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accredited high school arc required for admission to this Medical
School. The preliminary years may be taken in the College of Litera-
ture, Science, and the Arts of this University or in another university
or college of acceptable rank. The secondary school work must in-
clude two units of Latin, and should also include Physics and Chem-
istry. It is advisable that Botany, Zoology, and either French or Ger-
man should also be included. The two years of collegiate work must
inclvde two years of French or German (or one year in addition to
two years of the same language in high school), one year of Physics,
one of Botany and Zoology, and two years of Chemistry (or one and
one-lialf in addition to one in high school). The courses in science
must include laboratory work. The collegiate work must amount to
sixty semester hours of graduation average.

(I Credits

Credits not earned in this University may come from any col-
lege or university, of like standing, and should include full work in
each of the sciences. Biology, Chemistry and Physics. A reading
knowledge of German or French is very desirable. The following
scheme will serve as a guide:

L Chemistry: General. Qualitative, and Organic. The first two
must be and the third should be with thorough laboratory
drill.
11. College Physics, with laboratory.
111. General Biology, including both Zoology and Botany, with lab-
oratory.
IV. Rhetoric and English Composition.
V. German or French, preferably German.

In all laboratory courses, a well-kept note book is required.

While Chemistry, Physics, and Biology are required, and the
languages recommended in the order given, students may, especially
if already proficient in a part of the list, select some subjects not
mentioned. It is advised that those who take the year^ of collegiate



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524 Homwopathic Medical School

studies outside this University, communicate with the Dean of the
College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, who will* be pleased to
make suggestions that may be deserving of consideration. Blanks
will be furnished upon application, to all who wish to submit for
review and evaluation an outline of their preparatory studies.

Further ParticuUrt

For the puipose of having credits reviewed, for advice as to
pre-medical courses, and for special consideration of individual, pecu-
liar, or irregular cases, as soon as one seriously contemplates studying
medicine in this school he is advised to communicate with the Dean.

On arriving in Ann Arbor, students should apply at the office of
the Dean or. Secretary of this School. These offices will be open daily
during the latter part of September, and some one who can give in-
formation will be in attendance. An inquiry addressed to either the
Dean or the Secretary of the Homoeopathic Medical School of the
University of Michigan will receive prompt and cordial attention.



ADMISSION TO ADVANCED STANDING

Persons who have studied medicine elsewhere may be admitted to
advance standing upon evidence of proficiency in the studies which
have been pursued already by the class to which they seek admission,
provided their credentials for admission to medical college were of
equal grade with those of this college at the time when they first
registered in medicine, and that the institution from which they come
is of approved standing.

The rank of the college from which the credentials arc presented
will be taken into consideration as well as the letters of honorable
dismissal. The rule has been adopted that students are not received
who have conditions standing against them in the college from which
they come.



STATEMENT TO STUDENTS CONTEMPLAT-
ING THE STUDY OF MEDICINE

Although the time for qualifying as a physician after leaving
high school is longer and the expense correspondingly greater than
formerly, the time and money is well spent. There never has been a
time in the history of this school, when its graduates were so much in
demand and when positions in hospitals, laboratories and public serv-
ice were so numerous and inviting. Besides there are locations for
lucrative general and special practice always awaiting such physi-
cians as the Faculty can recommend, Correspondence ui>on this sub-
ject is invited by the Dean.



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Courses of Instruction 525

COMBINED CURRICULA IN LETTERS AND
MEDICINE

A.B. AND M.D.

Students desiring to obtain the degrees of Bachelor of Arts in
the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, and of Doctor of
Medicine in the Homoeopathic Medical School, may, by enrolling on
the Combined Curriculum in Letters and Medicine, shorten from
eight years to seven the time required to earn the two degrees. This
privilege is open only to students who throughout their course main-
tain a uniform record of good scholarship. The work is under the
direction of a Committee of five members representing the College
of Literature, Science, and Arts, and the Homoeopathic Medical
School. With the consent of the Committee in charge, a candidate for
the degree of Bachelor of Arts, who has been a student in the College
of Literature, Science, and Arts, for at least one year, and has 90
or more hours to his credit, of which at least 30 hours have been
earned in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts of this
University, may enroll upon the combined curriculum; that is, while
continuing his registration in this College he may register in the
Homoeopathic Medical School, provided the work he has already
completed includes a sufficient number of the courses enumerated
below to enable him to confplete within one year the specific require-
ments described in the following paragraphs.

