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interrelations of insects; insects and disease; and insects in
relation to other organisms. Laboratory work includes mor-
phological studies on certain representative types, followed by
the classification of an extensive series of selected forms. The
gene,rous amount of field work provides training in the prob-
lems of local distribution, field recognition of common species,
approved methods of collection, and construction of field rec-
ords. Life history studies involving field and vivarium work
are included. Methods of mounting and preservation are also

8tf. Vertebrate Zoology. Natural History of Animals, with special
reference to the principles of ecology and behavior. Fiife hours
credit. Two laboratory or field periods required (total, nine
hours). Professor RsiGiiARb. *
Thi^ course deals chiefly with the recognition and behavior of
local vertebrates, but may include a general study of terrestrial
habitats (ecology). See announcement of Course 8 in the first

• Advanced courses arc those with Course i in Zoolo^ or its equiva-
lent as a prerequisite. Other prerequisites are required in certain cases
and are announced in the descriptions of the courses.

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37^ College of Literature, Science, and the Arts

semester. The course should be preceded by Course 8, but.
upon consuitation, exceptions may be made to this rule.
Occasional all-day Saturday excursions. The three half days
scheduled for field work must be entirely free from other
course work, but the work will usually be accomplished in
two half days.

5j. Comparative Anatomy and Physiology of Vertebrates. Lec-
tures, quizzes, and laboratory work. Four hours credit. As-
sistant Professor Okkklberg.
The lectures deal with the comparative anatomy, comparative
physiology and evolution of the various vertebrate organs and
systems of organs. The classification of vertebrates in rela-
tion to their evolution is also discussed. The lectures are sup-
plemented by demonstrations. The laboratory work consists
in the dissection of vertebrate types, including fish, amphibian,
reptile, bird, and mammal. The course is of value to students
of medicine and dentistry as well as to teachers and others.
It may follow Zoology i.

i8<i. Laboratory Methods and Management. Three hours credit.
Laboratory work and conferences. Assistant Professor La
A continuation of Course- 18, but emphasis will be placed on the
methods of zoological microtechnic. Opportunity will be given
for the gaining of a wide experience in the use of various
fixing agents, method of embedding and staining. This
course is required of those who expect to become assistants in
the department and is of value to prospective teachers, and to
those who expect to become professional zoologists.

II. Mammalian Anatomy and Physiology. Four hours credit. Lec-
tures, quizzes, and laboratory work. Dr. Heilbrunn.

While this course is designed primarily for students who expect
to teach physiology and hygiene in secondary schools, it may
also be taken with profit by others who may have no oppor-
tunity to study human physiology. The laboratory work in-
cludes the dissection of a mammal (the cat), whose structure
closely resembles that of man. Gross dissection is supple-
mented by the study of histological structures in so far as it
may be necessary to an understanding of physiological prin-
ciples. Physiological experiments are performed to demon-
strate the activities of the various structures of the body and
acquaint the student with physiological methods. The lectures
deal primarily with the functions of the various systems of
the body studied in the laboratory and with structure only as
it relates to function.

Course i in Hygiene may profitably accompany this course or
follow it.


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Courses of Instruction 377

iSa. Genetics. Three hours credit. Lectures, quizzes, and demonstra-
tions. Professors Shull and Bartlett.
A continuation of Course 15 in the first semester.

31. Zoogeography. Lectures and laboratory. Three hours credit.
Museum of Zoology. Professor Ruthven.

The course is a discussion of the distribution of animals,
approached not from the standpoint of the present distribution
of animal groups, but rather from the point of vipw of the
factors involved in migration and ecesis. It deals with those
relations existing between the animal forms concerned and the
environment, that have an influence upon distribution, and
upon this basis an attempt is made to interpret the present

The lectures discuss the general subject and are supplemented
by field and laboratory work on the local fauna and museum
material. The student thus becomes familiar with materials
illustrative of the principles discussed in the lectures as well
as with the methods of study.

Prerequisites: Courses 8 and %a.

