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of two, four, six, eight, or twelve cylinders; complete operating
and cutout chasses, transmissions, rear axles, differentials, clutches,
carburetors, ignition, starting and lighting systems, and other auto-
mobile equipment. In the djrnamometer room there is available for
research pur]>oses a 60 H. P. Diehle Electric Dsrnamometer and a
100 H. P. Sprague Electric Dsmamometer, together with special fuel
measuring devices, tachometers, pyrometers, venturi meters, mano-
graph, and accessories necessary for accurate, advanced testing and
research investigation, of both engine and chassis.

, PHYSICAL TESTING LABORATORY

The Physical Testing Laboratory occupies two adjoining rooms,
29 X 54 feet and 37 x 54 feet respectively, on the ground floor of the
south wing of the Engineering building and is equipped with appa-
ratus especially designed for testing the strength of materials used
in engineering work. This equipment includes a $0,000 pound ca-
pacity Riehl^ tension and compression machine, a 100,000 pound
Olsen testing machine, and a Riehle tension and compression ma-
chine of 200,000 pounds capacity. Both these machines are adapted
to tensile, compressive, and transverse tests, and are run by direct-
connected motors. An Olsen torsion machine of 240,000 inch-pounds
capacity, also equipped with direct-connected motor, is used in deter-
mining the torsional strength of shafts and axles. Impact tests are
made on an Olsen machine and endurance tests on an Upton Lewis
Toughness machine. The cement testing laboratory is equipped for
making the ordinary tests of cement and concrete. In addition to
scales, sieves, briquet molds and accessories, there are two briquet
testing machines made by Olsen, and a uniform-load beam-testing
machine, especially designed for the University of Michigan, with a
capacity of 85 tons, and adapted to beams of reinforced concrete,
wood, or steel of any span up to 12 feet



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39^ Colleges of Engineering and Architecture



THE HIGHWAY LABORATORY

The Highway Laboratory is located in the north half of the old
campus power house, occupying approximately 6,000 square feet of
floor space. There are six laboratory rooms besides a computing
room, an instrument room, and offices. The equipment throughout
is modern and up to date. Tests arc made in this laboratory on
all materials used in road or pavement construction. There is a
completely equipped laboratory for the testing of rock used in the
wearing surfaces of roads, equipment for the study of sand-clay
mixtures, a completely equipped cement testing laboratory, including
all the equipment necessary for the study of all concrete aggregates,
a standard rattler for the testing of paving brick, and a bituminous
laboratory for carrying out tests on road oils, tars, asphalts, and
for analyzing wearing surfaces using bituminous cements. In the
basement of the laboratory there is an Olsen compression machine df
200,000 pounds capacity and a large machine of 200 tons capacity
for testing beams, columns, and floors of different types used in
the construction of highway bridges. Full sized bridge members can
be tested on this machine. The laboratory is also equipped with a
paving determinator for the wearing out of road and pavement sur-
faces. This machine is used largely in research work concerning the
durability of materials and the desirability of methods of con-
struction.

The Highway Laboratory has been placed by the Board of Re-
gents at the service of the people of the State of Michigan. Tests on
brick, stone, gravel, asphalt, road oils, and other road and paving
materials are made for the State of Michigan. The laboratory is
being operated in direct co-operation with the State Highway Depart-
ment of Michigan.

ALEX DOW HYDRAULIC EXPERIMENTAL FLUME

This flume, for conducting experimental research work in hydrau-
lics, is on the Huron River, about one mile north of the University
campus. It is connected with two of the flood gates at the spillway
of the Argo Dam, giving a head of about 10 feet and an available
water supply of 250 cubic feet per second. The total length of the
flume is 138 feet, the upper end being approximately 8 feet wide and
9 feet deep, while the lower end, 102 feet long, is exactly 2 meters
(6.56 feet) M'ide and 8 feet deep. The flume is equipped with two
sets of adjustable baffels, one set being vertical and the other set
horizontal. There are five tanks connected to different parts of the
flume by 2-inch pipes, above which hook gages are placed, the entire
installation being enclosed by a suitable gage house. Above the
flume at its upi>er end is a small frame building which contains a
complete equipment for measuring water by the salt solutiou method



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Facilities for Instruction 397

and provides shelter for the men engaged in working up experi-
mental data.

