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Waterman.
This course will deal with the origin and development of the
institutions and ideals of the Old and New Testaments in re-
lation to modern Democracy.

second semester

12. The History of Israel. Two hours credit. Professor Waterman.
This course will cover Israelitish development from 1200 B. C.

to the fall of Jerusalem, 70 A. D.
Students contemplating this course, who have not had Course 13
or an equivalent, should consult with the head of the depart-
ment.

14. Biblical Introduction. Continuation of Course 13. Two hours

credit. Professor Waterman.

18. The Bible as Literature. Two hours credit. Professor Water-

man.
This course will consist of a critical study of the chief literary
masterpieces of the Bible from the literary standpoint, as con-



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366 College of Literature, Science, and the Arts

tributions to world literature. Particular attention will be
given to the Book of Job» The Psalms, and examples of Hebrew
poetry and oratory as exemplified in the prophets. The Alner*
ican Revised Version will constitute the text-book.

The History of Religions

FIRST SEMESTER

15. The Religions of the Semites. Two hours credit. Professor

Waterman.
A survey of the religions of Babylonia (Egypt), Palestine, and
Arabia, in their mutual relations.

19. Elementary Phenomena of Religion. Two hours credit. Profes-
sor Bonner.
A study of primitive forms of religion, such as fetichism, ani»
mism, ancestor-worship, magic, etc. Lectures, assigned read-
ings, and reports.

SECOND SEMESTER

16. The Ethnic Faiths. Two hours credit. Professor Waterman.
A general survey of the great living Ethnic Faiths of India,

Persia, China, and Japan.

Sociology

(Sec Economics)

SPANISH

(See Romance Languages and Literatures)

Statistics

(See Mathematics)

ZOOLOGY

(Group II)

The department of Zoology occupies the northwest portion of
the new Natural Science building. The easiest approach from the
interior of the Campus is by the west entrance to the auditorium in
the Natural Science building.

Consultation Hours. — All students who expect to do advanced
work in Zoology should confer with the advisory committee of the
department before making elections. This committee, which consists
of Professor Reich ard and Assistant Prpfe^^r^ La Rue and Okkel-



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Courses of Instntction 367

BERG, will meet in Room Z 231, N. S., 10 to 12 A. M. daily from
September 20 to 26, inclusive. Other hours will be posted on the
department bulletin board. First-year students who elect Zoology I
should consult the Committee on Elections.

First- Year Electivks. — Course i should precede all other Zoology
courses except 3, Sa, and 20. Premedical students, forestry students,
and all others who elect Zoology 1 in either semester of their fresh-
man year, must take Botany i or la in the other semester.

Second-Year Electivbs. — Those who efect Zoology i in the first
semester of their second or later years may take Zoology 4, $a, or 11
in the second semester of the same year.

Advice to Students. — ^The work of the Zoology department is
planned to meet the needs of the following classes of students:

1. Those who have little time for the subject and who seek a
knowledge of the concrete facts and the theories of biology as pari
of a- liberal education should take the courses listed as introductory
(Courses T, 3, ^, and 20), but may, in addition, pursue to advantage
any of the following courses: 4, 5a, 7, 8, 8a, 9, 10, 11, 15, iSa, 21.
The order of the election of these courses will vary with the needs
of the student, and should be determined after consultation with the
advisory committee of the department.

2. Students who are preparing -to study medicine, and who have
had Course i in Zoology and i or la in Botany, or their equivalent,
should take as many as possible of the following courses: Courses
Sa, 9, 10, II, 15, and 15a.

3. Students of Forestry are required to take Course i or its
equivalent and should, if possible, elect in the order named Courses
3, 20, and 7. The attention of students intending to study for the
degree of Master of Science in Forestry is called to the special bulletin
describing the Curriculum in Forestry.

4. Students preparing to teach Zoology in secondary schools are
advised to elect, preferably in the order given, the following courses:
I. 7» 4i (3)» )«)» 18, (i8<i), $a, 8, 8a, and 1 1, and Education 4^.
Those who wish to receive the departmental recommendation to teach
Zoology as their principal subject in secondary schools are required
to complete satisfactorily all of these courses or their equivalent,
except those enclosed in parentheses. A formal departmental recom*
mendation signed by the members of the Zoology staff will be given
to such students. Students who show unusual proficiency in Zoology
may be recommended, at the discretion " of the Zoology staff, to teach
Zoology as a minor subject in secondary schools after taking Courses
I, 4 or 7, II, and 18.