24. Museum Methods. Two hours credit. Professor Ruthve.n.

This course is designed for students who wish to specialize in
Zoology and contemplate museum work as a profession. The
nature of the zoological studies which can best be carried on
in museums is described, and instruction is given in the meth-
ods of preserving and caring for material, the preparation of
manuscripts and illustrations for publication, and other
museum work. The course is given in the Museum of Zoology,
and the methods, specimens, and equipment used are those of
the Museum.

The number of elections is restricted, and permission to take the
course must be obtained from Professor Ruthven.

13. Literature of Zoology. Continuation of Course 12. One hour
credit. Professor Reich ard, and Assistant Professor Okkel-


Course 13 has the same restrictions as Course 12. The work of
the course must be participated in by all assistants in Zoology,
and it must be elected by all candidates for higher degrees
whose principal subjects is Zoology.

17. Classification and Natural History of Animals. Continuation of
Course 16. The course may be elected as l^a, two hours credit;
17b, three hours; 17c, five hours; or ijd, ten hours. Applica-
tion should be made to the advisory committee of the depart-
The subjects and teachers arc the same as in Course 16.

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373 College of Literature, Science, and the Arts

26. Advanced Zoological Studies. Identical with Course 25, which
see. The course may be elected as 26*1, two hours credit; 26b,
three hours; 26c, five hours; or 26d, ten hours. Application
should be made to the advisory committee of the department »

29. German Reading. One hour credit. Professor Lee.

This course is of the same nature as Course 28, given in the first

32. Investigations in the Behavior of Fishes and other Ix)wcr Ver-
' tebrates in their Natural Environment. This work may be
elected as 32a, two hours credit; 32^, three hours; $2c, five
hours; S2d, ten hours. Professor ReigHard.

34. Investigations in Zoogeography. This work may- be elected as
S4a, two hours credit; $4b, three hours; 34^, five hours; S4d,
fen hours. Professor Ruthven.

36. Investigations in Entomology and on Oligochaeta. This work
may be elected as 36^1, two hours credit; s6b, three hours; s6c,
five hours; s6d, ten hours. Assistant Professor Wet,ch.

38. Investigations in Genetics. This work may be elected as 38a,
two hours credit; sSb; three hours; sSc, five hours; sSd, ten
hours. Professor Shull.

40. Investigations in General Physiology. This work may be elected
as 40a, two hours credit; 40b, three hours; 40c, five. hours; 40d,
ten hours. Dr. Heilbrunn.

42. Investigations in Helniinthology. This work may be elected as
42a, two hours credit; 42b, three hours; 42c, five hours; 42d,
ten hours. Assistant Professor La Rue.


1. Principles of Animal Biology. Four hours credit. Professor

Shull, and Mr. Chickering.

2. Organic Evolution. Tivo hours credit. Professor Reighard.

3fl. Heredity. Two hours credit. Professor Shull.

9<2. Embryology of Vertebrates. Four hours credit. Mr. Chicker-

25. Advanced Zoological Studies. Credit to he arranged. Professors
Reighard and Shull.

For the description of the courses in Zoology and Botany to be
given at the Biological Station at Douglas Lake, Cheboygan County,
sec chapter on Summer Session.


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Colleges of Engineering and

Special Announcements giving further information in regard to
these Colleges are published annually. For copies of these Announce-
ments or for further information relating to the Colleges, address
Professor Louis A, Hopkins, Secretary, Ann Arbor, Mich,

In the legislative act under which the University was organized
in 1857, provision was made for instruction in engineering and archi-
tecture. Work was not actually begun in engineering, however, until
1858, and the first degrees were conferred in i860. The engineering
courses were included in the curriculum of the College of Literature,
Science, and the Arts, until the close of the collegiate year, 1894-1895.
At that time the College (Department) of Engineering was estab-
lished by the Board of Regents as a separate College of the Univer-
sity. Instruction in architecture was organized in a sub-department
of the College of Engineering in 1906. In 1913 the College of Archi-
tecture was given control of its programs of study, and, in general,
charged with the administration of its affairs.