Students desiring to enter upon the Combined Curriculum in
Letters and Medicine must, before May 15 of the year of residence
preceding the double registration, file with the Registrar of the Col-
lege of Literature, Science, and the Arts formal application made
out upon a proper blank obtained from that office.

When the student so registered in the college and school has
completed the first year of the medical curriculum, and not less than
90 hours in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, he will
be recommended for the degree of Bachelor of Arts, provided he has
completed the requirements for graduation from the latter college
(see page 138) and provided his work has included the following
courses :

Rhetoric, 6 hours, including Courses i and 2.

French and German, 16 hours of either one, and 8 hours of the
other.

English, 6 hours.

Psychology, 6 hours.

Electives from Group III, 12 hours, unless excused in part by
the Committee.

Physics, 8 hours, including two hours of laboratory work. Plane
trigonometry and a unit of preparatory physics are pre-
requisite for this work.



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526 Honuropathic Medical School

Chemistry, general, qualitative, and organic, 12 hours for stu-
dents presenting Chemistry for entrance, otherwise i6 hours
Botany, 4 hours.
Zoology, 10 hours.
Total, 90 hours.

Suggested electives: Latin or Elementary Greek, 8 hours; His-
tory, or Economics, or Philosophy, 8 hours; Qualitative Analysis, 4
hours; Organic Chemistry, 5 hours.

B.S. (IN MED.) AND M.D.

Students who so desire, may obtain the degree of Bachelor of
Science, in Medicine and Doctor of Medicine in six calendar years
by complying with the requirements above set forth, except that they
must complete the first and second years of the medical curriculum
and that the credit required from the College of Literature, Science,
and the Arts, instead of 90 hours, shall be 67 hours before they enroll
upon the combined curriculum, and 75 hours before they receive the
B.S. (in Med.) degree, and shall include the following courses:

Rhetoric, 6 hours, including Courses I and 2.

French or German, 1^ hours of one.

Electives from Group III, 12 hours.

Physics, 8 hours, including two hours of laboratory work. Plane
trigonometry and a unit of preparatory physics are pre-
requisite for this work.

Chemistry, general, qualitative, and organic, 12 hours for stu-
dents presenting Chemistry for entrance, otherwise 16 hours.

Biology, 8 hours.

Total, 75 hours.

Electives are suggested from the courses before mentioned.

Students taking the six-year program will ordinarily need to
attend the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts two and one-
half years, or two years and two Snnuner Sessions. If their scholar-
ship is sufficiently high, they may apply for permission to elect a
limited number of extra hours.



CHARACTER OF INSTRUCTION

The university plan is to provide instruction in one college or
school that may count for credits in .nnother college or school, thereby
avoiding the duplication of teachers and courses. Students studying
six years receive much of their instruction in the College of Litera-
ture, Science, and the Arts, as previously indicated. Four-year stu-
dents also receive their instruction in Chemistry in that college and
their instruction in Medical Jurisprudence in the Law School. Much



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Courses of Instruction 527

of the laboratory and preliminary scientific training is taken with
the students in the Medical School. The subjects which are under
the immediate charge of members of the faculty of the Homoeopathic
Medical School are here outlined.

Materia Medica and Therapeutics

Materia medica is taught as a natural science. Three lectures are
given weekly, based as far as possible on studies of the original
provings, paying special attention to the genius of each drug, its
characteristics, and its relationship to other drugs. The physiologi-
cal action of drugs, as ordinarily understood, is duly considered.

Systematic instruction in the principles and philosophy of Hom-
oeopathy is a natural feature. The course is given to the whole body
of students, beginners as well as the more advanced, in order to fix
in their minds the underlying principles of the science of homoeo-
pathic practice.

