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pain obtundents, local and general anaesthetics, prophylactic remedies,
and instruction in roentgenology.

Dental Oral Surgery

Two courses of lectures on clinical dental and oral surgery em-
brace a consideration of diseases of the teeth and mouth and asso-
ciated parts that are of special interest to the dentist, as well as those
that lie more within the province of the general surgeon for treat-
ment. Illustrative cases are exhibited and discussed, and operations
are performed before the class in the Dental and University Hospital
clinics each week, and in the Dental clinic each afternoon.

Operative Dentistry

In operative dentistry the instruction is both didactic and prac-
tical. In the didactic course, which is preceded by a course in opera-
tive technics, a full presentation of approved methods, appliances, and
materials used in filling teeth is given, together with the principles
which form the basis of practice. This instruction is supplemented
by practical instruction in the clinical operating room, which is under
the personal supervision of the professors of operative and clinical
dentistry and their assistants. Here each third and fourth-year stu-
dent is required to spend twenty hours each week at the chair, oper-
ating for patients, and in this way verifying the principles taught
and obtaining such manipulative training as will result in desirable
preparation for skillful practice.

Prosthetic Dentistry

In prosthetic dentistry the instruction is both didactic and prac-
tical. In the lectures, the principles involved in the construction and
application of artificial dentures, crowns and bridges, regulating de-
vices, and continuous-gum and cleft palate work are fully discussed,
and such methods as have proved valuable and worthy are advocated.


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54^ College of Dental Surgery

In the practical department each student in the second and third
years has opportunity and is required to construct and adapt to the
mouth practical dentures for the restoration of lost dental organs.

The instruction in prosthetic technics embraces experimental con-
struction of the various artificial dentures used to restore lost dental
organs. It consists in taking impressions, making plaster models
from impressions, making dies, swedging plates, and g^nding and ad-
justing teeth, soldering and finishing, vulcanizing and finishing plates,
pouring and finishing cast metal plates, and constructing various
styles of crowns, bridges, and regulating devices, with such instruc-
tion as will familiarize the student with the most approved methods
of doing such work.


At the end of each semester examinations are held on all sub-
jects taught during the semester, and the results are recorded in terms
of the following grades: A, excellent; B, good; C, fair or satisfac-
tory ; D, deficient : E, not passed. Students receiving a grade of D
in any course must remove the conditions during the semester follow-
ing the one in which it was received. No student who, at the end of
a year, has failed to pass in two of the required subjects of his coarse
is admitted to an advanced class daring the first semester of the fol-
lowing year.


The degree of Doctor of Dental Surgery is conferred upon those
students in the College of Dental Surgery who have complied with the
requirements for admission, possess a good moral character, have de-
voted four years to the study of dentistry, and have passed with sat-
isfactory grades all the courses contained in the curriculum given on
page 543.

Unless admitted to advanced standing, the candidate for this
(iegrec must have attended four full years in this College, and he is
atlviscd to attend them consecutively.


By permission of the Faculty, students may avail themselves of
numerous lectures in other departments, or elect studies in the Col-
lege of Literature, Science, and the Arts; or may attend special
lectures in the Medical School, on such subjects as are of importance
to the practicing dentist, without extra fees, except where laboratory
courses are taken.


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Requirements for Graduation 547


The Graduate School of the University of Michigan offers to
graduates of the four year course in dentistry, the opportunity to do
advanced work along certain specified lines in preparation for a
degree of Master of Science. Only those graduates are admitted who
have had sufficiently good records during their term of collegiate
work to warrant the supposition that they could creditably carry the
advanced studies. It is expected that all work done by a graduate
student will be of a superior grade. Students whose work has been
unsatisfactory will be requested to withdraw from the school.

A student may be recommended for the master's degree (M.S.)
after one year of resident study in the Graduate School providing
that the year has been spent in taking full work in studies of graduate
grade. No student can acquire a right to such recommendation mere-
ly by a formal compliance with this rule.

After a student has been admitted to study for the master's de-
gree, the teaching staffs of the departments concerned will outline
such work as will be required for the master's degree. This outline
must be approved by the Dean of the Graduate School and no student
will receive the degree until this requirement has been fulfilled. Fur-
ther information in regard to graduate work may be obtained by
application to the Dean of the Graduate School, University of Mich-
igan, and in the Announcement of the schedule and curriculum of
that school which will be sent upon application.


The College of Dental Surgery offers during the Summer Ses-
sion those parts of the regular curriculum in dentistry which are
taught in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, and in the
Medical School. (See the chapter on the Summer Session.)

