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ucts and their relation to our industries; forest influences on
climate and water supply; methods by which the forester
handles timber properties.

The. treatment of the subject in general and from the standpoint
of public economy. Open to all students.

23. Forestry for Engineers. Two hours credit. Professor Young.

Identification of commercial woods. Characteristics of our native
woods and their suitability for construction. Methods of sea-
soning and storing timber. Wood preservation. Grading rules
and specifications used in buying and selling timber. Economic
importance of forests. Methods of planting for watershed pro-
tection, for snowbreaks and windbreaks.

This course has no prerequisites and is open to all students.



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25^ College of Literature, Science, and the Arts



SECOND SEMESTER

2. Introduction to Forestry. Two hours credit. Lectures. Pro-
fessor Roth.
Continuation of Course I.
Prerequisite: Botany i.

4. Timber. Two hours credii. One lecture and one laboratory

period. Assistant Professor Watson.
Structure and identification of woods used for timber. Study of

mechanical properties (strength and resistance) by actual tests.

Methods of seasoning and preservative treatment of woods.
Prerequisites : Physics I, Botany 13 and 14.

6. Dendrology. Two hours credit. Lectures and laboratory. As-
sistant Professor Watson.
Study of the more important species of forest trees ; development
and growth of the individual tree; requirements as to soil,
climate, and light; resistance to the ordinary injuries (insects,
fungi, storm, drought, etc.) ; value and use of the wood ; usual
occurrence in the wild woods, and the share of any species in
the formation of types in the several forest regions of our
country. Classification and identification of tree species.

8. Forest Mensuration. Continuation of Course 7. Four hours
credit. Two lectures and two field periods. Assistant Pro-
fessor Craig.
Prerequisite: Forestry 7.

10. Silviculture. Four hours credit. Three lectures and one field
period. Professor Young.

Study of artificial reproduction of the forest. Methods of sowing
and planting forest. Nursery practice; the collection, extrac-
tion, cleaning, testing, and storage of tree seeds; the growing
of bare lands.

All of the op>erations of nursery and planting work are per-
formed by the student in the course.

I2a-c. Special or Advanced Work in Forestry. This coarse may be
elected only by special permission of the professor in charge.
Two, three, or four hours credit.

This course is elected as:

I2a. Management. Professor Roth.

12b, Silviculture and Timber. Professor Young.

I2c. Protection and Utilization. Assistant Professors Craig and
Watson.



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Courses of Instruction 253

14. Forest Utilization. Continuation of Course 13. Three hours
credit. Assistant Professor LovEjOY.
Prerequisite: Forestry 13,

16. Forest Management. Four hours credit. Professor RoTii.

Forest valuation; appraisal of land and timber; relation of cap-
ital and income; per cents made in forestry; income value of
soil as a measure of value for land and for forest operations
(forest statics) ; bases of forest taxation, insurance, and for
comparisons in the right use of land; forest history and poli-
cies abroad and in the United States ; forest legislation, national
and state, with special reference to the organization of For-
estry Commissions and other administrative bodies, and the
definition of their authority and work. Especially designed for
those interested in proper development of state work in forestry.

Prerequisite: Forestry 15.

18. National Forest Administration. Two hours credit. Lectures.
Assistant Professor Watson.
History of the public land policy of the United States. Public
land laws and their administration. Land classification. Devel-
opment of the National Forest policy. Organization and work
of the United States Forest Service. Detail of National Forest
Administration.

23. Conservation with Special Reference to the Forest Resources of

the United States. One hour credit. Assistant Professor

Watson.
(See Course 21 in first semester for description of course.)
The treatment of the subject is general and from the standpoint

of public economy. Open to all students.

24. (Seneral Forestry. Two hours credit. Professor Young.

The forester's work and problems he has to solve. Economic
importance of forestry. History of forestry in the United
States and abroad. Our timber resources and their distribu-
tion. Factors affecting tree-growth. Influences of forest upon
climate, stream-flow, and erosion. How the forest is reproduced
and cared for. Forestry literature.

Non-technical treatment of the subject.

Open to all students. No prerequisites.

