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Catalogue of the University of Michigan online

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For the rules governing participation in public activities, see
page 10 1.



FEES AND EXPENSES

The Matriculation Fee and the Annual Fee must be paid in ad-
vance, and no student can enter upon his work until after such pay-
ment. For the rules governing Second Semester fees and the refund-
ing of fees, see page 117.



Matriculation Fees. — For Michigan students, ten dollars; for
all others, twenty- five dollars.



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490 Medical School



Annual Fee. — For Michigan students, one hundred forty dollars
for men, one hundred thirty- fix dollars for women; for all others,
two hundred dollar t for men, one hundred ninety-six dollars for
women. This annual fee covers all necessary laboratory and dem-
onstration course fees.

Graduation Fee.— For all alike, ten dollars.

Laboratory and Demonstration Course Fees. — As noted above
under the general title of Fees and Expenses the annual fee which is
charged each student covers all necessary laboratory expenses and
no further payment of laboratory fee is required. However, in case
of students, other than medical students, who may desire to elect
any of the Laboratory or Demonstration Courses in the Medical
School, the following fees are charged to cover necessary expenses:

Anatomy fiojoo

Bacteriology 15.00

Physiological Chemistry 15/X)

Histology 10.00

PhjTtiology ^ 5.00

Pharmacology 5.00

Pathology lOXK)

Operative Surgery 10.00

Demonstration Course in Physical Diagnosis 5.00

Demonstration Course in Clinical Microscopy 5.00

Demonstration Course in Obstetrics 10.00

Demonstration Course in Neural Pathology 10.00

Demonstration Course in Ophthalmology $joo

Demonstration Course in Oto-Laryngology $X)0

A deposit of the amount indicated for each of the above is re-
quired before the work of the course is begun.

Practitioners' Courses. — A fee of ten dollars is charged to
graduate students for each course taken, in addition to the ordinary
laboratory expenses of the course.

The total amount of fees paid to the University during the whole
four years* couise for matriculation, incidental expenses, materials
used, and graduation is, for Michigan students, about $580.00, and
for all others, about $730.00, varying a little with the students' actual
laboratory expenses.

For additional information in regard to exp'^nses, see page 115.



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Law Schoor



A special A'tnouncementt giving further information in regard to
this School is published annually. For copies of this Announcement ,
or for other information relating to this School, address the Dean of
the Law School, Ann Arbor, Michigan,



The Law School of the University of Michigan was opened in
1859. The first Faculty was composed of James V. Campbell, Dean,
and Charles I. Walker and Thomas M. Cooley, Professors. With
these men as founders and leaders, the growth and influence of the
School were marked. The Faculty is now composed of twelve resi-
dent members, who devote themselves regularly and continuously to
the work of instruction, and of several non-resident lecturers, who
offer courses in special fields in law as indicated in the faculty list
elsewhere in this catalogue.

Instruction is offered in all the branches of the common law,
equity, the statute law of the United States, Roman law and some
of its modem adaptations, and the science of jurisprudence. It is be-
lieved, however, that students are best trained for the practice of
law by studying it not as mere dogma and collections of precedents,
but with a broader view of its origin, development, and function.
While, therefore, careful attention is given to practice, procedure, and
the other so-called practical features of the law, strong emphasis is
also laid upon the importance of a scholarly grasp of the law as a
science. The greater part of the instruction is given by means of the
free discussion of legal principles as disclosed in reported cases. This
anal3rtical study is supplemented by the practical and concrete features
of the work in the practice court, in trial practice, and the other pro-
cedural courses. Work of this character is so arranged as not to inter-
fere with the thorough and systematic study of the theory of the
law. After years of experimentation with and development of these
courses, results have been obtained which justify the Faculty in be-
lieving that this work is of value, not only in training students in
procedure but principally as throwing a clarifying and vivifying light
upon the theory of both procedural and substantive law.

There can be little doubt that the conceded efficiency of the mod-

• Formerly known as the Department of Law.