A thorough laboratory course in drug proving is a special feature
of this School. Students are required to do a certain amount of
original work in drug pathogenesy under the supervision of the Di-
rector of the Pathogenic Laboratory.

Prindplea of Medicine

The principles of medicine are taught in a separate course set-
ting forth the scientific explanation of disease and the principles
upon which a system of cure must be constructed. Attention is
given to historic medicine and the various systems that have been in
vogue as a means of attempted cure. In the medical clinic the idea
is never lost sight of that the function of the physician is to cure the
sick, and that to accomplish this end accurate prescribing is of the
highest importance.

Theory and Practice

The instruction in theory and practice is didactic and clinic. The
subject is divided into separate courses covering all the ground, both
general and special, with which a physician in general practice must
be familiar. In this connection a special course in diseases peculiar
to childhood, and in the feeding of infants and invalids, is given.
The aim is to make the student, by applying his knowledge of
pathology, a good diagnostician, and by his knowledge of materia
■medica, a good prescriber. In the clinics especial attention is given
to dietetics and similar means of treatment.

Pediatrics

Especial attention is given to Diseases of Children as an inde-
pendent branch. Lectures are given upon the diseases incident to the
extremes of life in which the susceptibilities of nurslings and grow-



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5^8 Homoeopathic Medical School

ing children are taught separately. The contagious and infectious
diseases peculiar to childhood are considered in the lectures upon In-
fectious Diseases. A special course upon the Management of Children
is given in the Training School for Nurses; the medical students arc
required to attend certain ones of these lectures. The important sub-
ject of Infant Feeding is referred to under Dietetics. An annex ac-
commodating eighty children, complete within itself, connected with
the main hospital building by a wide passageway, has been completed
and is now occupied.

Medical and Physical Diagnosis

Diagnosis is taught as a separate branch. The subject occupies
one hour a week throughout two entire years.

In addition to regular class-room work and recitations, the stu-
dents are divided into sections and examine the patients in the hos-
pital, under the direction of the instructor in charge. Diagnosis
clinics, in which all diagnostic means are employed are held regularly.

General Surgery

The work in surgery follows the following outline:

1. A course of lectures to students in the second year upon
minor surgery and bandaging,

2. A course upon the principles of surgery.

3. A complete course upon operative surgery, features, and
dislocations.

4. An examination and diagnosis clinic is held twice a week
for the senior and junior classes. All patients presenting themselves
for surgical treatment are examined and a clinical diagnosis made»
which is checked up by the subsequent operative and pathological
findings.

5. Operations upon the cadaver; a sufficient number of subjects
is provided by the authorities without expense to the class. Each
candidate for graduation is required to demonstrate his knowledge
of operative surgery in this practical manner.

Students are assigned cases to diagnose and to present to the
class. Under proper direction they are required to make the neces-
sary preparations for operations and to assist when assistance is neces-
sary. Advanced students, under the immediate supervision of the
surgeon or his assistant, treat patients upon whom operations have
been made.

Gynecology

Gynecology is taught in three courses : —

I. Minor gynecology, dealing with the methods of diagnosis, the
use of instruments used in operations, and the technique of opera-
tions themselves.



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Courses of Instruction 529

2. Major gynecology, dealing with the graver aspects of the
subjects such as adventitious growth, extensive injuries, methods of
making gynecological examinations, and the medical and operative
treatment indicated.

3. Clinical instruction. The hospital furnishes a superabundance
of cases in all kinds of diseases peculiar to women." Each week sev-
eral major and many more minor operations are performed. The
students in this clinic, the same as in general surgery, prepare pa-
tients for operations, assist at the operating table, give ancesthetics,
and have the after-care of cases and do the necessary surgical dress-
ings, under the direction of the professor himself or of his assistant.

Obstetrics

Students are taught the physiology of gestation, the pathologi-
cal conditions that may be encountered in that period and in the
puerperium, the principles of cleanliness, the mechanics of parturi-
tion and the manipalation of instruments. In the sub-clinics they
familiarize themselves with the various methods of practicing "touch"
palpitation, obstetric auscultation, etc.