TTie flume is so arranged that the models to be experimented
upon may be easily erected or removed, and the arrangement within
the flume may be modified to conform to the requirements of any
particular experiments. The salt solution equipment provides for the
accurate calibration of standard weirs, which in turn may be used
for measuring water for other experimental work. TTie flume is
especially adapted to the determination of empirical coefficients such
as occur in formulas of discharge for weirs, gates, orifices, and pipes
under a wide range of conditions. The large supply of water makes
it possible, in many cases, to conduct experiments on a larger scale
than has hitherto been undertaken.



SANITARY £XP£RIMENT STATION

The Sanitary Experiment Station comprises two small buildings
together with a number of minor structures, and is located on the
University grounds near Fuller Street, where the slope of the sur-
face permits of the compact and efficient arrangement of the plant.
The purpose of the Station is to provide facilities for the study of
various problems related to public sanitation, and particularly to
afford opportunities for investigational work in water purification,
sewage disposal, the prevention of stream pollution, and other fields
of sanitary engineering.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORIES

The laboratories comprise one very large main dynamo room,
six interconnected rooms for the telephone, telegraph, and wireless
department, four rooms for photometric work, and one room each
for storage battery, instrument calibration, research work, electrical
museum, oscillograph work and dark room, instrument room and
laboratory repair shop.

The Continuous Current and Alternating Current Laboratory is
thoroughly equipped with units typical of all the standard types of
electrical machinery and of many of the more important special types.
Liberal equipment of apparatus and instruments enables the average
squad to consist of four men, giving special opportunity for individual
instruction and for independence in the work with development of
initiative by each man in the squad.

TTie Photometric Laboratory is provided with standard photom-
eters, photometer bars, standard lamps, etc., the equipment for test-
ing arc lamps and for the investigation of illumination of buildings
and streets being particularly complete.

The Telephone and Telegraph Laboratories are well equipped
for the study of telephone and telegraph apparatus of both com-



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39^ Colleges of Engineering and Architecture

mercial and experimental types. The auxiliary apparatus includes
ammeters, voltmeters, electrodynamometers, artificial telephone cables,
condensers, etc., and is being added to each year.. The laboratories are
well supplied with commercial apparatus from the principal telephone
companies. The Michigan State Telephone Co. operates an exchange
for the University and this is available for demonstration purposes.

The Museum contains several dynamos of historic interest, in-
cluding an early generator by Ladd of London, and two by Dr. J. W.
Langley, formerly of this University, collections of insulators, cables,
and other articles of interest or value for instruction to students in
electrical engineering.

The University is well situated for excursions to Detroit and
other places where establishments of engineering interest may be
visited.

CHEMICAL ENGDfBSRING LABORATORY

The Chemical Engineering Laboratory occupies twenty-five rooms
on the first and second floors of the Chemistry building. On the
second floor are an office, two private laboratories, a laboratory ac-
commodating four advanced students, and a general laboratory with
desks for twenty students and a balance room. On the first floor,
aside from private laboratories for instructors and advanced students,
there are the following special laboratories:

The Gas and Fuel Laboratories occupies a group of four rooms ;
a general laboratory for gas analysis; a calorimeter room equipped
with eight bomb calorimeters of various types, two Parr calorimeters
and a Junkers gas calorimeter; an instructor's laboratory; and a
laboratory for advanced students.

The Pyrometer Laboratory has been lately supplied with a very
complete line of equipment for the study of commercial methods of
pyrometry. This equipment includes a testing set operating on the
wheatstone bridge principle, a precision pfotentiometer, a portable
potentiometer, a student potentiometer, a recording potentiometer, sev-
eral specimens of commercial pyrometers of the millivolt meter t3rpe,
two optical pyrometers, and all necessary auxiliary apparatus, such as
resistance boxes, galvanometers, shunts, etc. As an ultimate standard
the laboratory has a platinum, platinum-rhodium thermocouple which
has been recently calibrated by the U. S. Bureau of Standards.

