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months.

6. No student shall be recommended for graduation until all
his required work is completed and all his examinations passed.

7. Delinquent Students. — The Faculty has appointed a Commit-
tee on Delinquent Students whose duty it is to take under considera-
tion the cases of all students whose work has not been maintained at
the proper standard. After necessary investigation has been made
as to the cause of failure, this committee makes recommendations to
the Faculty for official action.



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480 Medical School



INSTRUCTION FOR WOMEN

The course of instruction for women is in all respects the same
as for men. It has been found in this and other of the better med-
ical schools 'that both sexes may attend with propriety and at the
same time the various laboratory courses, including Practical Anat-
omy, the lecture courses, as also the sectional and public clinics.



REQUIREMENTS FOR GRADUATION

To be admitted to the degree of Doctor of Medicine, a student
must be twenty-one years of age, and possess a good moral character.
He must have completed the required courses in laboratory work
and have passed satisfactory examinations on all the required studies
included in the full course of instruction. He must have pursued
the study of medicine for a period of four years and have attended
four full courses of medical lectures, the last of which must have
been in this School.

Graduates of other reputable medical schools, wishing to take a
degree in this School, must regularly matriculate and do all the work
required in this School and not required in the school that has granted
the diploma already held. The shortest term of residence for such
graduates is one year. Graduates of other reputable medical schools
may, however, without becoming candidates for a degree, pursue any
of the graduate courses on the conditions stated below.



GRADUATE COURSES

(See the chapter on the Graduate School.)

The rapid development of medical science has necessitated the
introduction of many new subjects into the curriculum, and this
leads practitioners, who wish to keep abreast of the times, to return
to the University in order to take special courses in the newer subjects.
Moreover, at the present time some of the laboratory and demonstra-
tion courses mentioned in the preceding schedules are not given in
many American medical colleges, and there have been frequent re-
quests for admission to these courses from graduates of such schools.
The frequency of these requests has led the Board of Regents to au-
thorize the Faculty to admit medical graduates to any one or more of
the regular courses when such candidates give evidence of their ability
to profit by such instruction. In such cases the graduate student must
pay ten dollars tuition for each course taken in addition to the ordi-
nary laboratory expenses of such course.

Graduate work is also offered to students who have taken the
full required courses.



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Medical Buildings 481



MUSEUMS AND LABORATORIES

For further information in regard to the University museums,
laboratories, libraries, and gymnasiums, see page 59.

ANATOMICAL COLLECTION

The museums of the late Professors Ford and Sager, including
several thousand specimens, the result of many years* labor in col-
lecting and preparing material intended to aid directly in teaching,
are now the property of the University. Other preparations are con-
stantly being added, and the museum now contains a valuable collec-
tion of bones, illustrating abnormal as well as normal conditions and
the various changes that occur from infancy to old age; dissections,
general and partial, of the vascular, nervous, and muscular systems;
series of sections made of frozen ix)dies; preparations illustrative of
visceral and other anomalies; models of various organs and portions
of the body in wax, papier-mach^, and plaster, and preparations and
models illustrating the phenomena of human and comparative embry-
ology and neurology.

The collection contained in the University Museum and the val-
uable osteological and odontological collections in the museum of
the College of Dental Surgery are also open to the inspection of
students.

MUSEUM OF PATHOLOGY

The laboratory of pathology contains a very complete and well-
arranged pathological museum with many rare and valuable speci-
mens, utilized for teaching purposes.

MUSEUM OF MATERIA MEDICA

The museum of materia medica consists of a fairly complete col-
lection of the crude substances used in medicine, along with their
principal preparations and active principles. In the arrangement of
the drugs into groups convenient for study, importance is attached
not to their origin but to their action. The museum is also pro-
vided with several works of reference for use of students, and with
a number of graphic registrations of the action of drugs. It is open
to students of the junior class at such hours as they arrange with
the instructor.

MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY AND LIBRARY

Students in medicine have access to the botanical, zoological, and
geological cabinets of the University, estimated to contain 255,000
specimens. The Medical Library contains 35,000 volumes and 500



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4^2 Medical School



pamphlets, and is housed in the General Library. A complete cata-
logue, arranged both by authors and by subjects, is accessible to
readers. The leading medical periodicals of this country and of
Europe, 400 in number, are taken and kept on file. For information
concerning the General Library and the special libraries in chem-
istry and biology, see page 59.

ANATOMICAL LABORATORIES

The laboratory of anatomy is situated on the third floor of the
Medical building and contains six well lighted and well ventilated
dissecting rooms. A study room is provided for the convenience of
the students, as also rooms for research and for special dissections,
both comparative and human.

The laboratory possesses an osteological loan collection, and stu-
dents are permitted to withdraw sets of bones illustrative of human
osteology, which they may retain during their stay in the anatomical
laboratory.

The histological laboratory is on the second floor of the Medical
building. It provides facilities for elementary and for advanced
work in histology and histogenesis. There is a large general labora-
tory for the elementary work in histology, and smaller rooms for the
elementary and advanced work in histology and vertebrate embryol-
ogy, together with storage rooms, a room in which a reference library
is shelved, and private rooms for the use of the professor in charge
and his staff. Suitable provision is made for students and graduates
who desire to engage in the work of research. The laboratory equip-
ment include* the apparatus and instruments needed for conducting
the elementary work in histology and embryology, and for special
research. An excellent collection of the Ziegler embryological models
and of models of various glands and other minute anatomic structures
made after the Bom method of wax plate reconstruction and of cor-
rosion preparations facilitates the work of instruction in the courses
of histology and embryology. Every encouragement is given students
and other persons of sufficient preliminary training to undertake the
investigation of special problems.

PHYSIOLOGICAL LABORATORY

The apartments provided for the physiological laboratory offer
excellent facilities for practical work, whether of class instruction
or of original investigation. large and well-lighted rooms are appro-
priated to the use of the undergraduate students, who perform under
the direction of instructors most of the fundamental physiological
experiments. The subjects commonly embraced in the practical course
relate to the physiology of muscle and nerve, reflex action, circula-
tion, respiration^ and digestion. Smaller rooms are devoted to ad-



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Graduate Courses 483



vanced work and original investigation. The laboratory has a good
supply of apparatus, tools, etc., and is open daily for physiological
experiment and research.

PHASMAC0L06ICAL LABORATORY

The pharmacological laboratory is well supplied with apparatus
and material for original work in this branch of research, and any
student or graduate receives every encouragement in the prosecution
of such work.

PATHOLOGICAL LABORATORY

The first floor on the east side of the Medical building and rooms
in the basement are occupied by the pathological laboratory. In-
creased facilities are now afforded for graduate work and for work
in research. A special room is also assigned to work in gynecological
pathology.

The laboratory is supplied with microscopes, microtomes, parafBn
ovens, and other apparatus necessary in the study of pathologic his-
tology. Each student is furnished with a locked containing a micro-
scope with high and low powers and is assigned to a table containing
the necessary stains and reagents for practical work. These are fur-
nished by the laboratory.

The supply of material for the study of pathologic histology is
the result of collections made in the pathological institutes of Vienna
and Dresden, and embraces almost every known pathologic condition.
This collection gives ample material for the regular courses, and, in
addition, offers special opportunities to the advanced student who
may wish to pursue studies in certain lines of special pathology, as
the pathology of the nervous system, genito-urinary tract, skin, etc.
In addition, an abundant supply of fresh material comes from the
clinics of the University Hospital, and this is utilized to the fullest
extent in the teaching both of gross and of microscopic pathology.
The laboratory is fitted with a Bausch and Lomb carbonic acid freez-
ing microtome for use in the making of quick diagnoys and in the
preparation of fresh material for class study.

HYGraNIC LABORATORY

The hygienic laboratory, established by a special appropriation
of the legislature in 1887, and opened for work January, 1889, is
located in commodious quarters in the medical building. The facili-
ties for original research have been enlarged, and from twenty to
thirty students in research can be accommodated at once. Special
rooms have been fitted up for the chemical, microscopical, and bac-
teriological study of foods and drinks, and for the prosecution of



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484 Medical School



investigations in the chemistry and action of bacterial and other
toxins. With the large incubating tanks now in use, it is possible
to obtain a cellular substance of bacteria in large amounts.