Cases in obstetrics are assigned to each senior for his especial
delivery and personal attendance. The many patients that come to
the Maternity Home from various parts of the state are utilized to
the best possible advantage.

Ophthalmology

Regular lectures on this important specialty, amply illustrated
from the abundance of clinical material at the disposal of the Fac-
ulty, are given in the fourth year. The eye clinic forms one of the
most interesting features of the clinical work, and affords the class
every facility for a thorough, practical study of all diseases of the
eye that come under the observation of the physician. Students have
cases assigned them for dressing and treatment, and thus acquire
skill and knowledge in diagnosis, and in the use of the various in-
struments. A special course is given in the correction of errors of
refraction.

Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology

The basis of the instruction, as in other departments will be ma-
terial that has always been sufficient, afforded by the in and out-
patient departments of the hospital. There are, at every clinic, from
twenty to thirty patients awaiting medical, topical, or surgical treat-
ments of diseases of the ear, nose, and throat. The students are re-
quired to make instrumental as well as other examinations, to make
diagnoses, and to indicate the lines of treatment under the super-
vision of the professor. Regular courses of lectures upon these sub-
jects are given to third and fourth year students.



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530 Homoeopathic Medical School



Mental and Nervous Diaeases

In the dep&rtment of diseases of the nervous system weekly clinics
are held. Practical courses are given upon the various phases of the
mentally defective and the insane. There is an abundance of clinical
material to demonstrate all the more frequent forms of nervous dis-
eases as well as many of the rarer ones.

Dermatology

The courses in Dermatology consists of lectures, quizzes, and a
weekly clinic which is well supplied with material. Photographic,
lithographic, and stereopticon plates are used in the differential dem-
onstrations.

The department is well equipped with the latest Roentgen Ray
and other electrical appliances, and practical instruction is given in
their general and special adaptability to the treatment of malignant
diseases of the skin.

Genito-Urinary Diseases

The instruction includes two distinct courses :

1. A quiz and demonstration course, with weekly recitations.

2. A clinic which is made up of the cases in the hospital requir-
ing either medical or operative treatment. This clinic is quite dis-
tinct from any of the other surgical or medical departments, and is
given by the professor who also teaches Dermatology, a subject many
times involving genito-urinary problems.

Toxicology

The class is given a practical knowledge of the different poisons
and their antidote. Especial attention is given to the physiological
action of drugs and chemicals. The relation existing between drug
action in producing abnormal conditions and diseases as they arise
from natural or idiopathic cause is constantly kept before the stu-
dent. This is a new course and a very important one. It really in-
cludes very much more than the subject of poisons and antidotes.
Whenever a medico-legal opinion is pertinent, it is presented. Illus-
trations of a practical nature are introduced and experiments on ani-
mals employed.

Pharmacy and Pharmacology

These subjects are largely covered in the departments of Materia
Medica, Toxicology, and in the pathogenetic laboratory. Special in-
struction is also given upon the origin, preparation, and administra-
tion of remedies.



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Courses of Instruction 531



Drug Proving

A practical laboratory in Pathogenetics has been instituted in the
hospital, with a special director in charge. Volunteer students, ac-
cepted with reference to their physical merit, are put through severe
tests under constant observation of the Director. A diet-table is
provided for the provers, free of cost to themselves, that entire con-
trol may be had over them while they are testing drugs. As a result
of the work done in this laboratory the School has been able to pub-
lish a number of instructive, original reports.

Dietetict

A course is given in which the problems of food in relation to
health and disease are discussed. The feeding of invalids and in-
fants is given special attention. In the clinics, whenever the question
of the effects cf diet, the preparation of foods and drinks, and their
proper administration can be profitably considered, the most is made
of the opportunity. There is in the hospital a diet kitchen, in charge
of a scientific dietitian in which the special diet lists are prepared
and from which they are served. The senior students in charge of
cases, under proper supervision are required to make out orders for
the feeding of their patients and to observe the preparation of the
food.

Electro-therapentica

This department receives the prominence that so important a
branch of therapeutics deserves.

