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SCHOLARSHIPS, LOAN FUNDS, AND PRIZES

A large number of fellowships, scholarships, and loan funds
exist, which are described on pages 103 to 114. None of these are
open to students in the first year of residence, except the Phillips
Scholarship. These are won by competitive examinations in Greek
and Latin, and these studies must be continued for at least one year
in the University.

The Good Government Club Prize and the Michigan Menorah
Society Prize are described on page 114, while various oratorical and
debating prices are described on pages 87 to 89.



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1 76 College of Literature, Science, and the Arts
FEES AND EXPENSES

The Matriculation Fee and the Annual Fee must be paid in ad-
vance, and no student can enter upon his work until after such pay-
ment. For the rules governing Second Semester Fees and the refund-
if^g of fees, see page 117.

Matriculation Fee. — For Michigan students, ten dollars; for
all others, twenty-five dollars.

Annual Fee. — For Michigan students, eighty dollars for men;
seventy-six dollars for women ; for all others, one hundred five dollars
for men ; one hundred one dollars for women.

The fee for the second semester is sixty per cent of that for the
entire year.

Part Time Fee. — Persons engaged in teaching in public, paro-
chial, or private schools who are regularly admitted as students in
the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, may elect not more
than five hours a week, upon the payment of a fee of ten dollars, in
lieu of the regular annual fees. Such students must pay the matricu-
lation fee the same as other students.

LATE REGISTRATION.— Registration (i. e. enrollment, pay-
ment of fees, and classification) must be entirely completed be-
fore the first day of the semester. Students failing to complete
their registration before the first day of each semester are re-
quired to pay a late registration fee of five dollars.

Graduation FEE.—Fcr all alike, ten dollars.

Teacher's Diploma Fee.— For all alike, two dollars.

Business Administration Certificate Fee. — For all alike, two
dollars.

Laboratory Deposits. — Students who pursue laboratory courses
in Chemistry, Bacteriology, and Hygiene are required to pay for the
materials and apparatus actually consumed by them. The deposits
required in advance range from one to twenty dollars. Otherwise
no extra fee is charged for laboratory courses.

The laboratory deposit must in all cases be paid to the Treas-
urer of the University before the students may enroll in the class.

Gymnasium Fee. — For the rental of a locker in the Gymnasium
a fee of two dollars is charged for men, one dollar for women.

For additional information in regard to expenses, see page 115.



COURSES OF INSTRUCTION

The Courses of Instruction are subject to change from time to
time. From the courses offered in the various branches of learning,
the student is allowed to make his choice, under regulations pre-
scribed by the Faculty (see page 141).



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Courses of Instruction 177

The courses announced for the year 1 920-1921 are described
below. Those to be offered in 192 1- 1922 may be expected to differ but
slightly from those given here. The amount of credit toward grad-
uation assigned to each coarse is indicated by the expression one hour,
two hours, etc.

Immediately following the name of the department is stated the
group in which the courses in that department fall in accordance
with the requirements for graduation (see page 138).



COURSES m OTHER SCHOOLS AlfD COLLEGES

OPEN, UNDER CERTAIN CONDITIONS, TO STUDENTS IN THE COLLEGE OP
LITERATURE, SCIENCE, AND THE ARTS

Certain courses, given in other Schools and Colleges of the Uni-
versity, may be elected by students in the College of Literature,
Science, and the Arts. For the detailed description of such courses*
see the Announcements of those Schools and Colleges.

Students in this College may elect courses in other Schools and
Colleges of the University only by special permission of the Dean
of this College. (See below.) Such permission is granted pro forma
to students enrolled in programs (Business Administration, Forestry,
etc.) whose curricula include courses outside the College. But stu-
dents who relinquish such special programs forfeit the credit for
extra-Collegiate courses they may have taken.

Courses in the Medical School or the Law School thus taken
may not be counted towards the hours of Literary credit required
for the Combined Curricula.

The only courses which may be elected without the special per-
mission of the Dean are described in the following pages.

Anatomy
(See Medical Sciences)

Arabic

(See Semi tics)

Aramaic

(See Semi tics)

Assyrian

(See Semitics)



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1 78 College of Literature, Science^ and the Arts

ASTRONOlfT

(Group II)

Courses i, 2, 2a, 8, and 8a are intended to furnish a general
knowledge of Descriptive Astronomy without entering far into its
mathematical details. Courses 3, 5, 9, and 18 are beginning coarses
in the departments of Spherical and Practical Astronomy, Mathe-
matical Astronomy, Astrophysics, and Solar Physics, respectively.