24^1. Identification of Trees and Commercial Woods. Two hours
credit. Professor Young.
This course may be taken as a separate course or as supple-
mentary to Course 24 by students who desire field and labora-
tory work in the identification of wood and of our common
trees. Open to all students.



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254 College of Literature, Science, and the Arts

FRENCH

(See Romance Languages and Literatures)

FRESHMAN COURSE

Talks to Freshmen

The required course entitled Talks to Freshmen, which was given
during the year 1919-1920, was withdrawn for the year igao-iQai.
In its place President Burton gave a series of addresses to Freshmen
each semester. No credit towards gradaation was given for attend-
ance upon these addresses.

GENERAL LINGUISTICS AND COMPARATIVE PHILOLOGY

(Group I)

The ccurses announced below are designed for students of both
ancient and modern languages. They aim to familiarize the students
with the general principles and methods of the Science of Langoage
and to present the most important facts in the life and growth of
language. Attention is called to the various courses in Psychology.

FIRST SEMESTER

5/. Principles of Linguistic Science. Two hours credit Professor
Meader.
This course aims to give a broad general foundation, such as will
enable the student or teacher to judge intelligently of the nature
of specific phenomena. Among the questions treated will be:
the relation of psychology to linguistic science; the nature of
language; speech sounds and their changes; changes in the
meanings of words; discussion of grammatical categories
(noun, verb, mood, etc.) ; classifications of languages, the
genesis of speech. Lectures and recitations.

7. Special Problems in Comparative Philology. One hour credit.
Professor Meader.

[9. Practical Phonetics. Two hours credit. Professor Meader.
The object of this course is to familiarize the student with the
anatomy and physiology of the speech organs and the manner
of production of speech sounds. It is designed both for stu-
dents who desire to acquire a basis for attaining an mccarate
pronunciation of foreign languages and for prospective teachers
who wish to learn the best methods of teaching difficult foreign
sounds. Omitted in 19 19- 1920.]



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Courses of Instruction 255

[34. The Psychology of Language. Two )iours credit. Lectures and
discussions. Professors Pillsbury and Meader.

Among the subjects treated are: the laws of thought and lan-
guage ; the history of linguistic theory ; language as a form of
expression; the genesis of speech; and the psychology of
syntax.

Professor Scott will give four lectures on the genesis of speech.

Omitted in 1920-192 1.]

SECOND SEMESTER

2. Etymology and Semantics. Primarily for graduates. Credit to
be arranged. Professor Meader.
A general introduction to comparative Indo-European philology.
Study of the chief characteristics of the Indo-European lan-
guages, their relationships and classifications, accent and vowel
graduation, comparative syntax.

42. General Course in Experimental Phonetics. Lectures and labora-
tory work. One, two or three hours credit. Professors Meader
and Shepard.
This course, which is designed for students of psychology, lan-
guage, oratory, and music, will deal with the anatomy and
physiology of the human voice, the production of speech sounds,
'description and classification of sounds, mechanical methods of
recording speech sounds, study of speech records. As the num-
ber of students admitted to this course will be limited, those
desiring to elect it are advised to apply early to one of the
instinctors in charge.

SUKMER SESSION OF I92I

5 A J. Principles of the Science of Language and Comparative Phil-
ology. Two hours credit. Professor Meader.

GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY

(Group II)

The courses in Geology and Geography are planned to meet the
requirements of (a) those desiring a general knowledge of Geology
as part of a liberai education (Courses 25a and 25*, and, if prac-
ticable, la and i^) ; (b) those planning to specialize in political eco-
nomics, political science, or history (Courses 2Sa, 2$b, 31, 32, and
33) ; (c) students of engineering whose profession makes some
knowledge of geology essential (Course i^ and, if possible, Courses
15, i6a, and ibb) ; (d) teachers of earth science in secondary schools
(Courses 25a and 25^, la, lb, 3» and 12 ; while 6, 13, 15, 31, and 33
are recommended) ; (e) students of forestry (Courses la and 15E,
and, if possible, 26) ; and (f) professional geologists.



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256 College of Literature, Science, and the Arts

Inasmuch as the different departments of geological study call for
widely different prerequisite courses, the student intending to make
a career in geology is urged to consult with the department on taking
up his work at the University. An outline of courses which are
strongly recommended will be laid before him, and, if followed, will
greatly facilitate his advancement in the work.