PASTEUR INSTITUTE

The Pasteur Institute was established as a department of the
hygienic laboratory in April, 1903. During the years 1903 to 1920
inclusive, ^,594 cases of hydrophobia were ereated at this institute.
Residents of Michigan are treated at a charge of $25.00 and they
must provide their own room and board. Persons from other states
are charged one hundred dollars for the course of treatment The
institute gives opportunity for all medical students to become prac-
tically familiar with the procedure necessary in the treatment of
rabies.

BACTERIOLOGICAL LABORATORY

The west half of the second floor of the Medical building, con-
taining about 7,000 square feet of floor space, is devoted to work in
bacteriology. The two main laboratories contain seventy-eight desks,
used by beginners and by advanced students. All the material re^
quired for the work is supplied, practically at cost, from a well-
stocked dispensing room. Four rooms are devoted to the research
work of the professor in charge, his assistants, and others qualified
to carry on special studies. An incubating room, maintained at a
constant temperature, is provided with individual drawers for the use
of students. A similar room is reserved for the work in research. A
cold room, including a spacious refrigerator, is cooled by means of
a liquid carbonic acid plant in such a way that the refrigeration can
be kept at, or below, the freezing point, while the temperature of the
room itself is maintained at about 60° F. A special compartment of
1,000 cubic feet capacity is reserved for experimental disinfection.
Provision is made for operative work on animals, cremation of in-
fected material, sterilization of cages, etc. The well-lighted ground
floor contains the store rooms and animal rooms and, in addition, a
large room fo'r microphotography. Gas, water, steam, and compressed
air are supplied to the hoods in every work room. The laboratory is
equipped with apparatus and instruments of the best make.

LABORATORY OF PHYSIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY

This laboratory is in the west half of the third floor of the
Medical building, and occupies about the same floor space as the
bacteriological laboratory above described. The two rooms for the
elementary and the advanced work are provided with sixty desks.
An adjoining room is occupied with balances and microscopes. A



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Graduate Courses 485



preparation room contains, among other things, a distilling plant
from which the water is taken in pipes to diflferent parts of the
building. Special rooms are provided for the instructor and for
research. There are also well-equipped rooms for combustions, for
optical work, and for gas analysis. In every room there are spacious
hoods with fittings for steam and compressed air in addition to gas
and water. By an elaborate system of fan ventilation, the air in the
laboratory is renewed every fifteen minutes. A small lecture room
is in direct connection with the laboratory.



THE UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL

The University Hospital has the great advantage of being a
hospital instituted primarily for teaching purposes, as all who are
admitted are utilized freely for instruction. There are few hospitals
where this is carried so far, the only restriction being the possibility
of doing the patient harm. It may be well to emphasize this fact, as
it has formed a distinct feature of this hospital since its beginning
in 1869, when a large dwelling house, situated on the campus, was
converted into a hospital, giving accommodation to about twenty
patients, and in its further growth this feature has been maintained
and developed. . The hospital now embraces a central building erected
in 1 89 1 r one ofiice building, completed in 1896, a western building or
pavilion acquired in 1901, a large addition known as the 'Talmer
Ward," and a central heating plant, containing the laundries, com-
pleted in 1903, a psychopathic hospital, and a contagious disease hos-
pital built to acconunodate twenty- four patients, an eye and ear ward,
to acconunodate forty patients, and a maternity hospital. The hos-
pital now has 460 beds and contains two clinic ampitheatres, clinical
laboratories, and a room for X-ray diagnostic work and X-ray therapy.
An interne's home, erected in 1912, forms another of this group of
buildings. The whole hospital is under the supervision of the Faculty
and under the immediate direction of the hospital committee. The
clinical teachers attend regularly upon the patients (each upon such
cases as come regularly within his special department), and give the
clinical instruction. Clinics are held every day during the college
year and during the summer session for medical, surgical, gynecol-
ogical, ophthalmological, and venereal cases, at which time examina-
tions are made, prescriptions given, and surgical operations per-
formed in the presence of the classes or of sections thereof.