The Colleges of Engineering and Architecture offer a group of
four-year curricula leading to the bachelor's degree. The degree
conferred upon completion of one of these curricula is Bachelor of
Science in Engineering, or Bachelor of Science in Architecture. The
requirements for these degrees will be found on pages 409 and 455.

The academic year extends from Tuesday, September 27, 1921, to
Monday, June 19, 1922. In addition to four academic years, attend-
ance at a Summer Session of eight weeks, beginning the Monday after
Commencement (July 5, 1921, to August 26, 192 1) is required be-
tween the second and third years of residence for all students in the
College of Engineering except those in Civil Engineering; and be-
tween the third and fourth years for students in Civil Engineering.
In addition to four academic years of residence, students in the Col-
lege of Architecture are required to work four months in an archi-
tect's office.


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380 Colleges of Engineering and Architecture

The requirements for admission are the same for all students in
Engineering and Architecture.

Applicants for admission must be at least sixteen years of age»
and must present satisfactory evidence of good moral character. They
must bring credentials from the preparatory school last attended.

Applicants may be admitted on diploma, by examination, or on
credits from another college. Advanced credit may be allowed for
work done in other institutions, provided the applicant's record shows
that such work is equivalent to some course or courses offered in the
University of Michigan. Provision is also made for the admission of
special students under certain conditions.


Candidates for admission as regular undergraduate students must
pass examinations in fifteen units as indicated below or mast be
recommended by an accredited preparatory school as graduates who
have satisfactorily completed these requirements for admission. Stu-
dents who otherwise meet the above requirements but are deficient
in not more than one and one-half units, may be admitted condition-
ally, but must make up their deficiencies within one year. These
requirements are stated in units, a unit being defined as a course
covering an academic year that shall include in the aggregate not
less than the equivalent of one hundred and twenty sixty-minute
hours of classroom work. Two hours of laboratory, drawing, or shop
work arc counted as equivalent to one of recitation.

Prescribed Units for Admission

Group I. Absolute Requirements — 10 Units
English 3 units

Grammar, Composition, Classics, History of English Literature.
Mathematics 3 units

Algebra, through quadratics, Geometry, Plane, SoVid, .Spherical.

Physics I unit

History , \ unit

Greek, Latin, German, French, Spanish — One of these 2 units

Gkoup IL Alternative Requirements — ij^ or 2 Units

('hemistry I unit

Trigonometry, Plane J^ unit

German, French or Spanish I or 2 units

Greek or Latin I or 2 units

Manual Training I unit


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Requirements for Admission 381

Group III. Optional Requirements— 354 or 3 Units

The 3 or 35^ optional units may be presented in any subjects
for which credit toward graduation is given by the. accredited school
and w'hich are taught in a manner approved by the University; but
no more than three of the fifteen units required for admission will
be accepted in vocational subjects and no more than two units in any
one of them. Students of Architecture should, if possible, offer one
unit of free-hand drawing.

The Manual Training must be of such a character as to excuse
the student from Shop, i and 2 in the University. Students who
present the full requirements for admission without Chemistry or
Trigonometry, will take a two-hour course in Trigonometry and two
four-hour courses in Chemistry during their first year of residence,
receiving credit for the same toward graduation.

All applicants must send prospectuses of the courses of study or
letters from instructors describing the work done when credit is
asked in the vocational subjects, — Manual Training, Drawing, Agri-
culture, and Commercial Branches. In general, the standards set up
by the Conunission on Accredited Schools and Colleges of the North
Central Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools will be recog-
nized in adjusting high-school credits in vocational studies.

Chemistry and Plane Trigonometry are placed in an alternate
group with German, French, Spanish, Latin, Greek, and Manual
Training, so that all high schools with three or more teachers may
offer full preparation for the Colleges of Engineering and Architec-
ture, even if they cannot teach Chemistry and Trigonometry. These
courses are offered in the Summer Session to accommodate students
who wish instruction in them before entering the Colleges.