5. Students who wish to become regular assistants in the depart-
ment, or who expect to become professional zoologists, should elect,



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368 College of Literature, Science^ and the' Arts

after Course i, Courses 18 and i8a. Students in these courses are
given an opportunity to become acquainted with the methods of con-
ducting a laboratory. For details, see the announcement of Courses
18 and 1 8a. To gain entrance to these courses, the student must have
attained a satisfactory grade in Course i. Other things being equal,
those who have had Courses 18 and i%a will be given preference in
the selection of the regular assistants in the department.

6. Candidates for the higher degrees should consult the An-
nouncement of the Graduate School. Their work should be elected
only after consultation with the advisory committee of the depart-
ment, but will always include Courses 12 and 13. Those who expect
to teach should arrange their work to include the courses in the
first list of paragraph 4 above.

Laboratory Work. — The time necessary each week for the aver-
age student to do the laboratory work of each course is indicated by
the number of required laboratory periods of three hours, but varies
with the capacity of the student. Students must do their laboratory
work during the regularly scheduled hours, but those for whom this
time is insufficient will have an opportunity to complete the work at
other hours.

Related Courses in Other Departments. — The department of
Zoology does not offer courses on fossil animals, but students of
Zoology should consult the announcement of the department of
Geology, where courses in Paleontology are described.

Students interested in the philosophical aspects of biology, or in
psychology, will find courses in these fields offered in the department
of Philosophy.

Biological Station

Courses in the Natural History of Vertebrate Animals, Inverte-
brate Animals, Birds and Insects, and research work on birds, fishes,
insects, plankton organisms, and parasitic worms, are offered during
the summer session at the University of Michigan Biological Station
situated on Douglas Lake, Cheboygan County, Michigan. For the
details of these courses, see the special bulletin of the Biological
Station.

Woods Hole Scholarship

Through the kindness of Doctor Bryant Walker, the University
is able to offer a scholarship which pays the tuition of one student
at the Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Mass., during the
summer session of six weeks. Six hours credit may be obtained at
the University for work done at Woods Hole. Application should be
made to Professor Reighard.



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Coursed of Instruction 369

FIRST SEMESTER

/. Introductory Courses*

I. Principles of Animal Biology. Four hours credit. Lectures, reci-
tations, and laboratory work. Professor Shull, Assistant Pro-
fessors Welch, LaRue, and Okkelberg, Dr. Heilbrunn, Dr.
Blanchard, Mr. Thatcher, and Assistants.

This course is designed to introduce the student to the funda-
mental principles in each of the major divisions of biology.
The elementary facts of structure, physiology, classification,
ecology, geographical distribution, paleontology, and evolution
are discovered at first hand. Except in the exercises on classi-
fication, animals are not studied as representative of certain
groups, but only in so far as they furnish the basis for draw-
ing conclusions regarding principles.

Prospective medical students who expect to elect Organic Chem-
istry 10 in the second semester, simultaneously with biology,
will avoid conflict by electing Zoology i in the first semester,
and Botany x in the second semester.

Each student should register in one laboratory section and one
quiz section. This registration, whether by first year students
or others, must be made through the Committee on Freshman
Classification. When the laboratory and quiz sections are filled
by such elections, no others will be admitted. The laboratory
and quiz section should, if possible, be under the same in-
structor.

3. Organic Evolution. Two hours credit. Lectures. Professor
Reighard.

The illustrated lectures deal with the evidences for evolution
drawn from classification, structure, development, paleontology,
distribution, variation, and experiment, and under -the head of
factors, with such topics as natural selection, the inheritance
of acquired characters, and the influence of environment.

No prerequisite. Freshmen should not elect this course.

This course may profitably be followed by Course 3a in the sec-
ond semester.

