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account of weather predictions.

35. Evolution of the Earth's Facial Expression. Four hours credit.
Professor HoBBS.
An advanced course treating of the problems of evolution of
continents and mountains, as well as those connected with vol-
canic action, and especially the origin of lava, the cause of
its rise to the surface, and the mechanism of eruption. Inci-
dentally, the nature of the earth's interior and the theories of
origin of the earth will be gone into. It is believed that this
course will prove of value to students of astronomy and petro-
graphy.

1 5 F. Soil Geology. Three hours credit. Professor Cook, and As-
sistant.

A comprehensive survey of the subject, including the origin ol
soils, their physical and chemical constitution, the influence ot
climate on soil fertility, irrigation and drainage, tillage, fertil-
izers, etc., and a consideration of the regolith of the United
States in relation to geologic, physiographic, and climatic
factors.

Geology la and Mineralogy i and 9 are prerequisites.

The attention of students desiring additional laboratory work
is directed to Course 26.

16^. Economic Geology (metals). Three hours credit. Professor
Cook.
In this course the metallic mineral resources are treated in the
same manner as are the non-metallic resources during the first
semester. Although this course may be elected independently
of Geology i6a, both are essential to a general survey of the
subject.

19. Ore Deposits. Three hours credit. Given in 1920-192 1 and alter-

nate years. Professor Cook.
A detailed study of the character, origin, and exploitation of the

iron, lead, zinc, copper, silver, and gold ores.
This course should be preceded by Geology ib and 17. Geology

16^ is also recommended.

20. Pleistocene Glaciation of North America and Europe. One hour

credit, Mr. Leverett.
A course of twelve lectures dealing with pleistocene glacial his-
tory. (See Course 21.)



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Courses of Instruction 263

31. Glacial Field Studies. One hour credit. Mr. Leverett.

Weekly field excursions to study the glacial formations accessible
from Ann Arbor. Supplementary to Course ao.

22. Research and Special Work. Professors Hobbs, Case, Scott,
Cook, and Sauer, and Mr. Leverett.

26. Soil Geology. Laboratory work. One to three hours credit.
Professor Cook.
This course must be preceded or accompanied by Course 15F.

28. The Stratigraphy of Oil Geology. Three hours credit, Mr.
Ehi^rs.
A course describing the distribution and stratigraphic relations
of the various oil horizons. This course should follow Course 27.

Geograpliy

25^. Principles of Geography. Four hours credit. Lectures and reci-
tations. Required excursions will be given after Easter. Pro-
fessor Sauer, Mr. McMurry, Mr. Davis, and Assistants.

Influence of environment on the conditions of life, with special
reference to man. Location, area, types of climate, land forms
and soil, relations between land and sea, and mineral resources
are considered in their effects upon social and economic con-
ditions and upon the distribution of races and population. Type
illustrations are selected from many regions and afford drill
in geographic location.

Prerequisite : Course 25a or its equivalent.

Juniors and seniors may elect this course at 2$c and will receive
three hours credit,

2$e. Geography for Teachers. Three hours credit. With the class in
Course 25^. Additional work: (i) Preparation of reports on
the condition and needs of earth science teaching; (2) discus-
sion of teaching problems one evening a week. Professor
Sauer, and Mr. Davis.
Especial emphasis will be placed on the relation of geography to
general science in the high school. The time of the special
weekly meeting is to be arranged.

31. Geography of Commercial Products. Three hours credit. Mr.
McMurry.

33. Geography of North America. Three hours credit. Professor
Sauer.
First course in regional geography. A systematic study of the
United States, Canada, Alaska, Mexico, and the West Indies,



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264 College of Literature, Science, and the Arts

with special reference to industrial and commercial conditions
and oiJportunities and to the distribution of population.
Prerequisite: Geology 31 or 2Sb,

34. Field Course in Regional Geography. Credit to be arranged, and

will depend upon the amount of field work and the nature of
the paper. Professor Sauer.