One Summer Session is required immediately following the
Freshman year, as shown in the schedule. Unless advanced credit is
secured by the student in college physics, or other subjects included
in the dental curriculum which is acceptable to the teachers of that
subject, a summer session is necessary to graduation in four years.

All students desiring to pursue during the Summer Session
courses which are to be recognized by this College, should first con-
sult with the Dean of the College of Dental Surgery.

• See the chapter on the Graduate School.


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548 College of Dental Surgery


For general information relating to the University libraries, mu-
seums, laboratories^ hospitals, and gymnasiums, see pages 59 to 84
and 481 to 485.

Among the facilities of special interest to students of dentistry
the following may be mentioned :


The Dental College is housed in a modern fireproof building
82 X 166 feet. It contains two large well lighted laboratories for
instruction in prosthetic and operative technics, two operative clinic
rooms, one amphitheater, one lecture room, surgical and radiographic
rooms, a library and book vaults. There are also offices for the Dean
and Secretary of the College and special research laboratories for
members of the faculty. In the basement of the building two of the
local dental dealers have offices at which the necessary dental equip-
ment and supplies may be purchased. The large operative clinic room
is 34 X 166 feet, is well lighted by a north exposure and contains 94
complete outfits consisting of chair, cuspidor and cabinet. In the
smaller clinic there arc 16 similar operating units. Each Senior stu-
dent is assigned a chair which he retains throughout the year and
maintains as he would his own office.

The dental clinic draws its patients from a city of 20,000 inhab-
itants and from the 9,800 students in attendance at the University. A
large number of patients also come from the surrounding towns and
even from some distance in the state, remaining in the city to receive
dental services at the clinic. The character of the patients thus at-
tracted is above the average patrons of free dental clinics. 'They
desire the best dental service and are splendid subjects for teaching
the highest type of dental practice.

Radiographic and surgical clinics arc in operation each day, to
which a large number of patients are referred by practitioners of the
city and surrounding towns. Patients for these clinics also come
from all parts of Michigan and other nearby states.


The dental museum is supplied with a laijge number of anatom-
ical, physiological, pathological, and histological preparations, includ-
ing a series illustrating dentition from infancy to the completion of
the process of the adult, and the normal changes through life to old
age, and also illustrative of the dental and osseous tissues. Prep-
arations, natural and artificial, greatly facilitate the study of the
nervous and vascular systems. The design is to make available every
practicable appliance in this direction.

The odontological collection is probably the largest and best of


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Fees and Expenses 549

its kind to be found in any dental college in the world. It com-
prises the entire set of crania and odontological specimens presented
by the late Professor Ford, and has been more than doubled in size
and value by the gift of the private collection of Dr. William
Mitchell, of London, England, who has spent many years and large
sums of money in bringing together material from all quarters of the
world. Additions to this collection are desired, and gifts of material
illustrating comparative odontology and typical or abnormal human
teeth, will be gratefully received.


A library of dental science (named in honor of the late Professor
Jonathan Taft), containing almost every known work on this spe-
cialty, including an almost complete file of every dental journal pub-
lished, is shelved in the Dental building, where it is accessible to all
students. A finely appointed reading room is connected with the
library. Nineteen dental journals are regularly received.


Tor the rules governing participation in public activities see
page 1 10.


The Matriculation Fee and the Annual Fee must be paid in ad-
vance, and no seat will be assigned to a student until after suck pay-
ment. For the rules governing Second Semester fees and the refund-
ing of fees, see i>age 117.

Matricui^tion Fee. — For Michigan students, ten dollars; for
all others, twenty -five dollars.

Annual Fee. — For Michigan students, one hundred forty dollars
for men, one hundred thirty-six dollars for women; for all others,
two hundred dollars for men. one hundred ninety-six dollar k for
women. The annual fees include all laboratory fees except the
materials used in the chemical laboratories.

Graduation Fee. — For all alike, ten dollars.
Added information in regard to expenses may be found on
page 115.


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Graduate School

A special Announcement giving additional information in regard
to the. Graduate School is issued annually in March. For copies of
this Announcement and for information concerning admission and
courses of study which is not given in the Announcement , address
Professor Alfred H. Lloyd, Dean of the Graduate SchooL

The first graduate student of the University is recorded in the
catalogue of 1856. The degrees of "Master of Arts and Master of
Science were earliest conferred, the degree of Doctor of Philosophy
being offered for the first time in 1875. Changes made in studies in
1 877- 1878 had an important bearing on graduate work at the Uni-
versity. This was due to the multiplication of electives and the in-
troduction of the credit system. The seminary method of instruction
began then to assume considerable proportions and the movement was
strengthened by a growing demand for better trained teachers.