The aim is to teach theoretically and practically the subject of
electricity as it will be employed in the office of the physician in
general practice. The use of the X-ray is also included in this de-
partment.

The hospital is equipped with much new and special apparatus,
which, beside being in constant service is used in a thorough course
of instruction, with clinical applications, for the fourth year students.

Demonstration Courses in the Specialties

Before graduation each student is required to do actual work in
demonstrating his medical and surgical skill. By operating upon the
cadaver and upon animals; by manipulation of manikins and models;
by actual dressing of wounds, and bandaging; by thorough drill in
the practical use of the opthalmoscope, the laryngoscope, the test case,
and in the fitting of glasses; by the use of the microscope and the
spectroscope ; by the making of tinctures and dilutions ; by bedside
demonstrations and examinations; by actual prescribing; by these
methods of the students become practical and are prepared to make
successful physicians. The classes are divided into sections, and each



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532 Homccopathic Medical School

individual has His share of actual work. For these demonstration
courses there is no extra expense. Students assist at operations and
take turns in ward visiting. They are also required to take, and
arrange in writing the histories and to keep the records of patients
that are assigned to them in rotation.

These histories are read in the classes, reviewed and corrected
by the clinician, and preserved as permanent records of. the hospital.



DESCRIPTION OF COURSES

The following summary shows the arrangement of the instruction
in the subjects named for the several years and semesters. This order
is subject to change, as adjustment of courses and lectures can not
always be made to conform to an invariable schedule.

MATERIA MEDICA

1. Materia Medica. Lectures and recitations. Three times a week.

Third and fourth years. Professor Dewey.

2. Therapeutic Principles. Lectures and recitations. Once a week

for a semester. First and second years. Professor Dewey.

3. See Theory and Practice. Courses 4 and 6.

THEORY OF PRACTICE AND DIAGNOSIS

1. Treatment. Lectures and recitations. Once a week. Professor

Hinsdale.

2. Medical Diagnosis. Recitations and demonstrations. Twice a

week. Second and third years. Assistant Professors Boekicke
and Boyd.

3. Practice. Lectures and quizzes. Once a week. Third and fourth

year. Assistant Professor Boericke.

4. Treatment. Lectures and quizzes. Once a week. Fourth year.

Professor Hinsdale.

5. General Medicine. Clinical Courses. Two consecutive hours.

Daily. Third and fourth years. Professor Hinsdale, and As-
sistant Professors BoERicKa and Boyd.

6. Bedside Studies, Laboratory Diagnosis and Prescribing. Every

day from 8 to 9 a. m. Fourth year students in partie» of
two. Professor Hinsdale and Staff.



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Courses of Instruction 533

MENTAL Ann NESVOUS DISEASES

1. Lectures. Once a week. Third and fourth years. Professor

Dewey.

2. Clinics. Once a week. Assistant Professor Boyd.

SURGERY

1. Fractures and Principles of Surgery. Twice a week. Two

hours. Second year. Professor Beebe.

2. Lectures in General Surgery. Twice a week. Two hours. Third

year. Dr. Closz.

3. Lectures in General Surgery. Twice a week. Third and fourth

years. Professor Beebe.

4. Surgical Diagnosis. Twice a week. Third and fourth years.

Professor Beebe.
Out patients at same hours. Dr. Closz.

5. Surgical Operative Clinic. Three times a week. Third and
fourth years. Professor Beebe and Dr. Closz.

6, Genito-Urinary and Cystoscopic Examination Clinic. Twice a

week. Third and fourth, years. Professor Beebe and Dr.
Closz.

7. Genito-Urinary Operative Clinic. Once a week. Third and

fourth years. Professor Beebe and Dr. Closz.

GYNECOLOGY AND OBSTETRICS

1. Major Gynecology. Lectures and recitations. Twice a week.

Third and fourth years.. Professor Runnels.

2. Minor Gynecology. Lectures and recitations. Once a week.

Third year. Dr. Johnson.

3. Obstetrics. Lectures and recitations. Three times a week.

Third and fourth years. Professor Runnels.

4. Gynecological Clinic. Four times a week. Third and fourth



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