20. The Conservation of Wild Life. Two hours credit. Lectures,
quizzes, and supplementary reading. Professor Ruthven.
This course discusses the importance of the conservation of ani-
mals and the factors and methods employed. The animals of
economic value are shown to constitute a natural resource of
considerable value, and from an analysis of the factors in-

• Introductory courses arc those without prerequisites. Course i is
open to freshmen, but Courses 3, 3a, and 20 must not be elected by
freshmen.



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370 College of Literature, Science, and the Arts

volved and the methods in vogue an attempt is made to develop
the principles that should guide intelligent efforts to conserve
these forms. The course should be of general interest at this
time, and should appeal particularly to prospective teachers of
Zoology, foresters, and others who will come in contact with
wild life.

//. Advanced Courses*

8. Natural History of Animals» with special reference to the prin-
ciples of ecology and behavior. Four hours credit. Lectures,
quizzes, laboratory, and field work. Professor Reighard.
Courses 8 and 8a form a year's work, the purpose of which is:

(i) To present in a systematic way those fields of natural
history that have been organized into sciences. These fields are (a)
the relations of animals to environment (animal ecology), and (b)
animal behavior.

(2) To acquaint students with the animals of the region — ^both
invertebrate and vertebrate — in their natural surroundings. Only
those invertebrates are considered that are of importance in present-
ing the facts and principles of ecology. The classification of verte-
brates is studied in considerable detail, but little time is given to the
classification of invertebrates. This subject is taken up in more
detail in Courses 4 and 7.

(3) To afford a training in the technique of the subject.
Emphasis is laid on methods of field observations and on field notes.
The notes are criticized and discussed with the purpose of developing
scientific method in biology.

The field work is carefully planned and regularly carried out
after the manner of laboratory work. It includes, on the side of
ecology, the^ recognition and description of the principal local habitats
and of the' more important members of their animal communities.
The reactions of typical forms to environmental factors are experi-
mentally tested as far as possible. On the side of behavior the field
recognition and behavior of fishes, amphibia, reptiles, birds, and
mammals are taken up in detail. The order of the field work is
determined by the seasons. Aquatic habitats (fresh water biology)
is the chief topic in the fall. The winter months are devoted largely
to indoor work on vertebrates, but include some field work. In the
spring the field work is devoted to the behavior of vertebrates and
to terrestrial habitats. Occasionally all-day Saturday excursions are
made. The half days on which this 7tH>rk is scheduled must be free
from other work.

* Advanced courses are those with Course i in Zoology or its equiva>
lent as a prerequisite. Other prerequisites are required in certain case*
and are announced in the iescriptions of the courses.



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Courses of Instruction 371

The courses are of cultural value and are required of those who
expect the departmental recommendation to teach Zoology as a major
subject in secondary schools. These courses should be preceded by
Coarse i or its equivalent.

Courses 8 and 8a are prerequisites for Course ai.

4. Invertebrate Zoology. Four hours credit. Assistant Professor
Welch.
This course deals especially with the classification, morphology,
embryology, physiology, and life histories of the invertebrates
exclusive of insects. Most of the work is given in the form of
lectures, laboratory, field trips, and demonstrations. The lec-
tures deal with the general aspects of invertebrate zoology,
while the laboratory work is concerned mainly with detailed
morphological studies of a selected series of invertebrates, and
the classification of typical forms. Field work is organized
primarily to familiarize the student with the common inverte-
brates in the living state and with some of the main features of
local distribution. Laboratory studies of living forms are also
included.

9. Embryology of Vertebrates. Lectures and laboratory work.
Five hours credit. Assistant Professor Okicelbbrg.
A course on the descriptive embryology of vertebrates. The lec-
tures are comparative; the laboratory work, dealing largely
with the organogeny of the chick, is supplemented by the dem-
onstration and study of other forms. Some attention is given
to the simpler embryological laboratory methods. Zoology i
or its equivalent is prerequisite.

10. General Physiology. Four hours credit. Lectures and labora-
tory work. Dr. Heilbrunn.

An introduction to the modem methods and results of general
.physiology. This is the science of living matter considered
in its most general aspects. It deals especially with those
phenomena which are universally associated with the living
process, and which are therefore common to all types of plant
and animal life. In the lectures attention is first directed to
the structural, physical, and chemical makeup of protoplasm.
The activities of living cells and organisms are then con-
sidered. These include metabolism, movement, response to
stimulation. The attempt is made to understand the various
forces which are involved in vital activity. The laboratory
work helps to illustrate the lectures and at the same lime
afford training in certain chemical and physical manipulations
which are important for many phases of biological work.