Some modifications of the language requirements may be allowed
in the case of students whose native tongue is other than English.
These cases will be considered individually.

Under English is included Grammar, Composition, Reading of
English Classics, and History of English Literature. The History
of English Literature may form part of the work of either the third
or fourth year. Four units in English should always be presented
whenever it is possible to do so.

Language Requirement for Graduation

All regular students in the College of Engineering are required
to complete the equivalent of Course 4 in French or German; in the
College of Architecture they are required to complete the equivalent
of Course 3 in French or German, as given in these Colleges. Course
a in Spanish, when preceded by at least three years of Latin or
Greek or Course 3 in Spanish when preceded by two years of Latin
or Greek, will satisfy this modern language requirement. If the
engineering student meets this requirement with less than* sixteen
hours of college credit, or the architectural student with less than


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382 Colleges of Engineering and Architecture

twelve hours of college credit, he must substitute for the balance
courses from the following list: — English, Foreign Languages, Ora-
tory, History, Political Science, Political Economy, Sociology, Phil-
osophy, Fine Arts, Music.


Students presenting graduating certificates from any of the
schools officially approved by the Committee on Diploma Schools, are
admitted without examination to the Colleges of Engineering and
Architecture, if they are recommended by the principal of the school
ii) the subjects required as units for admission. Students must have
done their work in mathematics and physics recently enough to have
these subjects thoroughly in mind, if they are to enter and do the
work required in either College. These studies may be reviewed in
the Summer Session, July 5 to August 26, 1931. College credit may
be given for studies presented in excess of fifteen units required for
admission, if these studies are deemed equivalent to similar courses
in the University. Such credit will be adjusted after consultation
with the professor in charge of the department concerned.

The approved schools of the University of Michigan do not
necessarily include all of those accredited to or affiliated with other
universities or colleges.

Diplomas and seventy- two-count academic certificates issued by
the Regents of the University of the State of New York are accepted
by the College of Engineering and Architecture in place of exam-
inations in all the subjects required for entrance which arc covered
by such credentials. A statement from the teacher, giving in detail
the work done and proficiency attained in these subjects, must be
submitted by the holder of the credentials.

A student who has failed to secure a certificate of graduation
and the principal's recommendation from an approved school will
be required to pass the regular examination for entrance in all

Students who desire to enter the College of Engineering should
present their credentials at the office of the Assistant Dean, Room
355, Engineering Building, not later than September 19, 1921, if
they intend to enter for the first semester, and not later than February
10, 1922, if they intend to enter for the second semester. Students
who desire to enter the College of Architecture should present their
credentials on or before these dates to the Professor of Architecture,
Room 209, of the same building.

It is better to mail the credentials to the proper office as long
before these dates as practicable. They will be examined, placed on
file, and the applicants will be informed whether they satisfy the re-
quirements or not. Certificates and diplomas from schools other than
those officially approved by the University do not excuse an applicant
from the admission examinations.


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Requirements for Admission 383


Examinations for admission are held in September and in Feb-
ruary. These examinations are conducted by the College of Litera-
ture, Science, and the Arts, in accordance with the schedule on page
132. Applicants presenting themselves too late for the scheduled
examinations are required to pay an examination fee of five dollars.


In English Language, English Literature, French, German,
Greek, Latin, Physics, Chemistry, History, Physiography, Botany,
and Zoology the amount and character of the work which will be ac-
cepted is identical with that described for the College of Literature,
Science, and the Arts.

Mathematics, — ^The three and one-half units in mathematics in-
clude Algebra, Geometry, and Trigonometry, as follows: Algebra. —
Fundamental Rules, Fractions, Simple Equations, Involution and
Evolution, the Theory of Exponents, and Quadratic Equations, as
given in Beman and Smith's Elements of Algebta, or an equivalent
In other authors. Geometry. — Plane, Solid, and Spherical Geometry
as given in Beman and Smith's Plane and Solid Geometry, or an
equivalent in other authors. Trigonometry. — Plane Trigonometry, as
given in Hall and Frink's Trigonometry, or an equivalent in other

N. B. — It is very desirable that high schools whose graduates
are received on diploma arrange their courses so as to include a por-
tion of both Algebra and Geometry in their last preparatory year.
Students who do not come from diploma schools should take a sim-
ilar review if they expect to succeed in the study of mathematics in
the University.