In equipping this laboratory, the aim has been to give students
the privilege of calibrating and using the identical instruments which
they will be c?.lled upon to understand and operate in commercial
plants.

For the study of Portland Cement there is in the furnace room
a small gasoline fired rotary cement kiln which allows an accurate
adjustment and determination of the burning temperature. In the
cement testing room are sieves, molds, etc., and a Fairbanks-Morse
testing machine, and in a room with approximately constant tempera-



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Facilities for Instruction 399

tur^ is a micrometer for measuring changes in volnme of bars of
cement after setting. There are two polarising microscopes and
equipment for making thin sections of clinker for microscopic exam-
ination.

The Metallographic Laboratory occupies three rooms adjacent to
the pyrometer and the furnace rooms. Polishing lathes and the neces-
sary facilities for treating the polished section before its microscopic
examination are abundantly provided. There are five vertical illum-
inating micros<^opes» two Sauyeur photomicrographic outfits and a
most excellent Zeiss apparatus for the same purpose. Oil-fired and
electrically heated furnaces are available for heating specimens of
metal, and the permanently installed pyrometer allows an accurate
observation of cooling curves and recalescence points.

For EUcirometallurgy and Electrochemistry both direct and al-
ternating current circuits are available over wide ranges in voltage.
Direct current is supplied to the laboratory at 220 volts and may be
used in as large amounts as 100 amperes. Lower voltages are obtained
from a 10 K.W. generator with field separately excited by the 220
volt circuit By varying this field excitation aaiy desired voltage be-
tween 25 and 50 may be obtained. There is also an Edison storage
battery of forty cells. Alternating current is supplied at 220 volts
and is transformed to such lower voltages as may be needed for elec-
tric furnace work by a 10 K.W. transformer especially designed for
the work. There is also a one-half K.V.A. variable step-up trans-
former capable of giving from 10,000 to 40,000 volts together with a
rotating rectifying device for changing the high voltage discharge
to direct current. This apparatus is available for experiments on
the effect of the silent discharge through gases or on particles sus-
pended in gases. .The necessary auxiliary apparatus for measuring
and controlling these currents is amply provided. Most of the electric
furnaces have been made in the laboratory and their repair and con-
struction is a regular part of the work.

For Clay Testing and Ceramics there are two ball mills, two
mixing machines, a three-foot dry and wet pan, a brick-press, and
an adequate number of oil-fired and gas kilns.

For the study of Petroleum and Motor Fuels, the standard in-
struments for making tests on lubricating oils, gasolene, and other
petroleum products, are at hand. In addition, special apparatus of a
number of different t3rpes have been constructed for investigations in
this field.

The Bituminous Paving Materials Laboratory contains two pener
trometers, two Engler and one Scott viscosimeters, a Smith ductility
machine, a Forrest extractor, flash-point testers oif various patterns,
a copper still for tar distillation, flow plates for pitch and the neces-
sary auxiliary apparatus.

Pulp and Paper Laboratory. — The equipment in this laboratory
consists of digestors for cooking soda, sulphate, and sulphate pulps;
a diaphragm screen ; a beating engine ; apparatus for testing the con-



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400 Colleges of Engineering and Architecture

sumption of blench ; a mould for hand-made sheets ; a press, • bar-
nisher» and trimmer for drying and finishing the sheets; a toluene
vapor oven for moisture determinations and a suction sheet machine
for making up sheets in color matching and filler retention tests.
Apparatus is also at hand for microscopic and chemical analyses of
pulps and papers.

Evaporator Experiment Station, — Through the generosity of the
Swenson Evaporator Company, of Chicago, there has been established
a laboratory for the study of evaporators, the principal representa-
tives of the special apparatus used in the chemical industries. This
laboratory is under the control of the Chemical Engineering Depart-
ment. It is located on the campus, and occupies a space 65 by 35
feet» with about 30 feet of head room. It is equipped with three
types of evaporators, the necessary condensers, pumps, and other ac-
cessories. The evaporators are full-sized commercial machines, cap-
able of evaporating up to 4,000 lbs. of water per hour in each ma-
chine. They are especially designed for research and experimental
work. Other types of equipment such as filters, crystallizers, etc., as
used in the chemical industries, are being added from time to time.
Advanced research courses are offered in this laboratory for graduate
students.