Courses 2Sa and 25^ are the only courses open to freshmen. A
student who is planning extended work will find it most advantageous
to take these courses in the freshman year and la and i^ in the
sophomore year, so that at the beginning of the junior year studies
can be continued under the advice of the department along one or
several of the following lines: dynamical and structural geology,
stratigraphical geology and paleontology, physiography, geography,
glacial geology, or economic geology.

Research is especially encouraged along each of the lines above
enumerated, and students are encouraged to go on to graduate work
as candidates' for the higher degrees. One or more advanced students
may generally make arrangements for summer field work in connec-
tion with collecting trips in paleontology.

Geology students who intend to become professional geologists
and who look forward to teaching positions or to places in State or
Federal Geological Surveys are urged early in their course to elect
physics, chemistry, mineralogy, and, if possible. Courses I3 and 13
in Surveying. Inasmuch as the surveying courses are given in the
College of Engineering, the permission of the Dean of the College of
Literature, Science, and the Arts is necessary in order to elect them.
Students who intend to specialize in paleontology are required to
have some knowledge of elementary biology.

In general. Courses la and lb, or their equivalent, are considered
prerequisites to more advanced courses in geology; and special per-
mission of the instructor must be obtained for admission to advanced
courses where the prerequisites have not been fully met. Students
primarily interested in the biological phases of geology may enter
Course lb on satisfying the instructor of their ability to carry the
work.

Geography. — For students specializing in geography. Courses 2Sa
and 2Sb are fundamental. The courses in geography are grouped on
pages 359 to 263. In addition to the strictly geographic courses, stu-
dents in geography should elect from the geology group Courses 3,
12, and 15. Additional courses in geology strongly recommended are
la, lb, i6a, i6b, 15F, 21, and 22. The student of geography should
elect in Forestry Courses 21 and I or 24. A thorough grounding in
the principles of economics and sociology is essential, and Economics
31 and $S are suggested in addition.

Summer Field Courses. — The department offers a summer field
course in geology and another in geography, both in the southern
Appalachian region of Kentucky and Tennessee, and adjacent areas.
The courses are given during the first six weeks of the regular suro-



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Courses of Instruction 257

mer session. These courses provide a type of systematic training that
is not duplicated by the work of the regular school year. All stu-
dents planning to become geologists or geographers are expected to
take this work. A descriptive circular may be secured from the
Director, Professor C. O. Sauer.

Consultation Hours. — ^Throughout registration week, Septem-
ber 20 to a4. Professor Hobbs will be in Room G 223, N. S.,
10 to 12 daily, to advise students desiring to elect courses in Geology.



nRST SEMESTER

Geology

aStf. Physiography. Four hours credit. Lectures, recitations, and
field trips. Professor Scott, Mr. Davis, and Assistants.

An introductory course in the study and application of land
forms, and a general treatment of weather and climate.

This course is open to first year students, and together with 25 5
is intended to lay the foundation for later work in geography
and to furnish a broader outlook in courses in history, political
science, and political economy.

Juniors and seniors may elect this course as Course 2^d, and will
receive three hours credit,

itf. Physical Geology. Three hours credit* Lectures and recitations.
Professor Hobbs, and Mr. Gould.
A course in dynamical and structural geology intended to pre-
pare the student for the equally important subject of historical
geology (i^)> as well as to supply the need for cultural treat-
ment of the subject, A special object of the course is to train
the student in the geological interpretation of scenery. Required
of students in civil engineering, and elective for others, but
not open to freshmen except by special permission. Geology
ic, while required of engineering students only, is strongly
recommended in connection with this course.

ir. Geological Laboratory. To be elected in connection with \a,
(See above.) One hour credit, Mr. HussEY, and Assistants.

3. Physiography. Three hours credit. Professor Scott, and As-
sistant.
An advanced course in which the various land forms, their man-
ner of formation, and the underlying principles will be dis-
cussed. The course will consist of lectures, laboratory and
Held work, and reports on readings of the more important
physiographic monographs. It is strongly advised that Course
2$a or \a be taken as a prerequisite.