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49^ Law School



ern law school in our better universities is due in large part to the
fact that the instruction has been confined to the main purpose for
which law schools are established, viz., the study of law, to the ex-
clusion of all courses and methods which do not admit of dealing with
first-hand material, and in such way as to require intensive thinking
by the student. While the primary function of law schools is to train
men to practice law, nevertheless, in order that there may be oppor-
tunity for the training of law teachers, scholars and writers, the time
has undoubtedly come when instruction of an advanced nature should
be offered in some of the university law schools. To meet this re-
quirement this Law School offers advanced instruction in jurispru-
dence, the comparative study of law, history of law, philosophy of
law, the Roman law and other related subjects. A detailed announce-
ment of these courses will be found on page 505, and also in the
Announcement of the Graduate School.

The academic year extends from Tuesday, September 27, 192 1,
to Monday, June 19, 1922.

For information concerning the summer session of this School,
the chapter on the Summer Session.



DIRECTIONS TO APPLICANTS
ADMISSION

Before admission to the School, or to the entrance examination,
the applicant is required to present to the Dean the Treasurer's re-
ceipt for payment of the matriculation fee and the annual fee. It is
essential, therefore that he apply first to the Secretary at his office
in the Law building, register his name as a student in the Law
School, and pay his fees to the Treasurer of the University. He is
then entitled to apply for admission. In case of rejection, the money
paid preliminary to the examination is refunded by the Treasurer.



REQUIREMENTS FOR ADMISSION

Applicants, for admission to the first year class must be at least
nineteen, to the second class, twenty, and to the third year class,
twenty-one years of age. Applicants for admission to the fourth year
class or as special students must be at least twenty-one years of age.
Every applicant for admission, whether as a regular or as a special
student must present a certificate of character. This may be in the
form of a certificate of graduation, or of honorable dismissal from
the school with which the applicant was last connected, or, in the
case of special students who cannot present these, in the form of a
general letter as to character.



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Requirements for Admission 493



WHEN STUDENTS MAY ENTER

Students should enter at the beginning of the first semester or of
the Summer Session, though under special circumstances they may
enter, with the special permission of the Dean, at the beginning of
the second semester. In any case, for students not entering upon ad-
vanced standing, a full three years residence is required to complete
the curriculum. For this purpose three Summer Sessions count as one
year. In any case students are expected to enroll at the opening of
the session. Those who enter late necessarily lose much of the work,
and absences at that time are treated like other absences in reducing
the number of hours of credit that may be earned. In no event can
students who present themselves more than a month after the opening
of any session be permitted to work for credit toward graduation
during that session.

Candidates for advanced standing must present themselves for
examination one week before the opening of the School.

ADMISSION AS A CANDIDATE FOR A DEGREE

Graduates of approved universities or colleges and students who,
in addition to an academic or high school course of four years, have
satisfactorily completed two full years of work in an approved uni-
versity or college, are admitted to the school as candidates for the
degree. The school does not specify any particular subjects which
must be taken during the required years of college work. In gen-
eral, students are advised to take such courses as those suggested for
A two-yeai preliminary curriculum in the College of Literature, Sci-
ence, and the Arts, of this University on page 150. Work of high
school or academic grade taken during the college year will not be
accepted as meeting the requirement of a college year. College
courses in which there are unremoved conditions or other deficiencies
will not be accepted.

In all cases the applicant should present to the Dean of the
School, before the time of application for admission, evidence that he
comes within some one of the classes named. This, in the case of a
university or college graduate, should be in the form of a certificate
of graduation ; in the case of other applicants, in the form of a cer-
tificate showing in detail the conditions of admission and the univer-
sity or college work accomplished, and including an honorable dis-
missal signed by the proper authority. A diploma will not be ac-
cepted as evidence of the completion of the required work. Such cer-
tificates, when filled out, should be mailed to the Dean of the school
at the earliest possible time. The applicant will save time and prevent
inconvenience and possible confusion by filing his credentials before
September first.

The college or university work required for admission to the Law
School is entirely distinct and separate from law work and cannot



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494 Law School



be taken in the Law School. It must be pursued in the College of
Literature, Science, and the Arts of this University, or in some other
approved college or university.