Consultation Hours. — Throughout registration week, September
20 to 26, Professor Hussey, or a representative, will be in his office
at the Observatory, 11 to 12 daily, to advise those desiring to elect
courses in Astronomy.

FIRST SEMESTER

I. Descriptive Astronomy. The Solar System. Three hours credit.
Professors Hussey and Curtiss.
A descriptive course, including the fundamental principles of
Astronomy, and a presentation of the leading facts respecting
the sun, moon, planets, and comets. Occasional lantern illns-
trations, with visits to the Observatory.

Se, Geodetic Astronomy. Two hours credit. Professor Curtiss and
Assistant Professor RuFUS.
The elements of General, Spherical, and Geodetic Astronomy,
with practical applications. Theory of the determination of
time, latitude, longitude, and azimuth.

4. Practical Astronomy. Two hours credit. Recitations, and obser-

vational work at the Observatory. Professor Hussey, and Mr.

ROSSITER.

Studies in Spherical Astronomy. Theory of the meridian circle
and equatorial and their use in observational work. Reduc-
tion of observations. Open to those who have had Course 3,
or Se, or an equivalent.

5. Theoretical Astronomy. Three hours credit. Professor Hussey,
The elements of Celestial Mechanics, and theory and practice in

the determination of parabolic and elliptic orbits. This course
presupposes a knowledge of integral calculus.

8. History of Astronomy. Two hours credit. Assistant Professor

RUFUS.

The history of Astronomy from the dawn of the science, treating
especially of its modem development, its relation to the history
of science in general, and its contribution to the progress of
civilization. A knowledge of Descriptive Astronomy is re-
quired.



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Courses of Instruction 179

11. Variable Stars. Two hours credit. Professor CuRTiss.
Lectures at the University and observational studies of selected

stars at the Observatory. A knowledge of Descriptive Astron-
omy is required.

12. Spectroscopic Binaries. Two hours credit. Professor Curtiss.
Theory and practice in the determination of orbits from spectro-
scopic measurements of motion in the line of sight, and from
photometric observations of variations in brightness. Calculus
is required.

14. Advanced Mathematical Astronomy. Studies in continuation of
Course 7 will be arranged for those qualified to take them.
Three hours credit. Professor IIussEY.

18. Solar Physics. Two hours credit. Assistant Professor RuFUS.
A study of the methods and instruments used in modem solar
research. Discussion of results of recent investigations. Lec-
tures and collateral reading. Calculus and General Physics are
required.

21. Advanced Physical Astronomy. Hours and credit to be arranged.
Professor Curtiss and Assistant Professor RuFUS.
Studies in continuation of Courses 9 and 18 will be arranged
for those qualified to take them.

SECOND SEMESTER

2. Descriptive Astronomy. Stars and Nebulae. Three hours credit.

Professors Hussey and Curtiss.
A general descriptive course in Stellar and Nebular Astronomy.
Occasional lantern illustrations. May be taken in continuation
of Course i, or independently, as desired.

2a. Elementary Observational Astronomy. One hour credit. As-
sistant Professor RuFUS.
Constellation studies and telescopic examinations of the heavenly
bodies. Selected problems with the celestial globe and the
equatorial telescope. Observational work at the Observatory.
To be preceded by Course i, or to be taken in connection with
Course 2 or Course 3<?.

3. Spherical and Practical Astronomy. Two hours credit. Assistant

Professor RuFUS.

The elements of Spherical and Geodetic Astronomy, with prac-
tical applications. Theory of the sextant and astronomical
transit, and practice in the determination of time, latitude,
longitude, and azimuth.

This course will be accepted as an equivalent of Course 3^ for
Engineering students.



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i8o College of Literature, Science, and the Arts

$e. Geodetic Astronomy. Two. hours credit. Assistant Professor

RUFUS.

The elements of General, Spherical, and Geodetic Astronomy,
with practical applications. The theory of the determination
of time, latitude, longitude, and azimuth.

4. Practical Astronomy. Two hours credit. Professor HussEV.
Open to those who have had Course 3 or its equivalent See an-
nouncement for first semester.

6. Method of Least Squares. Two hours credit. Assistant Professor

RUFUS.

Theory of the error curve and of the combination of observa-
tional data according to the Method of Least Squares.