The work will consist of (a) an individual and intensive field
study of geographic conditions in a selected region, and (b)
of a systematic paper on the geography of the region. Detailed
mapping and census taking will be required to illustrate type
conditions.

Prerequisites: Geology 3, 15, and ^^.

2!^. Routes and Centers of World Trade. Three hours credit. Pro-
fessor Sauer, and Mr. McMurry.

The course is intended to follow and supplement Course 31. It
deals with (a) the general character of sea-borne traffic, (b)
the location, significance and nature of traffic of the great
ocean routes, (c) the land routes, rail, river, and lake, which
contribute in a major way to world commerce, (d) seaports
that serve as gateways to continents, (e) fuel stations, with
reference to supplies of coal and oil, and (f) interior centers
of commerce. The commercial rivalry of the leading nations
Is considered in the terms of position, resources, and stage of
development.

Course 31 is a prerequisite.

SUKMER SESSION OF I92I

a I. Teachers* Course in Physiography. Two hours credit. Professor
Scott, and Assistant.

12. Elementary Meteorology. Two hours credit. Professor Scott,
and Assistant.

23. Geographic Influences. Two hours credit. Mr. McMurry.

3 itf. Commercial Geography. Two hours credit, Mr. McMuRRV, and
Assistant.

For Graduates

22. Research and Special Work. Credit to be arranged, ' Professor
Scott, and Mr. McMurry.

Field Courses in Kentucky and Tennessee

35. Kiel'! C ourse in Geology. Eight hours credit. Mr. Elli.ERS, and

Mr. IIussEY.

36. Field Course in Geography. Eight hours credit. Professor

Sauer.



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Courses of Instruction 265

GERMANIC LANGUAGES AND LITERATURES

(Group I)

Geiman

• Students especially interested in language study are advised to
elect two foreign languages in the freshman year. Two new lan-
guages, however, should not be begun at the same time. See page 155.

Courses I, 2, 3, and 4, or their equivalent, must precede all other
courses in German. The work in these courses is laid cut on the
basis of an entire academic year, and it is expected that the student
will not change instructor or section at the end of the first semester
without consulting the head of the department. Students intending
to begin the study of German in the University are strongly advised
to do so in their first year.

The prerequisites for Courses 5-10 are specifically designated
under the (bourses described.

All courses beyond 10 are advanced undergraduates and graduate
courses, and should be elected only after consultation with the
instructors.

Students who have had one year of German in the high school
and wish to pursue the study in the University should elect Course 2.

Students who have had two years of German in the high school
should elect Course 3 or 3^.

Students whp have had three or four years in the high school
should elect Course 5.

Students intending to prepare themselves to teach German are
strongly advised to elect Courses 5 and 6 and Courses 9, 10, 13, 14,
17, and 18. All such students are urged to consult Professor Wink-
ler (Room 303, U. H.) as soon as possible for the more careful
adjustment of their work in German.

Attention is called to the special reading courses in German in
the departments of Botany, Course 36; Chemistry 20; Physics 37;
and Zoology 29.

Throughout registration week, September 20 to 24, Professor
Winkler will be in Room 203, U. H., to advise students in regard
to elections in German.

FIRST SEMESTER

Introductory Courses.

I. Elementary Course. Pronunciation, grammar, easy readings, with
practice in speaking and writing German. Four hours credit.
Four sections. Professors Winkler, Diekhoff, and Hildner,
and Dr. Wahr.
No credit toward graduation is counted for this course until
Course 2 is satisfactorily completed.



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266 College of Literature, Science, and the Arts

3. Modem Prose, narrative and dramatic, with practice in speaking

and writing German. Reviews in German grammar. Four
hours credit. Four sections. Professors Diekhoff, and Hild-
NER, and Dr. Wahr.

$e. Scientific German. Four hours credit. Professor Winkler.
This course is designed especially for students who intend to

enter the Medical School.
Prerequisite: Two years of German in high school or one year
of German (Courses I and 2) in the University.