MARINE AND AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING
LABORATORY

The Experimental or Naval Tank is a unique feature of the Col-
lege of Engineering. The object of the tank is to enable experiments
of all kinds, including resistance, propulsion, steering, etc., to be made
upon models of shops and propellers. The tank occupies one side of
the ground floor of the Engineering building, and is 300 feet long,
22 feet wide, with a depth of water of 10 feet. By means of a false
bottom, which can be set in varying positions, the depth of the water
can be changed so that experiments on the effect which shallow water
has upon the speed of vessels may be performed.

The tank is spanned by a traveling truck which can be driven
at any desired speed. Upon this truck are mounted the necessary
dynamometers to which the ship models are attached and which
measure the resistance at any speed.

Adjoining the tank is the work shop where the ship models are
made. The size of the models used runs from ten to twelve feet in
length, and they are usually made of paraffin wax. A clay mould is
first made approximately to the shape desired and a canvas core
inserted. Melted paraffin is then poured into the mould, and, after
cooling, the rough model is transferred to a specially designed cutting
machine. This consists essentially of two moving tables or platforms
upon one of which is placed the rough model and upon the other
the drawing of the lines of the vessel which it is desired to repro-
duce. The model moves under a pair of revolving cnttera which are



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Facilities for Instruction 401

1 - 1 1 "^ —

made to follow the lines upon the drawing. After cutting, the model
is finally faced up by hand, carefully checked and weighed, and suffi-
cient ballast added when it is placed in the water, to bring it to the
desired draft, and displacement.

The power required to drive a full-sized vessel may easily be
determined from the model experiment; and systematic investigations
upon various forms of vessels, are continuously performed.

The tank is also used for testing and calibrating current meters.

For students taking aeronautical courses, facilities are provided
in various laboratories of the Engineering College for special in-
vestigations of strength of materials, parts of air craft structure,
motor testing, comparative study of resistances of bodies in the Naval
Tank, as well as study of aerodynamical properties of various bodies
in an air current 3 x 3 ft, velocity 40 miles per hour, provided by
an air blower, in connection with which is a d3rnamometer newly con-
structed by the department. The djrnamometer is of a type enabling
a simultaneous determination of lift, drag, and center of pressure of
the body inserted.



USE OF LABORATORIES FOR PUBLIC SERVICE

In 1913, the Regents placed the Highway Laboratory at the serv-
ice of the cities, villages, counties, and highway officers of the State,
for the testing of brick, stone, gravel, and other highway materials
without charge other than the expense of shipment of samples. Tests
are now being made of road materials and full records are being kept
of this work.

Tests of sewer pipe, tile, and other classes of construction mate-
rial may also be made for municipalities in the Civil Engineering
Laboratories.

When practicable, tests of engines and boilers, and of machinery
in general are made upon request and by special arrangement as
to terms.

Tests of materials are also conducted for private individuals and
reported upon when desired. The data of all experiments and tests
made are kept in. the laboratory records.

All the laboratory work is upon a practical basis and is done as
nearly as possible as it would be done in any well arranged manu-
facturing establishment.

OTHER LABORATORIES, LIBRARIES, AND MUSEUMS

For description of other University laboratories, libraries, and
collections for the study of art, archaeology, ethnology, mineralogy,
geology, paleontology, zoology, etc., and for general information con-
cerning the University, see pages SQ to 77.



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402 Colleges of Engineerings and Architecture



VISITS OF INSPECTION

The educational value of visits of inspection is well recognized
and inspection trips are regularly made in connection with many of
the courses. The wonderful industrial growth of Detroit and Toledo
during the last decade has made those cities centers where large and
modem illustrations of almost all types of engineering structures
and processes may be seen. Inspection trips are regularly made by
all second year Engineering students in connection with their course
in Materials of Construction. Smaller parties of more advanced stu-
dents visit places of especial professional interest. Trips of several
days* duration are made during the Spring recess.