7. Advanced Theoretical Astronomy. Three hours credit. Profes-

sor HUSSEY.
Definitive determination of orbits. Theory of Interpolation and
Mechanical Quadrature. Special Perturbations. Open to those
who have had Course 5.

8^. The History of Astronomy in America. Two hours credit. As-
sistant Professor RuFUS.
A study of the progress of the science in the United States, deal-
ing especially with contributions of American astronomers.
For undergraduates who have completed Course 8, and for
graduates.

9. Astrophysics. Two hours credit. Professor Curtiss.

Introductory Course. General treatment of methods and results,
having reference more particularly to stellar spectroscopy.
Practice in the measurement and redaction of spectrographic
plates will form a part of the course. A general knowledge
of Physics, Astronomy, and Calculus is required.

12. Spectroscopic Binaries. Two hours credit. Professor Curtiss.
Continued from the first semester.

14. Advanced Mathematical Astronomy. See announcement for first
semester. Professor Hussey.

21. Advanced Physical Astronomy. See announcement for first

semester. Professor Curtiss, and Assistant Professor Rufus.

22. Navigation. Three hours credit. Professor Curtiss. .

The principles of Pilotage, Dead Reckoning, and Nautical As-
tronomy. Lectures based on Bowditch's American Practical
Navigator, supplemented by practical problems, chart exercises,
and sextant observations.



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Courses of Instruction i8i

SUMMER SESSION OF 1 92 1

Is. Modern Astronomy. The Solar System. Two hours credit. Pro-
fessor HUSSEY.

2s. Modern Astronomy. The Stars and Nebulae. Ttvo hours credit.
Professor Curtiss.

. 3 or 3^. Practical Astronomy. Two hours credit. Assistant Profes-
sor RUFUS.
Research work.

Bacteriology

(See Medical Sciences)

BIOLOGY

Courses i and 2 in General Biology are no longer given as such.
In place of General Biology, students should elect Zoology i and
Botany i or la, which must be taken in successive semesters. These
courses should, if possible, be taken during the student's first year
of residence. For regulations concerning their election, see the
descriptions under the departments of Zoology and Botany, respec-
tively.

First year students should not elect Zoology and Botany at the
same time. To complete a year's work in Biology they should elect
either Zoology or Botany in the first semester, and must then elect
in the second semester the subject not taken in the first. Students
who expect to take Zoology i, Botany i or la, and Organic Chem-
istry ID, all in one year (the second), should elect Zoology in the
first semester and Botany and Organic Chemistry in the second
semester. Students who are not in their first year may elect both
Zoology and Botany in the same semester.

The attention of s.tudents who propose eventually to take up the
study of medicine is called to the announcement of the Combined
Curriculum in letters and Medicine, leading to the degrees of Bach-
elor of Arts and Doctor of Medicine, given on page 146.

BOTANY

(Group II)

The department of Botany occupies the south side of the new
Natural Science building. The easiest approach from the interior of
the Campus is by the easterly one of the two south entrances.

Consultation Hours. — Representatives of the Botanical staff
will be in Room B 209, 10 to 12 daily, throughout registration week,
for consultation with students.

First semester electives: Courses i, la.



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i8^ College of Literature, Science, and the Arts

Second semester elect ives: For those with no college botany,
Courses i, la; for those with one semester of college botany, Coarses
4. 8, 18, 26.

Second year eleciives: Courses 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 13, 14, 16, 18,
2S, 26.

Upper class electives: The courses with higher numbers than
in the three foregoing classes require at least two years of college
botany to precede. Other conditions will be found accompanying
the individual courses.

Advice to Students:

1. Students having done a year's high school work in botany
may be admitted to Course la.

2. Those preparing for teaching in the secondary schools should
take Courses i or la, 3» 4. 6, 7 or 26, 8, 15 and iSa, 16 or 18, 27.
No one can be considered for recommendation for teaching without
Courses i, 7 or 26, and 8.

Considerable demand has arisen for teachers of school gardening.
Those desiring to prepare for such positions should attend the Sum-
mer Session and take a teacher's course in gardening and a course in
agricultural botany.

3. Those preparing for professional forestry are advised to take
Courses I or la, 13, 14, 17, 22, 23, 25, and 26.

4. Those preparing for professional work in plant pathology
should take Courses i or la, 4» 6. 7, 8, 15, 19 and 20, 19^ or 20a,
and some problem in pathological research.

5. Those preparing for college positions should take the courses
enumerated in group 3, 4» ox 5 above, and in addition a problem in
the direction of the specialty chosen.