All students planning to pursue this required college work in
this University preliminary to entering the Law School should make
their applications for admission to the Registrar. Students who have
taken their college work in other colleges or universities, should make
their applications for admission directly to the Dean of the Law
School.

ADMISSION OF SPECIAL STUDENTS

Persons who are more than twenty-one years of age, but whote
preliminary training has not been sufficiently extensive to satisfy the
requirements for admission as special students^ fnay, in exceptional
cases, be admitted as special students. The entry of special students
is not encouraged. Applicants for admission under this rule must
submit to the Dean recommendations as to character and evidence of
the possession of general education, maturity, experience, and excep-
tional ability that may be considered a fair equivalent of the formal
preliminary requirements made in the case of regular students.

No one should present himself for admission as a special stu-
dent until he has first received from the Dean assurance that his ap-
plication has been favorably acted upon.

ADMISSION TO ADVANCED STANDING

Admission to advanced standing is upon examination. Persons
who have the necessary qualifications for admission to the school,
and who have satisfactorily completed work in an approved law
school, may, upon presentation of a certificate of scholarship and of
honorable dismissal from such school, become candidates for advanced
standing in the school to the extent of the work so completed. The
certificate should show the nature of the work, the time it was pur-
sued, the text books used, and the grades received.

All candidates for advanced standing should secure the above
mentioned certificates of preparatory work and of legal study and
send them to the Dean of the school before presenting themselves for
admission. He will then inform them whether they may receive ad-
vanced credit and the time that will probably be required to complete
the course.

In the fall of 192 1 examinations for admission to advanced stand-
ing will be held from September 19 to 26. All candidates are
expected to communicate with tlie Secretary of the Law School before
appearing for examination.

The summer session of the school offers advantages to applicants
for advanced standing, which are explained in the chapter on the
Summer Session.



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Class Rating 495



COMBINED CURRICULUM IN LETTERS
AND LAW

The marked tendency of the day is toward an increasingly thor-
ough equipment for every profession. In no profession has the
standard of proficiency more rapidly advanced than in the law. Ac-
cordingly every student expecting to enter this school is urged to take
as thorough and complete a collegiate course as his circumstances will
permit. All who can do so are, therefore, urged to consider the com-
bined curriculum in letters and law more fully described on page 149.
It is the aim of this curriculum to provide a broad collegiate train-
ing with a thorough technical preparation for the practice of law.

SIX-YEAR COMBINED CURRICULUM

By taking the Combined Curriculum in Letters and Law it is now
possible for students to shorten from seven to six years the time re-
quired to earn the degrees of Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Laws
.or Juris Doctor. The work of students who receive permission to
enter upon the combined curriculum is under the supervision of the
joint special committee consisting for the current year of Professors
Effinger, Bates, Hall, Holbrook, and Cross.

A fuller description of the combined curriculum may be found
on pages 149 and 150, where may be found, also, for those who cannot
take the full six-year curriculum, a suggested two-year program pre-
liminary to the study of law.



CLASS RATING

It is exi>ected that students will, at the time of their admission to
the school apply for and obtain such class rating as they may desire
and be entitled to, and that such rating will be final. But in case of
subsequent unexpected change in circumstances or condition, applica-
tion may be made to the Dean, at the beginning of a semester only,
for a change in classification or work.

DEGREES

Three Year Carriculiim (LL.B.)

The degree of Bachelor of Laws is conferred upon those students
in the School who have met the entrance requirements for candidates
for the degree, as stated on page 493, and who have satisfactorily
completed the three year curriculum, in accordance with the regula-



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49^ Lazv School



tioos established by the faculty. For those who come without ad-
vanced standing in law, this means regular attendance thronghont
three University years, or the equivalent in University years and sum-
mer sessions. For this purpose, three summer sessions may be con-
sidered as the equivalent of one University year. This period of at-
tendance may be proportionately reduced for students who enter upoQ
advanced standing. In no case, however, will this degree be conferred
upon any student who has not been in attendance for at least the
entire senior year of the course.