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2SS College of Literature, Science, and the Arts

4a. Systematic Invertebrate Paleontology. T/ir^e hours credit. Mr.
Ehlf.rs.
A course extending through the year, describing the origin and
development of invertebrate animals. The principles of evolu-
tion and distribution as illustrated by the invertebrates are
carefully worked out; the fossils are also treated as an aid in
the study of stratigraphic geology. Work in invertebrate pale-
ontology can be continued by special arrangement. Given in
1920-1921 and alternate years.

[5. The Origin, Structure, and Growth of Mountains. Four hours
credit. Professor Hobbs.
A course for advanced students, and treating the conditions which
give rise to mountains, the seismic phenomena connected with
their growth, the mechanics of folding and the types of flexures
in mountain ranges. Given in 192 1- 1922 and alternate years.]

7. Characteristics of Existing Glaciers. Four hours credit. Pro-

fessor Hobbs.

A course of lectures and reading assignments upon the existing
glaciers, with special emphasis upon their morphology, the
conditions of their nourishment and waste, and their reactions
with the lithosphere. Special attention is given to the conti-
nental glaciers of high latitudes and their relations to the
former ice-sheets which are treated in Courses 20 and 21.

Given in 1920-1921.

8. Current Literature of Geology. Taken for credit by advanced

students only, but open to others as visitors. One hour credit.
Professors Hobbs, Case, Scott. Cook, and Sauer, and Mr.
Leverett, Mr. Ehlers, Mr. McMurrav, and Mr. Davis.
Graduates and other advanced students of the department meet
one hour each week for reports and discussions of the recent
literature of geology.

ga. Systematic Vertebrate Paleontology. Three hours credit. With
laboratory work and reading. Professor Case.
A course extending through the year, describing the origin and
development of vertebrate animals. The principles of evolution
and distribution as illustrated by the vertebrates are carefully
worked out; the fossils are also treated as an aid in the study
of stratigraphic geology.

I Ij. Interpretation of Geologic Maps. Three hours credit. Given in
IQ20-1921 and alternate years. This course to be followed by
11^. Professor Cook.
A course designed to give the student practice in the interpreta-
tion of geologic maps together with a detailed knowledge of
the structural geology of typical regions in the United States.



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Courses of Instruction 259

'3- Organic Evolution. Three hours credit. Professor Case.

A lecture course describing the origin of man and the domestic
animals. Especial attention is paid in this course to the early
history of mankind and the stages of culture through which
he has passed in attaining civilization.

1 6tf. Economic Geology (non-metals). Three hours credit. Professor
Cook.
A general course treating of the nature, occurrence, and distri-
bution of the non-metallic mineral resources, such as coal, oil
and gas, salt, gypsum, building stones, phosphate rock, etc.

[17. Metamorphism. Three hours credit. Given in 1920-1931 and
alternate years. Professor Cook.

A study of geology from the physico-chemical standpoint. This
course is essential to an understanding of the origin and char-
acter of ore deposits.

Prerequisites are Geology la and Mineralogy 2, or their equiva-
lents, and a course in physical chemistry is strongly recom-
mended.]

a6. Soil Geology. Laboratory work. One to three hours credit. Pro-
fessor Cook.
This course must be preceded or accompanied by Course 15F.

27. Oil Geology. Three hours credit. Professor Cook.

A course treating of the origin, occurrence, and exploitation of
deposits of oil and gas. This course should be preceded by
Courses la and ih, and should be followed by Courses 6
and 2S.

Geography

31. Geography of Commercial Products. Three hours credit. Lec-

tures and recitations. Professor Saukr, and Mr. McMurry.
Geographic elements in the production of the principal commodi-
ties of world commerce. The great staples of world trade are
studied with reference to the principal places of production.
Foodstuffs, textile materials, forest products, and the minerals
of industry are the principal groups considered. Special atten-
tion is given to the factors localizing great manufacturing dis-
tricts.

32. Geographic Influences in American History. Three hours credit.

Professor Sauer.
The place of geographic factors in the history of our country,

and a comparison of their values with non-geographic factors.
,. Explorations by the Spanish, French, and English in the New

World are considered in terms of geographic incentives. The

major theme is the process of settlement of the country through



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26o College of Literature, Science, and the Arts

the discovery and appropriation of localities of superior geo-
graphic attraction. For students of history and others.
Prerequisite: Geology 2$b, It is desirable that History 13 or
14 precede it.