4. Selected Dramas from Lessing, Goethe, or Schiller. Reviews in

German grammar and practice in reading and writing Ger-
man. Four hours credit. Dr. Wahr.

Third-year Electives,

5. Schiller's Wallcnstein, with Collateral Readings and Exercises in

German Grammar and Composition. Four hours credit. Pro-
fessor DiEKHOFF.
Prerequisites: Courses 3 and 4, or their equivalent.

9. German Composition. Two hours credit. Professor Diekhoff.
Prerequisites: Courses 3 and 4, or their equivalent.

9^. German Conversation. Two hours credit. Two sections. Pro-
fessor HiLDNER.

9r. German Prose. Readings from representative modern German
writers. Advanced coarse. Two hours credit. Professor
Winkler.

Advanced Courses.

II. Teachers' Course. Practical work, and discussions on grammar,
composition, and the reading material now used in the high
schools. Intended primarily for seniors. Two hours credit.
Professor HiLDNER.

13. German Grammar. Lectures on Phonology, Word Formation,
and Inflection. Advanced course intended for undergraduates
aaJ graduates, particularly for prospective teachers of German.
Professor Diekhoff.

15. Goethe's Faust. Part I. Lectures and recitations. Thomas' edi-
tion. Advanced course open to undergraduates and graduates.
Tivo hours credit. Professor Winkler.

17. History of German Literature. From the earliest times to the
end of the Middle Ages. Lectures, selected readings, and re-
ports. Thomas* Anthology of German Literature. Advanced
course open to undergraduates and graduates. Two hours
credit. Professor WiNKLER.



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Courses of Instruction 267

19. The Beginnings of the Romantic Movement in Germany in its
relation to German Classicism and to the social, political, and
philosophical thought of the times. Advanced coarse open to
undergraduates and graduates. Two hours credit. Professor

WiNKIER.

19a. History of German Literature from 1848-1870. Lectures, dis-
cussions, and reports. Advanced course open to undergraduates
and graduates. Professor Hildner.

[27. Introduction to Middle High German. Lectures and recitations.
PauFs Mittelhochdeutsche Grammaiik, Advanced course open
to undergraduates and graduates. Two hours credit. Profes-
sor DiEKHOFF. Omitted in 1920-1921.]

[29. OKI H;gh German. Lectures and recitations based upon Braune's
Abriss der Althochdeutschen Grammaiik and reading of selec-
tions from Braune's Althochdeutsches Lesebuch, Two hours
credit. Primarily for graduates. Professor Diekhoff. Omit-
ted in 1920-1921.]

[39. Seminary in the German Classics. A comprehensive study of the
lives and works of Goethe, Schiller, or Herder, with investiga-
tions of selected topics. Advanced course open to undergradu-
ates and graduates. Two hours credit. Professor Winkler.
Omitted in 1920-1921.]

[43. The Storm and Stress Movement. A comprehensive study of the
movement, with investigations of selected topics. Advanced
course open to undergraduates and graduates. Credit to be
arranged. Professor Hildner. Omitted in 1920-192 1.]

SECOND semester

1. Elementary Course. Pronunciation, grammar, easy readings, with

practice in speaking and writing German. Four hours credit.
Professor Diekhoff.

2. Elementary Course. Continuation of Course i. Grammar, de-

scriptive prose, short stories, with practice in speaking and
writing German. Four hours credit. Four sections. Profes-
sors Winkler, Diekhoff, and Hildner, and Dr. Wahr.

4. Selected Dramas from Lessing, Goethe, or Schiller. Reviews in
German grammar and practice in reading and writing German.
Continuation of Course 3. Four hours credit. Four sections.
Professors Diekhoff, and Hildner, and Dr. Wahr.

4r. Scientific German. Continuation of Course 3^'. Four hours credit.
Professor Winkler.