Three Year Curricnltim (JJ).)

The degree of Juris Doctor (J.D.) is conferred upon students
who have obtained the degree of Bachelor of Arts, or a substantially
equivalent degree, either- in the College of Literature, Science, and
the Arts, of this University, or in some other approved college or uni*
versity, and who have pursued the study of Law in this School for
three University years, or in any approved law school for one year
and in this school for at least two years, and who have maintained
an exceptionally high standard of scholarship in at least three-fourths
of their law work, computed on the basis of hours of credit. ,

Fourth Year Curriculum (LL.1I.)

The degree of Master of Laws will be conferred upon those stu-
dents who hold the degree of Bachelor of Laws from an approved in-
stitution, and who have completed in this School a fourth year of
work as prescribed by the faculty, and explained on page 505.

The Four Year Curricultim (LL.H. or J.D.)

Students who meet the entrance requirement of two yt&n of
college work and enter upon the four year curriculum may receive
the degree of Master of Laws ( LL.M.) or the degree of Juris Doctor
(J.D.) according to the standard of scholarship maintained by them
in the Law School. The degree of Juris Doctor (J.D.) is conferred
upon those students who have pursued the study of law for four years
in any approved law school, of which at least two years, including
the final year, must be taken in this School, and who have maintained
an exceptionally high standard of scholarship in at least three-fourths
of their law work^ computed on the basis of hours of credit.

The degree of Master of Laws is conferred upon those students
who have completed the four-year curriculum, as above set forth, and
who have maintained a satisfactory standard of scholarship through-
out, but not the exceptionally high standard required of those who
receive the degree of Juris Doctor.



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Law Curriculum 497



REGULATIONS APPLICABLE TO ALL DEGREES

Credit earned in the summer sessions will be counted toward
these degrees.

Only those who are present in person may receive diplomas on
Commencement Day. Others who have satisfied all the requirements
for graduation, including the payment of the graduation fee, will
receive their degrees at a subsequent meeting of the Board of
Regents.

The graduation fee of ten dollars must be paid to the Treasurer
of the University at least twenty-five days prior to the date of
graduation.

LIBRARY

The Law Library now contains over forty-five thousand volumes,
including all the published reports of the courts of last retort of
every state in the Union and those of most of the intermediate appel-
late courts, the Federal Courts, and the English, Scotch, Irish, and
British Colonial Reports. Duplicate, and in some cases triplicate sets
of several of these reports have been added. There is also an extensive
collection of treatises and text-books, both English and American.
Nearly complete sets of statutes and session laws of the United States,
Great Britain- and her colonies, and practically all of the American
and English legal periodicals are in the Library.

The Library has been enriched by a number of gifts from friends
of the University, including the Honorable Richard Fletcher, form-
erly one of the Justices of the Supreme Court of Massachusetts, the
Honorable O. H. Dean, of Kansas City, and the heirs of the late
Honorable Christian H. Buhl, of Detroit the Honorable Samuel T.
Douglass, formerly one of the Justices of the Supreme Court of
Michigan, and the Honorable Thomas M. Cooley.

The General Library of the University, which contains more
than four hundred thousand volumes, is open to use by students in
the Law School. It is rich in works of interest and importance to
the lawyer.

THE LAW CURRICULUM

Courses: ReguUtions as to Credit

To secure the degree of LL.B. or the degree of J.D. in the three
year curriculum the student must complete three years of law work
as prescribed by the regulations of the School; the scope of this work
is indicated in the following pages. The curriculum is a graded one
and extends through three years of nine months each. The student
by entering upon his work in June may complete the full curriculum
in three summer sessions and two full years. The courses offered in
the summer session are described in a later chapter.

To secure the degree of Master of Laws (LL.M.) or the degree



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49^ Law School



of Juris Doctor (J.D.) in the four year curriculum the student must
complete four years of work as prescribed by the regulations of the
School; the scope of this work is indicated in the following pages.
The four year curriculum is also a graded one, and extends through
four years of nine months each. Work taken during the summer
session is counted toward the degrees in this curriculum, and as three
summer sessions are the equivalent of one full 3rear of work, various
combinations for saving elapsed time may be made.