The patients are assigned to students who take the histories of
the cases, make the physical examinations, the diagnosis and prog-
nosis, and suggest the line of treatment or operative procedure thought
necessary, this under the direction of the professor in charge. The
clinical laboratories under the direction of the departments of internal



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486 Medical School



medicine, surgery, gynecology, and nervous diseases, all of which are
especially equipped, furnish facilities for the scientific study of cases
and are freely used by students as time and space permit. Stress is
laid upon the value of ward and bedside instruction. The character
of the hospital is such that this mode of instruction can be carried
out more fully and more systematically than in many hospitals avail-
able for teaching purposes; this justifies the statement that the prac-
tical hospital work the students of this school are able to do is not
yet given in many medical schools. Without detracting in any man-
ner from the benefit which the patient may receive, it may be stated
that much of the work of giving treatment, of dressing wounds, and
of giving other detailed attention to patients is carried out, under
proper supervision, by senior students. For the treatment of diseases
of the nervous system, the hospital is furnished with apparatus for
generating all kinds of electrical currents. In the lying-in ward the
senior students are given an opportunity to attend cases of labor and
become familiar with the duties of the lying-in room, under the
immediate direction of the professor of obstetrics and his assistants.
A large number of the cases submitted to the hospital are from a
distance, and are of mpre than common interest, including namerous
surgical and gynecological cases requiring major operations, many
cases of disease of the lungs, heart, blood, digestive S3rstem, kidneys,
and the nervous system. The eye, ear, nose, and throat service w
large and replete with instructive cases. Patients with contagious
diseases are treated in the isolation hospital. The expenses to pa-
tients are only for their boards for unusual appliances or fbr special
nursing, and for medicines, the services of the clinical teachers of
the Faculty being rendered gratuitously.

Patients who desire to enter the hospital are requested to write
to the Superintendent of the University Hospital, Ann Arbor, Mich-
igan, to ascertain if there is room for their accommodation and to
obtain a circular giving more fully the rules governing admission.

Psychopathic Hospital

The legislature of the State of Michigan, with a wise conception
of the needs of those afflicted with mental disorders, and with a high
appreciation of the advances of modem medical research, made pro-
vision for an addition to the University Hospital of a ward especially
equipped for the care of a limited number of acute cases of insanity.
This was done with the view of furnishing an opportunity for the
more thorough study of the conditions attending insanity in its in-
cipient stages, and with the hope that, by the aid of specialists in all
branches of medicine and surgery, and the laboratory facilities avail-
able at the University Hospital, there might result the discovery of
causes of these diseases at present time unknown, and the develop-
ment of methods of treatment that might increase the number of



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Graduate Courses 487



cures. The advantages to the medical student of such an addition
to our hospital are apparent' to all.

TRAINING SCHOOL FOR NURSES

The University Training School for Nurses was established in
1 89 1, and has grown with the expansion of the Hospital until it now
numbers 190 nurses in training. The Superintendent of Nurses, her
three assistants, five clinic nurses, and twelve ward supervisors, con-
stitute the administrative staff. Students are admitted to the school
upon the same terms as to the College of Literature, Science, and the
Arts of the University (see page 120), and diplomas are granted by
the Board of Regents at the completion of three years of forty-eight
weeks each, only after efficiency has been proved by class and ward
work and by examination. For further information in regard to the
school application should be made to the Superintendent of Nurses
and Principal of the School, University Hospital, Ann Arbor, Mich-
igan.

Combined Curriculum in Letters and Nursing

A combined curriculum five years in length has been established,
leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science (in the College of Liter-
ature, Science, and the Arts), and the Diploma in Nursing (in the
Training School for Nurses.) It is described in detail on page 152.