This course may usually be elected with profit only by seniors and
undergraduates adequately prepared in the fundamental sci-
ences; others may be admitted after consultation.



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372 College of Literature, Science, and the Arts

15. Genetics. Three hours credit. Lectures, quizzes, and demonstra-
tions. Professors Shull and Bartlett.

This course gives a comprehensive view of the subjects of
heredity and variation. The student is given an opportunity to
become familiar with the geuetical investigations in progress
in both the departments of Zoology and Botany, as, for exam-
ple, sex determination in rotifers and insects, complicated Men-
delian pheno^nena in Drosophila, mutation and hybridization
phenomena in Oenothera, and practical plant breeding projects.

Open to graduates and to qualified undergraduates. Students in
sociology and prospective medical students who have had some
training in biology will find that this course affords a basis
for the understanding of human heredity.

Courses 15 and 15a form a continuous year's work. Those who
elect Course 15 should, if possible, elect Course 15a in the
second semester.

18. Laboratory Methods and Management. Three hours credit. Lab-
oratory work and conferences. Assistant Professor La Rue.
Courses 18 and 18a are designed to give prospective teachers,
assistants, and those who plan to become professional zoolo-
gists actual training in the methods employed in the conduct
of a zoological laboratory. The work of the first semester
(Course 18) is extremely varied. The student is introduced
to many types of technique (other than microscopic) not ordi-
narily presented in the usual courses. Some of the methods
taken up are photography, the collection of laboratory mate-
rials and their preservation, the rearing of cultures, care of
aquaria, care of laboratory rooms, glassware, and instruments,
the structure and use of the microscope and its accessories,
projection apparatus, the making of charts and skeletons.
Students electing the course should be provided with cameras.
Those who expect to become assistants in the department
should elect Course 18 and follow it with course i&z. Pros-
pective teachers who wish to receive the recommendation of
the department must take Course 18.

12. Literature of ZoSlogy. One hour credit. Professor Reighard
and Assistant Professor Okkelberg.
The instructors and advanced students form a Journal Club,
which holds stated meetings. Reports are made on research
work done by members of the zoological staff, and on impor-
tant current papers, and are followed by informal discussion.
Although the meetings are open to all, the membership is
restricted. The course should be elected only after consulta-
tion. Participation in the work of the Journal Club is required
of all assistants in the department, and the course must be
elected for at least one semester, by all graduate students whose



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Courses of Instruction 373

principal subject is Zoology. Candidates for the doctorate are
required as having elected the course for their term of resi-
dence. ^

16. Classification and Natural History of Animals.

The course may be elected as i(>a, two hours credit; i6t, three
hours; i6f, five hours; or idd, ten hours. Permission must he
first obtained from the advisory committee of the department.

The time and place of carrying on the work should be arranged
in accordance with the group selected with one of the members
of the staff named below :

The Fishes : Professor Reighard, and Mr. Hubbs.

The Reptiles: Professor RuTHVEN.

The Thysanoptera : Professor Shull. »

Animal Parasites: Assistant Professor La Rue.

The Insects and Oligochaetes : Assistant Professor Welch.

The Mammals: Dr. Dice.

The Insects: Mr. Gaige.

The purpose of this course is to increase our knowledge of the
fauna of the region and to give students an opportunity to
become acquainted with the methods and aims of systematic
work, and the natural history and classification of the forms
in particular groups.