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268 College of Literature, Science, and the Arts

Third-year Electives,

5. Schiller's Wallenstein, with Collateral Readings and Exercises in

German Grammar and Composition. Four hours credit. Dr.
Wahr.

6. Goethe's Iphigenie and Lessing's NcUhan der \Vfiise, with. Col-

lateral Readings and Exercises in German Grammar and Com-
position. Continuation of Course 5. Four hours credit. Pro-
fessor DiEKHOFF.

10. German Composition. Continuation of Course 9. Two hours
credit. Professor Diekhoff. •

10^. German Conversation. Continuation, of Course 91^. Tnoo hours
credit. Two sections. Professor Hildner.

lor. German Prose. Readings from representative modern German
writers. Continuation of Course" 9r. Two hours credit: Pro-
fessor Win ki^r.

Advanced Courses.

la. Teachers' Course. Continuation of Course it. Practical work,
and discussions on grammar, composition, and reading material
now irsed in the high schools. Intended primarily for seniors.
Two hours credit. Professor HiLbNER.

14, German Syntax. Continuation of Course 13. T^wo hours credit.
Professor Diekhoff.

16. Goethe's Faust. Part II. Continuation of Course 15. Thomas'
edition. Two hours credit. Professor Winkler.

18. History of German Literature. From Luther to Lessing. Con-
tinuation of Course 17. Lectures, selected readings, and reports.
Thomas' Anthology of German Literature. Two hours credit.
Professor Winkler.

20. History of the Younger Romantic Movement and Das junge
Deutschland. Continuation of Course 19. Advanced course
open to undergraduates and graduates. Two hours credit.
Professor Winkler.

20a. History of German Literature from 1848 to 1870. Continuation
of Course 19^. Lectures, reports, and discussions. Advanced
course open to undergraduates and graduates. Two hours
credit. Professor Hii.dnrr.

[28. Middle High German. Selected readings from the most im-
portant works of this period. Continuation of Course 27. Two
hours credit. Professor Diekhoff. Omitted in 1920-1921.]



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Courses of Instruction 269

[30. Old High German. Readings from Otfrid*s Evangelienhuch,
and lectures on Old High German Literature. Primarily for
graduates. Continuation of Course 28. Two hours credit.
Professor Diekhoff. Omitted in 1920-1921.]

[40. Seminary in the German Classics. A comprehensive study of
the lives and works of Goethe, Schiller, or Herder, with inves-
tigations of selected topics. Continuation of Course 39. Two
hours credit. Professor Winkler. Omitted in 1920- 192 1.]

[44. Proseminary in the Storm and Stress Movement. Continuation
of Course 43. Two hours credit; hours to be arranged. Pro-
fessor HiLDNER. Omitted in 1920-1921.]

[46. The Faust Legend and Kindred Themes in European Literature.
Two hours credit; hours to be arranged. Primarily for grad-
uates. Professor Winkler. Omitted in 1920-192 1.]

summer session of i92i

Journal Club

Current Literature on German Philology and Literature. Meet-
ings of instructors and advanced students in the German department
are held every three weks throughout the academic year, at which
reports are made in important recent contributions on Germap Philol-
ogy and Literature.

las. Beginners' Course. Four hours credit. Professors Winkler
and Diekhoff.

2a, Reading of Easy German Stories with Practice in Speaking and
Writing German. Ttoo hours credit. Professor Hildner.

3fl. Modern Prose. Two hours credit. Professor Hildner.

3^. Scientific German. Two hours credit. Professor Winkler.

5. Goethe's Iphigenie and Tasso, or Lessing's Nathan der Weise,
Two hours credit. Professor Diekhoff.

9. German Composition. Two hours credit. Professor Diekhoff.
9tf. German Prose. Two hours credit. Professor Winkler.
9r. German Conversation. Two hours credit. Professor Hildner.
For Graduates and Undergraduates,

13. Advanced German Grammar. Two hours credit. Professor
Diekhoff.



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270 College of Literature, Science, and the Arts

15. Goetbe^s Faust. Two hours credit. Professor Winkler.

18a. Studies in Modern German Literature. Two hours credit. Pro-
fessor HiLDNER.