Public Health Nursing

A program in Public Health Nursing has been introduced, in-
cluding both theoretical and field work. Graduate Registered Nurses
and senior pupil nurses of approved schools will be admitted, pro-
vided their preliminary education has been adequate to enable them
to pursue the course with profit. Further information may be ob-
tained by addressing Mrs. Barbara H. Bartlett, B.S., Director of
Training in Public Health Nursing.



MEDICAL BUILDINGS

The Medical building, completed in 1903, measures 175 by 145
feet, with an interior court, measuring 75 by 45 feet, and has a high
basement and three stories. It provides accommodation for the de-
partments of hygiene, bacteriology, physiological chemistry, pathol-
ogy, anatomy, histology, and embryology. It contains, further, two
large amphitheatres, two lecture rooms, a faculty room, and the offices
of the Dean and the Secretary.

The department of physiology and pharmacology have been pro-



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488 Medical School



vided for in the north wing of the building vacated by the depart-
ment of chemistry. This building has been entirely rebuilt and re-
furnished, and in addition to the large laboratories, for general stu-
dent use, there are also smaller rooms for the accommodation of
assistant and research students.



BEQUESTS

The Elizabeth H. Bates Bequest

In the spring of 1898, Dr. Elizabeth H. Bates, of Port Chester,
N. Y., died leaving to the Medical School an estate valued at about
$140,000. Dr. Bates was in active practice for many years. She took
a deep interest in the medical education of women, and the bequest
may be looked upon as a recognition by her of the successful efforts
made by the University of Michigan to give to women medical in-
struction equal to that furnished to men. In accordance with a pro-
vision of the will the title of Bates Professor of Diseases of Women
and Children has been given to Dr. Reuben Peterson. (The didactic
and clinical work in connection with children's diseases is in charge
of the chair of Pediatrics and Infectious Diseases.)

The TreadweU Bequest

The late Mrs. Edward TreadweU, of Ann Arbor, bequeathed to
the University Hospital the sum of $2,000.

The Dayis Bequest

The late Mrs. Davis, of New Castle, Ind., made the University
Hospital and the Ann Arbor Society for the Prevention of Cruelty
to Animals her residuary legatees. The value of this bequest is about
$2,000.

The Palmer Bequest

Mrs. Palmer, widow of Professor Alonzo B. Palmer, formerly
Dean of this School, left the sum of thirty-five thousand dollars to
the Hospital, and the "Palmer Ward" has been erected and equipped
as a memorial to this distinguished pioneer in American medicine.

In addition to the above sum, Mrs. Palmer left $15,000, the in-
come from which is used to support free beds in the University Hos-
pital.



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Pecs and Expenses 489

The Mary J. Furnum Bequest

By the will of the late Mary J. Furnum, of Ann Arbor, there
was bequeathed to the Palmer Hospital Fund the sum of $1,000, the
interest from which, by resolution of the Board of Regents, is to
be used for the purpose of apparatus for the study of Children's
Diseases.

The Mary Skeels Gradle Memorial Fond

Mr. Walter Gradle, Lit. 1900, of Chicago, Illinois, has given to
the University Hospital for the use of the Children's Ward, the sum
of $1,000, to be known as the Mary Skeels Gradle Memorial Fund.

Fund of the Class of 1890

Some years ago this class raised a sum of five hundred dollars
to aid worthy students in finishing their courses. This amount has
been paid and is in the hands of the treasurer of the University. In
191 5 the class voted to raise an additional five hundred dollars to be
added to this sum.

The Samuel M. Feinberg Memorial Fund

This fund was established in memory of Samuel M. Feinbecg by
his wife. Dr. Olga Pickman Feinberg, and his sister-in-law, Mrs.
Simeon M. Feinberg. Mr. Feinberg was a student enrolled in the
second class of the Medical school at the time of his death on
December 20, 19 18. This bequest of $600 is to be used in the form
of loans to senior students enrolled in the Medical School.

RULES GOVERNING PARTICIPATION IN PUBLIC
ACTIVITIES



Online LibraryUniversity of MichiganCatalogue of the University of Michigan → online text (page 43 of 75)