6. Those desiring to prepare for civil service examinations for
Government service in the U. S. Department of Agriculture should
consult the instructors in botany.

FIRST SEMESTER

I. Elements of Botany. Four hours credit. Two lectures, one quiz,
and six hours laboratory work each week. Assistant Professor
TUPPER, Professors Davis, Pollock, and Bartlett, and Mr.
GusFAFSON, Mr. LaRue, and assistants.
A study will be made of the properties and activities of proto-
plasm, developmental history, evolution of structure and func-
tion, relation to environment, and the classification of forms
into the groups which make up the plant kingdom. The course
will begin with a study of the cell and cell structure of the



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Courses of Instruction 183

higher plants and the relation of this structure to function.
Then a series of plants will be studied from the simplest algae
and fungi to liverworts, mosses, ferns, and seed plants.
This course is a prerequisite for all other laboratory courses in
Botany except la. Course i is repeated and is open for gen-
eral election the second semester. Students planning to take
Botany I, Zoology i, and Organic Chemistry 10, all in one
year, will find a conflict in lecture hours between the Zoology
apd Chemistry, and hence should take the Botany and Chem-
istry in the second semester.

la. Elements of Cryptogamic Botany. Lectures, laboratory, and quiz.
Four hours credit. Professor Kauffman.
This course is taken in place of Botany i by those who have
had a year of standard high school botany or its equivalent.

ip. Elementary Structural Botany. Two hours credit. Lectures
and laboratory work. Assistant Professor Ehlers.
This course is primarily for pharmacy students ; literary students
will be admitted by special permission only.

3. Microbiology of Soil, Air, Water, and Food. Two hours credit.

Professor Pollock.
A study of some of the more common organisms in our imme-
• diate environment, their identification and their relation to

human welfare and industrial processes, organisms concerned

in soil fertility, the fermentation industries, good preparation

and preservation.
The course must be preceded by Botany i or la,

3fl. Microbiology. Advanced Course. Two or more hours credit.
Professor Pollock..

7. Plant Physiology. Four hours credit. Professor Newcombe.

This course is a study of the culture, nutrition, growth, repro-
duction, and behavior of plants.

This course and Course 8 in the second semester are planned
as a year's work for seconci year students; and these two
courses, with the first year's work, are intended to give a
general survey of the science of general botany. These two
courses are required to precede, except as specifically stated,
all third and fourth yeaY courses. Either Course 7 or Course
26 fulfills the requirements in plant physiology.

^a, Experimental Physiology. Advanced Course. Three or more
hours credit. Professor Newcombe.



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i84 College of Literature, Science, and the Arts

[9. Cell Structure, Tissue Differentiation, and Methods of Botanical
Microtechnique. Four hours credit. Professor Davis.
Prerequisite: Botany i or la; Courses 7 and 8 recommended to

precede.
This course considers the structure and activities of the plant
cell, and the principles of tissue development and differentia-
tion. A feature of the laboratory work is practice in methods
of fixing, staining, and sectioning of plant tissue. Offered in
alternate years; omitted in 1920-1921.]

13. Forest Botany. Four hours credit. Lectures, field and laboratory
work. Field and laboratory work, eight hours a week. As-
sistant Professor Ehlers.

This course must be preceded by Course I or la.

The work of this course will consist of the study of the external
morphology, the identification and classification, and the biology
of the trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants of the forest so-
cieties. By the requirement of field notes, and laboratory notes
and drawings, students will have practice \t\ the methods of
descriptive botany and dendrology.

15. Genetics. Three hours credit. Professors Shui.l and Bartlett.

This course gives a comprehensive view of the subjects of heredity
and variation. The student is given an opportunity to become
familiar with the genetical investigations in progress in both
the departments of 2^61ogy and Botany, as for example, sex
determination in rotifers and insects, complicated Mendelian
phenomena in Drcsophila, mutation and hybridization phe-
nomena in Oenothera, and practical plant breeding projects.

Open to graduates and to qualified undergraduates. Students in
sociology and prospective medical students who have had some
training in biology will find that this course affords a basis
for the understanding of human heredity.

Courses 15 and 15a form a continuous year's work. Those who
elect Course 15 should, if possible, elect Course iSa in the
second semester.

17. Forest Mycology and Pathology. Four hours credit. Professor
Kauffman.
This course is primarily for "students intending to study forestry.
Special attention will be paid to those fungi pausing diseases
of trees and decay of wood.