THE MENTOR AND ASSEMBLY SYSTEM

When the student enters the College of Engineering he is at
once assigned to a mentor, or faculty adviser, and students thus
assigned are to continue with the same' mentor throughout their col-
lege course. This mentor is not appointed merely to advise the stu-
dent with respect to his studies but to take the place of an elder
brother on the faculty to whom the studeht may go and talk over
freely any phase of his college life. To help the mentor advise each
student in his group with regard to his studies a card, system of re-
ports is used which gives each mentor each student's gradet sis
weeks after the beginning of the semester and four weeks before the
final examination.

Every week all freshmen in the College of Engiheering^ are
brought together in the Freshman Assembly. Here they listen to a
talk by the Dean, or some speaker secured by him, and have their
class meeting. The Sophomore, the Junior, and the Senior Assem-
blies meet four times a semester and are regarded as invaluable not
only to the mentor system but for purposes of class organization.

THE HONOR SYSTEM

The students of the College of • Engineering have adopted the
following system: All examinations and written quizzes in the Col-
lege are held under the Honor System, the object of which is to
create a standard of honor which is essential to a successful engineer
and a good citizen. Students are expected to uphold the system or
declare their objections to it, after having been duly instructed in all
the rules governing the system. The instructor does not remain in
the room during an examination. The students are placed upon their
honor to refrain from all forms of cheating and to reprimand a fellow
student who acts suspiciously, and, in case he does not take heed, to
report him to the Honor Committee, which consists of one student
elected annually from each class in the College of Engineering, and
one from the College of Architecture, each member to serve two years.



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Pacilities for Instruction 403

Every student is requested to write and sign the following at the ^end
of his examination paper:

"I have neither received nor given aid during this examination."

WOMEN STUDENTS

All questions relating to the living conditions of undergraduate
women students enrolled in the College of Engineering and Archi-
tecture come under the jurisdiction of the Dean of Women of the
University. Matters of scholarship and attendance are handled by
Assistant Dean Butts for Engineering, and Professor Lorch for
Architecture. Assistant Secretary Green acts as mentor for the women
in Engineering and Architecture.

Applications for rooms should be made to Dean Myra B. Jordan,
who has entire charge of the matter of housing conditions of the
women students of the University.

THE GROUP SYSTEM OF ELECTIVE STUDIES

In July, 19 1 2, there went into effect a complete revision of all
the programs in Engineering, by which it was made possible for
a student in his senior year to have a much wider range of elective
Work than formerly. The new system provided that of the 140 hours .
of credit required for graduation, 125 to 128 hours only are pre-
scribed and 13 to 15 hours may be elected. These elections may be
made up from the groups of studies outlined below or from other
courses approved by the Head of the department of specialization.

The Group System allows the student to receive his instruction
in the advanced subjects from a specialist. It also permits a stu-
dent desiring to take up a fifth year of residence to specialize in
some particular branch of engineering. A student in any group will
be allowed to elect work in the other departments of engineering or
in the other colleges or schools of the University, subject to the
approval of the Head of the department. A student desiring to
bbtain special scientific knowledge or special business training by
building on the fundamental subjects of engineering may be allowed
to elect scientific courses or courses in Economics or Business Ad-
ministration under the direction and approval of the Head of his
department.

The groups of studies and the scope of the work which they
cpver are given in the following:

CIVIL ENGINEERING GROUPS

(A) Structural Engineering. — Covering the subjects of Roof Trusses,
Arches, Bridges, Structural Framework of Buildings, and other
structures.
Courses in theory and design of steel, concrete, and masonry are
given by the department of Civil Engineering.



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404 Colleges of Engineering and Architecture

Courses in strength and resistance of materials and testing ma-
terials are given by the department of Engineering Mechanics.

Courses in metallurgy, micro-metallurgy, and chemical technol-
ogy of building materials are given by the department of
Chemical Engineering.

(B) Hydraulic Engineering. — Covering the subjects of Hydro-Elec-

tric Power Development, Irrigation and Drainage, and Rivers



Online LibraryUniversity of MichiganCatalogue of the University of Michigan → online text (page 36 of 75)