In the spring of 1892 a Graduate School was organized in con-
nection with the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts. Thus
provision was made for a more systematic and efficient administra-
tion of higher work, and, so far as possible, for the separate instruc-
tion of graduate students.

In the fall of 191 2 the Graduate School was reorganized so as
to include graduate work in all Schools and Colleges of the Univer-
sity. The management of the Graduate School is vested in an Execu-
tive Board, including the President and the Dean of the School, and
eight others so appointed, two each year for terms of four years, as
to represent the different important fields of study.



The privileges of the Graduate School are open to graduates of
any School or College of this University requiring a four-year course
for graduation, and to graduates of other universities and colleges
of recognized standing who are qualified to pursue with profit the


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Admission and Registration 551

advanced courses of study offered in the University. But admission
to study in thr School does not imply necessarily admission to can-
didacy for a degree.

Graduates of other institutions whose course of study is not sub-
stantially equivalent to that prescribed at this University are required
to do an additfonal amount of undergraduate work before being ad-
mitted to formal candidacy for an advanced degree.

For information in regard to enrollment for graduate study in
the Summer Session, see page 565.


Every applicant for admission to the Graduate School must pre-
sent himself with his credentials to the Dean. These credentials
should specify the degree he has obtained, the courses he has com-
pleted leading to his bachelor's degree, the scholarship grades or
marks attained or received in each course, and the basis of the grading
or marking in force in said institution.

All students of the Graduate School, whether registered in a
Previous year or not, arc required to register with the Dean at the
beginning of each year of residence. Such registration must be made
at the beginning of the year to insure recognition that the residence
requirement has been met.

Blanks showing the course of study the student is pursuing must
be filed at the beginning of each semester or Summer Session at the
office of the Graduate School,

Students may register in the Graduate School at any time up to
and including the iirst Saturday of the semester. After this day stu-
dents may register only with permission of the Dean, and upon pay-
ment of an additional fee of $5.00. This fee may, in special cases
of enforced absence or illness, be remitted upon application to the
Dean of the School.

Undergraduates of this University, who at the beginning of a
given semester are within three hours, or at the beginning of a Sum-
mer Session within two hours, of graduation, may be permitted to
register in the Graduate School and have that semester or Summer
Session counted toward the residence requirement for a higher de-
gree. Such students must pay the fees required in the undergraduate
College or School in which they are primarily registered.

Students who finish the undergraduate course of this University
at the end of the first semester and who continue their residence for
the remainder of the year, are permitted to register in the School and
thus secure the privileges of its membership, even though the bach-
elor's degree is not conferred until the close of the year.

Applicants who do not wish to become candidates for a degree,
may be admitted and registered as special graduate students. Such
graduate students must designate, and have approved by the Dean,
the general lines of study which they wish to pursue. Students hav-


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552 Graduate School

ing a bachelor's degree but wishing only to complete preparation for
admission to a professional school, are not admitted to the Graduate
ScKool. They should enroll in the College of Literature, Science, and
the Arts.

Students who withdraw from the School during the academic
year are requested to inform the office without dela/ of such with-

Changes of subjects originally selected must be reported to the
Dean for approval.


Ten University Fellowships with an annual value of $300 and
five with a value of $500 each have been established by the Board of
Regents. Applications for appointment to these fellowships, which
are open to graduate of any college or university of recognized
standing, must be made to the Dean of the Graduate School upon
special blanks obtainable from him upon request.

Each fellow shall pursue his studies under the direction of the
professors in charge of the departments in which he elects his sub-
jects. (See pages 553 to 560.)

Fellows are appointed for a term of one year, but may be eligible
for reappointment.

Holders of fellowships are required to pay the matriculation fee
(if not already paid), the annual fees, the diploma fee, laboratory
expenses, and similar charges, the same as other students of the school
or college in which their work lies.

Applications for appointment to these fellowships should be made
to the Dean of the Graduate School before March I of the year
preceding the appointment.


By the action of the Board of Regents of the University of
Michigan, the faculties of ten colleges in the State of Michigan, are
authorized to nominate each year to the administrative officers of the
Graduate School, some member of their respective senior classes, or
one of their graduates of not more than four years' standing as a
suitable candidate for a State College Fellowship, with a stipend of
$300, for the next academic session. Such candidates, when duly
appointed by the IJoard of Regents, shall be placed on the same foot-
ing and be subject to the same regulations as the University Fellows.
(See above.) All nominations, accompanied in each case by a brief
statement of the nominee's fitness for appointment and an andication
of the lines of graduate work he expects to pursue, should be on file


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Degrees 553

in the office of the Graduate School not later than May i. Each col-
lege should also nominate an alternate to the regular candidate.