19. Advanced Mycology and Pathology. Conferences, readings, field
and laboratory work. Three, five, or eight hours credit. Pro-
fessor Kauffman.
This course deals with the special morphology, identification,
and classification of fungi, and the study of their literature.
It is necessary as a basis for research in fungi. It will be



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Courses of Instruction 185

especially useful for students who wish to prepare for posi-
tions in Experiment Stations or in the U. S. Government work.
It must be preceded by Course 6 or its equivalent, and should
be followed by Courses 20, 49, and 50.

iga. Seminary in Mycology. Otte hour credit. Professor Kauffman.
Admission by permission of .the instructor.

23. Agrostology. Two hours credit. Laboratory, field, and her-
barium work, with conferences. Assistant Professor Ehi.ers.
A course in the study and identification of grasses and sedges,
especially adapted to meet the needs of those preparing for
the Government surveys of forests and grazing lands.

[25. Phytogpography of North America. Lectures and assigned read-
ing. Two hours credit. Professor Bartlett.
This course deals with the historical and environmental factors
determining the geographical distribution of plants. Each stu-
dent is required to write a thesis upon an assigned topic, gen-
erally a correlation between the native flora and the agricul-
ture of one of the phytogeographic regions. The introductory
lectures take up the history of botanical exploration in North
America. To be preceded by Botany 4, 13, or 104. Given in
alternate years. Omitted in 1920-1921.]

27. Plant Cytology. Four hours credit. Professor Davis.

Prerequisites: Botany 7, 8, 9, and 15.

This course, together with Course 30, treats of the organization
and behavior of protoplasm at critical periods in the life his-
tories of plants. The work of the first semester includes a
study of chromosome reduction and segregation in the process
of pollen formation and in the development of the embryo sac.
Offered in alternate years.

29. Botanical Reading in French. Otte hour credit. Professor Lee.

33. Current Literature of Botany. One hour credit. Professor New-
combe.
Course 33 constitutes a Journal Club in which important papers
on Botany are reviewed and discussed by the instructors and
advanced students. All students are admitted to the meetings,
but only advanced students may elect the course.

39. Investigation in the Classification and Distribution of Special
Groups of Flowering Plants. This work may be elected for
three or more hours credit. Assistant Professor Ehlers.

41. Investigations in Physiology. This work may be elected as 41a,
three hours credit; 41b, fivi hours; 41c, eight hours; 4id, ten
hours. Professor Newcombe,



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1 86 College of Literature, Science, and the Arts



43. Investigations in the Role of Fungi in Soil Biology. This work
may be elected as 43^, three hours credit; 43^, five hours;
43c fight hours; 43^/, ten hours. Professor Pollock.

45. Investigations in the Bacterial Diseases of Plants. This work
may be elected as 45<i, three hours credit; 45^, five hours; 45r,
eight hours; 45^, ten hours. Professor Pollock.

47. Investigations in Cytology and Genetics. This work may be
elected as 47<i, three hours credit; 47b, five hours; 47c, eight
hours; 4yd, ten hours. Professor Davis.

49. InvestigPtions in Mycology and Pathology. This work may be
elected as 49a, three hours credit; 4<)b,' five hours; 49^, eight
hours; 4gd, ten hours. Professor Kauffman.

51. Investigations in the Physiology of Reproduction in Algw,
Mosses, or Ferns. This work may be elected as 5 la, three
hours credit; Sib, five hours. Sic, eight hours; S^d, ten hours.
Professor Kauffman.

53. Investigations in Genetics and Biochemistry of Plants. This
work may be elected as 53^, three hours credit; SSb; five hours;
SS^f fight hours; 531/, ten hours. Professor Bartlett.

SECOND SEMESTER

I. Elements of Botany. Four hours credit. Two lectures, one quiz,
and six hours laboratory work a week.
This is a repetition of Course i, first semester. See the announce-
ment of that course for details.
Lectures for all sections. Professor Pollock.

2p. The Microscopy of Foods, Drugs, and Spices. Three hours credit.
Assistant Professor Glover and assistants.

2^''tf. Advanced Microscopy of Foods, Drugs, and Spices. Two or
four hours credit. Assistant Professor Glover and assistants.
This course is intended for those fitting themselves to be food
or drug analysts.

4. Systematic Botany. Two hours credit. Laboratory and field



Online LibraryUniversity of MichiganCatalogue of the University of Michigan → online text (page 16 of 75)