37- Geography of South America. Three hours credit, Mr. Mc-
MURRY. A M

A study of agricultural, mining, and manufacturing development,
and the distribution of population under the widely differing
conditions of environment in the South American countries.
Future uses of the great undeveloped agricultural, mineral,
and forest resources, and the possibilities of trade with the
United States in these products, as well as the development of
South American markets for American manufactured goods,
are considered. ITie development of transportation facilities,
as affecting industries, location, and relative importance of
seaports, ocean trade routes, and the importance of the Panama
Canal are taken up. Argentina, Chila, and Brazil are specially
considered, with emphasis on commercial relations with the
United States.
Prerequisites: Economics i or Geology 31.

39. Geography of Michigan, Two hours credit. Professor Sauer.
This course is intended to familiarize the student with the regional
economic conditions and problems of the state. The bases of
the recent industrial transformation of southern Michigan, the
economic situation and outlook for Michigan farming, the
impending extinction of the lumber industry and the decadence
of the lumber centers, and the significance of mining are con-
sidered. Especial emphasis is placed on the problem of idle-
ness of half of the land area of the state. Transportation
facilities and problems of both peninsulas are studied. The
principal cities are examined as sites for commerce and in-
dustry.
Prerequisites: Two courses in Geography.

SECOND semester

6eolog7

ij. Physical Geology. Three hours credit. Lectures and quiz. Pro-
fessor HoBBS, and Mr. Gould.
A course in dynamical and structural geology intended to pre-
pare the student for the equally important subjects of histori-
cal geology (i^), as well as to supply the need for cultural
treatment of the subject. A special object of the course is to
train the student in the geological interpretation of scenery.
Requited of students in civil engineering, and elective for
others, but not open to freshmen except by special permission.



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Courses of Instruction 261

Geology \c, while not required, is strongly recommended in con-
nection with this course.

ic. Geological Laboratory. May be elected in connection with la and
.1^. (See. above.)

i^. Historical Geology. Three hours credit. A few excursions may
be taken. Professor Case, and Assistant.
An introductory course in historical and strati graphical geology
designed to follow Geology la so as to give the student a com-
plete view of the elements of the subject. This course gives an
outline history of the development of the North American con-
tinent and its relation to other continents; the distribution of
the various rocks upon the surface, with something of their
■ relation to economic products and geographical features; the
origin and development of plants and animals in geological
time.

4b. Systematic Invertebrate Paleontology. Three hours credit. With
laboratory work. Mr. Ehlers.
This course is a continuation of Course 4/1 given in the first
semester.

6. Field Geology. Three hours credit. Professor Scott.

In this course the methods of geological field work will be dis-
cussed and practice given in the use of the more important
instruments necessary for the prosecution of such work. The
major portion of the work will be in the field in the vicinity
of Ann Arbor.

9^. Systematic Vertebrate Paleontology. Three hours credit. With
laboratory work and reading. Professor Case.
This course is a continuation of Course f^a, given in the first
semester.

[10. History of Geology. Three hours credit. Given in 1921-1922
and alternate years. Professor Hobbs.
An advanced course treating of the development of the science
of Geology and of the lives and teachings of its founders.]

11^. Stratigraphical Geology of North America. Three hours credit.
Given in 1920- 1921 and alternate years. Professor Case.
An account of the development of the continent as recorded in
the deposits, the favnal changes, and the diastrophic movements.
The subject will be treated in a broad way, all matter bearing
on the history of the continent being so far as practicable
introduced and the student directed to the sources of informa-
tion.



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262 College of Literature, Science, and the Arts

12. Elementary Meteorology. Two hours credit. Professor Scott.
This course is designed to follow Course 3 in physiography, and
is an elementary treatment of the dynamics of the atmosphere.
In it will be discussed the properties and movements of the
atmosphere, weather and its variations, together with some



Online LibraryUniversity of MichiganCatalogue of the University of Michigan → online text (page 23 of 75)