For other fellowships open to students enrolled in the Graduate
School, see page 103.


The essential feature of graduate work is specialization of study.
Every graduate student is expected to acquire an intimate knowledge
of his field of study and of the methods employed in this field so
that he will be able to approach his subject in an independent and
critical spirit. After a student has selected the department of study
in which he wishes to specialize, his work will be under the imme-
diate supervision of the professor in charge of the subject of special-
ization or, in case of study for the highest degrees, of a special com-
mittee appointed by the Dean. This professor or this committee will
arrange a course of study suited to the student's desires, needs, and
previous attainments, will assist him in the choice of a subject for a
dissertation, if such be required, pass judgment upon his dissertation
when it is written, conduct his examination, and, if the examination
is creditably sustained, report him to the Executive Board as worthy
of the degree sought. The nature of the work prescribed, and of
the supervision, varies according to the subject chosen, the degree
sought, and the previous attainments of the student. The work may
consist of attendance upon certain specified courses of study, of read-
ing to be done privately and reported upon, or of original research to
be carried on more or less independently.

A student may elect work in more than one School or College
provided the courses chosen form a coherent group. Advanced under-
graduate courses will be accepted in partial fulfillment of the require-
ments for a degree under conditions prescribed by the Executive
Board. It is expected that all work done by a graduate student will
be of superior grade.

Although the work of the Graduate School is in large part
planned with reference to the needs of those who desire to specialize
in definite subjects, the opportunities of the School are open to other
students as well.


The degrees conferred on the completion of approved courses of
study in the Graduate School are Master of Arts, Master of Science,
Master of Arts (or Master of Science) in Municipal Administration,


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554 Graduate School

Master of Science in Chemistry, Master of Science in Forestry, Master
of Landscape Design, Master of Science in Engineering, Master of
Science in Architecture, Master of Science in Public Health, Mechani-
cal Engineer, Civil Engineer, Electrical Engineer, Chemical Engineer,
Marine Engineer, Aeronautical Engineer, Architect, Naval Architect,
Doctor of Philosophy, Doctor of Science, and Doctor of Public


A student who has been admitted to study for the master's degree
may be recommended for the degree after one year of resident study
at this University provided that the year has been spent in taking
full work in studies of graduate grade, that these studies show unity
of interest, and that a satisfactory record has been made.

The degree of Master of Arts is the one usually conferred, though
candidates who pursue scientific studies may at their option receive
the degree of Master of Science.

The work done in residence is mainly in courses of study regu-
larly announced, but private work is often undertaken under special

A student who has received the bachelor's degree from a college
not of sufficiently high standing, or who has not previously taken
such courses as are required in preparation for graduate work, must
expect to spend more than one year in residence, the length of time
to be determined in each case by the character of his previous work
and the quality of his work in this SchooL

All graduate students taking regularly announced courses of
study are expected to attend the examinations given in such courses.


Candidates for the degree of Master of Arts (or Master of
Science) in Municipal Administration must possess the bachelor's de-
gree. The course of instruction covers at least one academic year, to-
gether with at least three months in specified work in the field. It
is expected that all who enroll for the degree should have had courses
in elementary Political Science and Economics, each equivalent to six
semester hours work. While a few of the courses may be taken dur-
ing the Summer Session, most of them are given only during the regu-
lar academic year. All candidates for the degree are subject to the
general rules and regulations of the Graduate School.

For detailed information as to the course requirements, see the
regular bulletin of the Graduate School.


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Master's Degrees 555


In 19 19 the Kegents, at the request of the Department of Chem-
istry and on recommendation of the Executive Board of the Graduate
School, voted to establish the special degree of Master of Science in
Chemistry. All candidates must have met the requirements of the
University for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Chemistry and
for appointment to the degree must have completed successfully a full
academic year of graduate study in approved courses in Chemistry
and cognate subjects.


The work of candidates for the degree of Master of Science in
Forestry is under the immediate supervision of the professor of For-
estry and consists mainly of prescribed courses. The department of
Forestry publishes annually a- special Bulletin which contains full
information concerning the work leading to this advanced degree.

Candidates for the degree of Master of Science in Forestry may
be conveniently divided into three classes : —

1. Graduates of this University, who have received either the
degree of Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science and have com-
pleted the courses prescribed for the first four years by the depart-
ment of Forestry. Such students are usually permitted to complete

Online LibraryUniversity of MichiganCatalogue of the University of Michigan → online text (page 49 of 75)