COURSES OF INSTRUCTION

The following is a statement of the work offered in the School.
Without special permission from the Facuhy not more than 13 hours
can be elected in any semester after the first semester of the first
year. At the opening of each semester a schedule showing the hoars
of recitations and the books used in the various courses is published
and distributed.

FIRST YEAR .

FIRST SEMESTER

Common Law Pleading. — Three hours a week. Professor Sunder-
land.

Contracts 7. — Formation of a contract, parties to contracts, and the
Statute of Frauds. Four hours a week. Professor Aiglee.

Criminal Law and Procedure. — ^Two hours a week. Professor Waite.

Property I. — The law of personal property; also in the law of real
property, the topics of tenure, estates, seisin, statute of uses,
fixtures, emblements, and waste. Three hours a week. Pro-
fessor Drake.

Torts, — Three hours a week. Professor Wilgus.

second semester

Common Law Pleading (Continued). — Two hours a week. Professor
Sunderland.

Contracts U. — Operation, interpretation, and discharge of contract.
Four hours a week. Professor Aiglee.

Criminal Law and Procedure (Continued). — Two hours a week. Pro-
fessor Waite.

Property IL — Natural rights, profits, easements, covenants running
with the land at law, equitable restrictions, public rights, and
rents. Three hours a week. Professor Shartel.

Torts (Continued). — Two hours a week. Professor W1LOU8.



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Courses of Instruction 499

SECOND YEAR

FIRST SEMESTER

Equity, — Three hours a week. Professor DuRFES.
Evidence, — Two hours a week. Professor Lane.
Electives, — Seven or eight hours.

SECOND SEMESTER

Equity (Continued), — ^Three hours a week. Professor Durfee.
Evidence (Continued). — Two hours a week. Professor Lane.
Electives, — Seven or eight hours.

THIRD YEAR

nRST SEMESTER

Electives, — Twelve or thirteen hours.

SECOND SEMESTER

Electives, — Twelve or thirteen hours.

FOURTH YEAR

FIRST SEMESTER

Roman Law. — ^This course will be made an introduction to compara-
tive law, with a study of selections from the Roman Corpus
Jnris» treatises on modern civil law and the modem codes and,
so far as may be possible, the tracing of the development of
fundamental legal concepts in the derivatives of the Roman
system. Pound's '* Readings in Roman Law" will be used as
the basis of the course, but a reading knowledge of Latin and
of French or German is most desirable. Three hours a week.
Professor Drake.

Electives, — Nine or ten hours.

SECOND semester

Jurisprudence, — The philosophic bases of law, a study of the concept
of justice and its relation to law in the Continental and Eng-
lish systems. The course will be given as a proseminary, with
lectures by the instructor and topical studies and reports by
the students. The various systems of judicial philosophy will
be examined with the purpose of determining, if possible, their
bearing upon the practical problems of our present day law.
No text-book will be used but the several volumes of the
"I^gal Philosophy Series" will be drawn upon for the studies
and reports. Three hours a week. Professor Drake.

Elective^.—Wmt or ten hours.



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500 Law School



ELECTIVES

In addition to the above prescribed courses, each candidate for
a degree will elect, from the following courses, enough hours to com-
plete the requirements for a degree. Except when the contrary is
expressly stated, all of the following courses will normally be offered
every year. As to a few of these courses, however, the right is re-
served to omit them, or to give them only in alternate years, in case
such action is required.

Agency, including Master and Servant. — Two hours a week for the
year. Professor Dickinson.

Bailments and Carriers, — Brief consideration of bailments in gen-
eral, and particular attention to the law of pledge, innkeepers
and common carriers of goods ; carriers of passengers ; the Post
Office, and telegraph and telephone companies, as carriers of



Online LibraryUniversity of MichiganCatalogue of the University of Michigan → online text (page 44 of 75)