25. Advanced Zoological Studies.

This course is intended to introduce the student to the methods
used by the investigator in zoology. The work is individual.
To each student will be assigned a topic. He will be required
to examine the original literature and in some cases to prepare
specimens illustrating the topic. The results of his work must
be embodied in a report. The course is required of those
selecting zoology as a major subject for the master's degree,
and may, at the option of the zoological faculty, be required of
those selecting zoology as a major for the doctorate. Applica-
tion should be made to the advisory committee of the depart-
ment. The work may be pursued under the direction of any
member of the zoological faculty. The course should be elected
in the name of the person with whom the work is to be done,
as 2$a. two hours credit; 2Sb, three hours; 2$c, five hours; or
2$d, ten hours,

28. French Reading. One hour credit. Professor Lke.

Classical biological treatises in French as well as important
papers in the current literature will be selected. The purpose
of the course is to cultivate facility in reading the litferature
of biology and to familiarize the student with the technical
terms of the science. The course should be of value to stu-
dents of zoology, botany, medicine, and related sciences.



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374 College of Lilerature, Science, and the Arts

31. Investigations in the Behavior of Fishes and other Lower Ver-
tebrates in their Natural Environment This work may be
elected as $ia, two hours credit; 31*, three hours; Zic, five •
hours; $id, ten hours. Professor Reighard.

33, Investigations in Zoogeography. This work may be elected as
33tf, two hours credit; 33b, three hours; 33c, five hours; 33d,
ten hours. Professor RuTHVEN.

35. Investigations in Entomology and on Oligochaeta. This work
may be elected as 35^, two hours credit; 3Sb, three hours; 3Sc,
five hours; 3Sd, ten hours. Assistant Professor Welch.

37. Investigations in Genetics. This work may be elected as 37a,
two houns credit; 37b, three hours; 37c, five hours; 37J, ten
hours. Professor Shull.

39. Investigations in General Physiology. This work may be elected
as 39a, two hours credit; 39^, three hours; 39<", five hours;
3gd, ten hours. Dr. Hbilbrunn.

41. Investigations in Helminthology. This work may be elected as
41a, two hours credit; 41b, three hot^rs; 41c, five hours; 4id,
ten hours. Assistant Professor La Rue.

SECOND SEMESTER

/. Introductory Courses.*

I. Principles of Animal Biology. Four hours credit. Lectures,
recitations, and laboratory work. Professor Shull, Assistant
Professors La Rue, Welch, and Okkelberg, Dr. Heh.brunn,
Dr. Blanchard, Mr. Thatcher, and Assistants.

A repetition of Course i, given in the first semester.

Each student should register in one laboratory section and one
quiz section. This registration, whether by first year students
or others, must be made through the Committee on Freshman
Classification. When the laboratory and quiz sections are filled
by such elections no others will* be admitted. The laboratory
and quiz sections should, if possible, be under the same
instructor.

3a. Heredity. Two hours credit. Lectures and quizzes. Professor
Shull.
A semi-popular account of the facts of heredity as developed
since the year 1900, with emphasis on their relation to human
affairs. The earlier lectures deal with the elementary facts of
reproduction and development, the mechanism through which

• Introductory courses are those without prerequisites. Course i is
open to freshmen, but Courses 3, 3a, and 20 must not be elected by
freshmen.



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Courses of Instruction 375

heredity is manifested, the results of hybridization, including
MendePs Law, and the determination of sex. These are fol-
lowed by heredity in man, with its application in the broadest
sense, including eugenics, popular fallacies and superstitions,
maintenance of racial qualities, and the effects of war. While
the course is primarily of interest to those specializing in the
biological and social sciences, it is designed to meet certain
needs common to all classes of students, tt is desirable, when
possible, to precede this course with Course 3 in the first
semester.
No prerequisites. A more advanced treatment of heredity is
given in Courses 15 and i^a,

11. Advanced Courses.*

7. General Entomology. Four hours credit. Assistant Professor
Welch.
This course deals with the fundamental aspects of general ento-
mology and is intended to contribute to the preparation neces-
sary for professional work in zoology as well as to constitute a
foundation for special work with insects. The material is pre-
sented in lectures, laboratory work, field studies, and demon-
strations. The lectures are general, including among other sub-
jects the following: Classification of insects and their rela-
tives; morphology, physiology; embryology; phylogeny; meta-
merism ; reproduction, including parthenogenesis, paedogenesis ;
polyembryony, and gynandromorphism ; metamorphosis; res-
piration ; aquatic insects and their evolution ; regeneration ;



Online LibraryUniversity of MichiganCatalogue of the University of Michigan → online text (page 33 of 75)