousand pages of French chosen from stand-
ard authors, and he should be able to answer questions on the con-
tent and meaning of the works read as well as upon the language in
which they are written.

Spanish. — ^The applicant who offers two units in Spanish must
be able to pronounce Spanish correctly, to take down easy dictation
in Spanish^ to translate intelligently easy Spanish prose, and to trans-
late simple English sentences into Spanish sufficiently well to show
a knowledge of the essentials of Spanish inflection and syntax. He
should be able to understand and answer simple questions in Spanish.

The applicant who offers three units in Spanish should be able
to read ordinary prose rapidly at sight, with clear understanding of
the distinction of tense and mode and all the common points of
syntax, to give in simple connected Spanish the substance of a nar-
rative, and to follow ordinary explanations and commentaries made
orally in Spanish. He should have read at least five hundred pages
in modern prose.

The applicant who offers four units in Spanish should be able
to read at sight any Spanish not offering unusual difficulties of vocab-
ulary or syntax, to translate into Spanish a passage of simple English,
and to carry on a conversation in Spanish upon a familiar subject.
He should have read at least as much as the applicant who offers
three units, and should have a distinctly firmer practical grasp of
the language.


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128 College of Literature, Science, and the Arts

German*. — The applicant who offers two units in German should
be able to pronounce German correctly and should be thoroughly
familiar with the everyday facts of the grammar. He should have
read about 300-350 pages of standard modern prose and should be
able to take part in a simple conversation in German on topics drawn
from the works read. He should also be able to translate easy
English prose into German.

The applicant who offers three units in German should, in addi-
tion to the work described above, be prepared as follows: He
should have read two classics selected from the works of Lessing,
Goethe, and Schiller, and about 250 pages of standard prose fiction
and history. He should have a good knowledge of German S3mtax
and should be able to write a short essay on some subject taken from
the works read. He should also be able to translate ordinary English
into German and to express himself in German grammatically and
with ease on topics connected with his reading.

The four units in German include the foregoing requirements
and Additional preparation as follows: The reading of five standard
dramas (exclusive of those read in the third year) selected from the
works of Goethe, Schiller, Lessing, Heinrich von Kleist, and Grill-
parzer; a thorough command of German grammar, and the ability
to speak and write German with considerable ease and correctness.
The applicant should have written several longer essays on the works

History. — ^The applicant who offers one, two, or three units in
history may select from the following list :

Ancient history to the year 800 A. D., one unit.
Mediaeval and modem history, one unit.
English history, one unit.
United States history and government, one unit.

The study of medieval history may, if preferred, be joined to
the unit of ancient rather than modem history.

A year*s work in general history, with the use of such a book
as Meyer's General History, will still be accepted as one unit, though
it is believed that better results will be obtained if a year is given
to ancient history down to the fall of the Roman Empire (or, prefer-
ably, to the year 800 A. D.), and a year to mediaeval and modem

The United States history is not the elementary work given in
the lower grades, but an advanced course given in the later years of
the high school.

• A fuller Rtatement of the requirements in German may be found in
the "Report of the Committee of the German Section of the Michigan
Schoolmasters* Club on a Uniform High School Course in German." Cop-
ies of the report may be obtained by applying to the Professor of German.


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Requirements for Admission 129

Mathematics. — ^The three units in mathematics include algebra
through quadratics, and geometry, both plane and solid (including
spherical). Beman and Smith's Elements of Algebra, and the same
authors' Nevj Plane and Solid Geometry are mentioned to indicate
the scope and character of the work required.

The applicant who presents two units in mathematics should
have covered algebra through quadratics with one unknown and plane
geometry. (See Beman and Smith's Ne^v Plane Geometry),

Trigonometry. — The one-half unit in trigonometry should cover
the work in plane trigonometry as given in Hall and Frink's Trigo-
nometry or an equivalent in other authors.

Physics. — The unit in physics includes an amount represented
by Carhart and Chute's High School Physics. The instruction in
the classroom should be supplemented by work in the physical labora-
tory to the extent of at least one period a week throughout the
school year.

Chemistry. — The unit in chemistry covers the information which
should be acquired in one year by the study of Brownlee's, Hessler
and Smith's, Linebarger's, McPherson and Henderson, Newell's,
Remsen's, or other similar text. The study of the text should be
accompanied by laboratory work done by the student. A thorough
working knowledge of a few fundamental principles is more to be
desired than a superficial knowledge fcovering a wider range.

Botany. — The unit required of those who offer botany for admis-
sion is expected to include as much as a competent teacher, trained
in laboratory methods, can accomplish with his classes in a year.
No attempt is here made to indicate the exact extent of the ground
to be covered, for the teacher should have large liberty in selecting
material and topics as occasion requires; but it is recommended that
one-half year be given to the form, structure, and habits of flowering
plants, while the other half-year may be given to the natural groups
of plants, physiology, and the adaptation of form and structure to

The following text-books are recommended as offering numerous
and helpful suggestions: Atkinson's Elementary Botany; Bailey's
Botany; Barnes' Plant Life; Bergen's Foundations of Botany;
Coulter's Plant Relations and Plant Structures; Spalding's Intro-
duction to Botany; Stevens's Introduction to Botany. Ganong's
Teaching Botanist is one of the most useful books for the teacher.

Zoolocy. — The unit or half unit in zoology must include labora-
tory and field work as well as class room exercises. Wherever pos-
sible, two class room periods should be available for each field or
laboratory exercise.- Two or three such exercises with two or three
recitations per week make a suitable distribution of time.

The contents of the course should be determined in some measure


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I30 College of Literature, Science, and the Arts

by local conditions, such as size of class, accessibility of suitable
conditions for field work» and training and interests of the teacher.
Study of types is essential, but these should be selected largely from
the local fauna. Such study need not take up the details of internal
structure nor require dissection by the student. As far as possible

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