37. Introduction to Middle High German. Two hours credit. Pro-
fessor DiEKHOFF.'

39a. Pro-Seminary in Goethe, Schiller, Herder, or Lessing. Two
hours credit. Professor Winkler.

Gothic

FIRST SEMESTER

[i. Lectures on Phonology and Morphology and reading of the Gos-
pels, Wright's Primer of the Gothic Language, Primarily for
graduates. Tivo hours credit. Professor Diekhoff. Omitted
in 1920-1921.]

SECOND SEMESTER

[2. Epistles. Heyne's Ulfilas, Two hours credit. Professor Diek-
hoff. Omitted in 1920- 192 1 J

SUMMER session OF I92I

I. Lectures on Phonology and Morphology and Reading of the
Gospels. Two hours credit. Professor Diekhoff.

Old Norse

[Old Icelandic. Introductory course. Lectures and reading of selec-
tions from the sagas. Kahle's Altisldndisches Elementarbuch.
Primarily for graduates. Omitted in 1920- 192 1.]

ScandiiuiYian

first semester

[l. Scandinavian Literature in English. Lectures, readings, and
reports based on English translations of Holberg, Hertz, Lie,
Kielland, Bjorsen, Strindberg, and Selma Laferlof. The rela-
tion of these writers to the larger European literary movements
will be especially considered. Omitted in 1920-1921.]

second semester

[2. Henrik Ibsen. A comprehensive study of his works, his thought,
and his influence upon the contemporary drama. Lectures,
readings, and reports. Omitted in 1920- 192 1.]



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Courses of Instruction 271

GREEK LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE

(Group I)

Students especially interested in language study are advised to
elect two foreign languages in the freshman year. Two new lan-
guages, however, should not be begun at the same time. A suggested
program in classical language study is outlined on page 154.

Students intending to enter upon the study of Greek at any time
in their course will find it to their advantage to do so in their first
year.

The courses marked A and B are designed for those who have had
no opportunity to take Greek before admission, or have not been
able to complete the entrance requirements in Greek. Coarse C is
intended for students who have had only one year's work in Greek
before entering the University. A credit of four hours will be given
for each one of these courses satisfactorily completed.

. Courses i and 2 must precede all the other numbered courses
except those grouped below under the heading, "Greek Courses in
English."

In addition to Courses I, a, 3, and 5, students who are preparing
to teach Greek are recommended to elect at least twelve hours more
under the advice of the instructors in the department.

During the period from September 20 to 24, the instructors
in the department will be found in Room 108, T. H., and
prospective students are urged to consult them. Conferences will be
held at hours which will be posted upon the bulletin board beside
the door of Room io8, T. H.

Greek

FIRST SEMESTER

A. Elementary Greek. Four hours credit. Assistant Professor

ROBBINS.

No credit towards graduation is counted for this course until

Course B is satisfactorily completed.
This course, with its continuation. Course B in the second semes-

tefj will enable students to take up Course I the following year.

C. Xenophon's Anabasis, or other selections from easy Attic prose.
Homer, Iliad or Odyssey, one book. Review of Grammar.
Four hours credit. Professor Bonner.
This course is intended for students who have had only one year
of Greek before entering the University,

I. Homer, Odyssey, selections. Four hours credit. Professor BoN-
NER.



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272 College of Literature, Science, and the Arts



3. Selections from the lyric and elegiac poets, and from the history
of Herodotus. Three hours credit. Professor Winter.

7. Seminary in Aeschylus. All of the plays will be read, and por-
tions will be selected for critical study and interpretation.
Introductory lectures, and topics and reports relating to the
early history of tragedy. Two hours credit* Professor Bon-
nek.