Spanish. — In addition to a thorough study of the Spanish gram-
mar such as is presented in such a work as Wagner's Spanish Gram-
mar, the student should have read considerable modern Spanish and be
able to read at sight easy prose. The preparatory course should in-
clude daily practice in conversation.

Drawing. — Where the fuU two units are offered for admission,
the work may consist of free-hand drawing, mechanical drawing,
and design, a combination of any two of these, or it may consist en-
tirely of any one of the three. Each one-half unit offered must
represent work extending through the equivalent of two forty-five
minntc periods per day for one-half year.

The work to be covered in the first half unit allowed is stated
below. To receive "the additional one-half, one, or one and one-half
units the M'ork must be relatively more advanced and the student
must present a separate outline of each course taken together with
the drawings made.


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384 Colleges of Engineering and Architecture

Free-Hand Drawing, — The student should show that he can rep-
resent correctly in outline and in light and shade, geometric and
simple natural or decorative form. Accuracy of proportion and per-
spective are essential. The pencil, charcoal, or brush may be used.

Mechanical Draiving. — This work should cover:

(a) Exercises giving evidence of skill in the use of instruments
and knowledge of materials used. These should consist mainly of
the accurate geometrical construction of the more im(>ortant plane
curves, with simple problems involving tangents and normals to the

(b) Graded exercises in the orthographic projections of simple
geometrical forms and working drawings of some of the more ele-
mentary constructions in wood and metal, all fully dimensioned, and
in which the conventional signs are properly used.

(c) Exercises in line shading, shade lining, and cross hatching,
together with a reasonable skill in lettering.

Design. — In this work a student should show some knowledge
of the principles of design and the ability to apply them. The
exercises should consist of compositions of straight and free curved
lines and simple shapes and their use in the design of simple objects,
such as a book cover, etc. The exercises may be in black and white,
various values, or in color, and may consist in puirt of objects in
wood or metal, and the like.

Manual Training in Shop Work. — One unit, optionally pre-
scribed. The work to be accepted for this unit must cover bench
work in wood, wood turning, and simple pattern making; forging,
chipping, and 61ing; elementary machine shop work.

Two units, allowed. In making up the two units allowed, not
more than one unit will be accepted in wood work, wood turning, and
pattern making ; one unit in machine shop work ; one-half unit in
forge shop work; one-half unit in foundry.

Agricultural and Commercial Branches. — In general the require-
ment for a unit in Agriculture or in Commercial Branches involves
the completion of a course taken at least live hours i>er week for
one year and accepted for graduation in the high school. The ex-
tent and character of the work must be approved by the University


An applicant who is deficient in not more than one and one-half
units, may, at the discretion of the Faculty, be admitted conditionally ;
but he must remove any condition thus incurred at one of the next
two regular examinations for admission ; no student who has an
admission condition outstanding at the beginning of his second year
of residence is allowed to enter his classes until such condition is
removed, unless for valid reason an extension of time is granted for
its removal.


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Requirements for Admission 385


Applicants who have taken some portion of the studies required
for admission in an approved school or college — ^not a high school — •
may receive credit for such work in place of taking examination in
the same. The following documents must be presented :

a. An official copy of their credits showing the subjects studied
in such school or college, the number of weeks devoted to each, the
number of class periods per week, and the standard attained upon
completing the same.

b. An official certificate of their regular admission to such
school or college.

c. An official certificate of honorable dismissal from such school
or college.

Applicants in Engineering should apply in person to the Assistant

Online LibraryUniversity of MichiganCatalogue of the University of Michigan → online text (page 34 of 75)