[7r. Seminary. The Tragedies of Sophocles. Professor Winter.
Omitted in 1920-1921.]

lye. Seminary in Greek Religion. Studies in literary texts and in-
scriptions illustrating the history and development of Greek
Religion. Professor Bonner. Omitted in 1920-192 1.]

[i2a. Demosthenes. The Philippic and Olynthiac Orations, with col-
lateral studies in the history of the times and the development
of Attic oratory. Three hours credit. Assistant Professor Rob-
bins. Omitted in 1920-1921.]

12^. Thucydides. The Sicilian Expedition. Three hours credit. As-
sistant Professor Robbins.

15. The Bucolic Poets. Theocritus, Bion, and Moschus, with studies
in the history of pastoral poetry. Three hours credit. Pro-
fessor Bonner.

21. Pindar. The Olympian and Pythian Odes, and selections from
Bacchylides. Professor Bonner.
To be omitted in 1920-1921, unless requested as a substitute for
Course 15, above, or Course 17 in the second semester.

31. Reviews in Greek Literature, Grammar, and Antiquities. For
candidates for the higher degrees. One hour credit; hour to
be arranged. Professors Bonner and Winter, and Assistant
Professor Robbins.

SECOND SEMESTER

B. Elementary Greek. Continuation of Course A. Xenophon's
Anabasis and Greek prose writing. Four hours credit. Assist-
ant Professor ROBBINS.

2. Plato, Apology; Euripides, Medea. Four hours credit. Profes-
sor Bonner.

5. Greek Drama. Sophocles, Antigone; Aristophanes, Birds or
Frogs. Three hours credit. Professor Winter.



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Courses of Instruction 273

6^. Greek Prose Composition. Two hours credit. Assistant Profes-
sor ROBBINS.

8. Seminary in Aeschylus. Continuation of Course 7. Professor
Bonner.
These hours may be changed to meet the needs of students,

[8f. Seminary. The Tragedies of Sophocles. Continuation of Course
7f. Professor Winter. Omitted in 1920-1921.]

[S/*. Seminary in Greek Religion. Continuation of Course 7^. Pro-
fessor Bonner. Omitted in 1920- 192 1.]

[iitf. Plato's Phaedo, Introductory lectures, rapid reading, and inter-
pretation. Studies in the philosophy of Plato. Two hours
credit. Professor Winter. Omitted in 1920-1921.]

1 1^. Plato's Republic, Introductory lectures, rapid reading, and inter-
pretation. Studies in the philosophy of Plato. Three hours
credit. Professor Winter.

17. Aristophanes, Selected Plays, with studies in the life and times
of the poet. Three hours credit. Professor Bonner.

[20. Aristotle's Poetics, and Studies in Ancient Literary Criticism.
Two hours credit. Professor Winter. Omitted in 1920-1921.]

SUMMER session OF I92I

Ax, Elementary Greek. Two or four hours credit. Assistant Pro-
fessor ROBBIKS.

2j. Rapid Reading of Greek Prose, Two hours credit. Assistant
Professor Robbins.

For Graduates,

yds. Seminary in the Greek Tragedy. Professor Bonner.

Greek Courses in English

The courses grouped under this head do not require a knowledge
of the Greek language. They are intended for students who have not
had time or opportunity to learn Greek, but wish to acquire some
knowledge of Greek literature and life, and of the debt which modem
civilization owes to the Greeks.

FIRST SEMESTER

16. Greek Literature in English. Lectures, assigned readings, and
reports. Three hours credit. Professor Winter.
No knowledge of the Greek language is required for this course.



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274 College of Literature, Science, and the Arts

The aim is to give students an acquaintance with the master-
pieces of Greek literature from Homer to Theocritus through
the medium of English translations.

29. Ancient Greek Life. Assistant Professor Robbins. Elect as

Classical Archaeology 4.

SECOND SEMESTER

10. The Greek Drama in English Translations. Lectures on the his-
tory, development, and influence of Greek drama; assigned
readings and reports. Three hours credit. Professor Bonner.



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