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of Chinese cotton, the Chinese processes of manufacturing cotton and
the finished products of cotton and silk. There are many articles
showing the skill of the Chinese in working wood, ivory, and porcc*
lain, in embroidery, and in painting on glass and on silk.


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The Museums 65

b. The Collection of Peruvian and Ne%v Mexican Ceramics, in-
cluding an exceptionally fine series of ancient Perovian burial pottery
and modem basins secured by the Beal-Steere Expedition, and an
extensive series of New Mexican pottery received from the Smith-
sonian Institution.

c. The Modern Indian Section, including wearing apparel, im-
plements of war and the chase, and household utensils, of the South
American, North American, and the Alaskan Indians, and a fine
example of the Alaskan totemic column.

d. The Stone Age Section, including the local collection of the
late David De Pue, a series of Danish implements, and a series of
casts of rare implements prepared by the Smithsonian Institution.


tion collections of the department of Mineralogy and Petrography
are displayed in Room M 322 of the Natural Science Building, which
is open to the public daily, from 8 A. M. to 5 P. M.^ whenever the
University is in session. The large systematic mineral collection is
exhibited in five central cases, beginning at the east end of the room.
The sixth central case contains an excellent collection of gems and
gem minerals. The wall cases in the northeast comer contain collec-
tions illustrating the common ph3rsical properties of minerals. Ameri-
can rocks, important marbles and granites suitable for building and
decorative purposes, and a collection of Michigan rocks and minerals
are to be found in the smaller wall cases on the south side of the
room. The deep wall cases contain large and unusual specimens.
In the cases between the windows have been placed collections of
crystals and glass crystal models. Instructive photographs illustrat-
ing diamond mining in South Africa are also shown in this room.

Geological and Paleontological Collections. — ^The Paleonto-
logical collections are, in large part, in the Geological Museum in
the Natural Science building. The invertebrate collections consist of
several thousand carefully identified specimens illustrating the ex-
tinct forms of life. The specimens are arranged to illustrate the
zoological and botanical characters of extinct life forms, the strati-
graphical sequence of fossils, the relation between living and extinct
forms, and certain definite lines of evolution. Models of extinct
forms accompany the fossils to show the appearance of the animals
in life. The paleontology laboratory contains numerous collections
from different localities, affording opportunity for the student to
become acquainted with the fossils of definite geological horizons.
Among the more important units in the collections are the collections
of the Michigan Geological Survey, the Rominger collection of corals,
the White collection, and the Springer collection of crinoids.


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66 The University

The vertebrate fossils are in part located with the invertebrates
in the Geological Museum, but some of the larger mounted speci-
mens are placed in the Museum building. These specimens, with
appropriate models and photographs, serve to illustrate the develop-
ment of vertebrate life.

The Geological collections illustrating the structure and char-
acter of rocks will be installed in cases in the corridor of the second
floor of the Natural Science building.

The collections of Pharmacognosy and Industrial Chemistry
occupy a floor space of 2,500 square feet in the Chemistry and Phar-
macy building, and are briefly described as follows:

The Pharmacognosy Collection comprises several thousand
mounted and labeled specimens of products from all parts of the
world, such as are used for medicinal* food, and industrial pur-
poses. The articles are of vegetable and of animal origin and are
arranged in the present system of scientific classification. Water-
color plates and photographs, showing the form and habit of the
plant, accompany the exhibits. Series of chemical constituents,
isolated by students, and mounted in part in the relative proportions
in which they exist in the plant, ma^e up a phytochemical exhibit.
There is a set of drawings, photo-micrographs, and wall-charts of
the historical structure of drugs, foods, and condiments, for aid in
the study of adulteration.

The cultivation and preparation for the market and the com-
merce of these articles among the peoples of the earth are illus-
trated by collections of authentic photographs, many of which have
been expressly procured for the study of commerce with distant parts
of the world. i i . 1 j

Chemical Industry. — This collection contains exhibits illus-
trating the raw materials, intermediate products, and final products
of those manufacturing industries whose operations are chemical in
nature. Among the industries represented are those which produce
salts of various types, acids, alkalies and bleaching powder; pottery,
glass, and Portland cement; electric furnace products; copper, steel,
and other metals and alloys; the by-products from coal distillation,
with explosives and dyes as finished products; petroleum; fats and
oils, soap, and glycerine; paint and varnish; leather and glue; rub-
ber; sugar, starch, and glucose; textiles and paper.

The Museum of Anatomy and Materia Medica and the
Dental Museum are housed in the buildings of the Medical School
and the Dental College, respectively, and are described in the chapters
devoted to them.


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The Museums 67


The works of art belonging to the University are installed in the
Alumni Memorial Hall. The collections, begun in 1855, include valu-
able original works, especially American, of the nineteenth century
and the contemporary period — notable among the later paintings being
portraits by William B. Chase, Gari Melchers, and others, and among
the works of sculpture representative examples by Daniel C. French,
Karl T. F. Bitter, A. A. Weinmann, and others. The Ubiversity
collections of epigraphy and niunismatics, supplemented by an exten-
sive working collection of casts and reproductions, are well known in
classical circles. Among the special collections are the following:

The Lewis Collection, bequeathed to the University by Henry C.
Lewis, of Coldwater. Among its four hundred and fifty canvases
are original works and copies of the Italian Schools of the sixteenth
and seventeenth centuries by such well known men as Raphael, Cor-
reggio, Sebastiano del Piombo; the French, German, and Spanish
schools of th£ eighteenth century; nineteenth century European mas-
ters, such as Benjamin Constant, Schreyer, Van Marcke, Diaz, Bou-
guereau, Jerome, and early American painters such as Rembrandt
Peale, Charles W. Peale, Vanderlyn, and Eastman Johnson.

The Wettnore Collection, presented to the University by Jean
A. Wetmore (B.S. 1881, M.S. 1882), including representative can-
vases by nineteenth century and contemporary European and Ameri-
can artists, such as Crome, Rosa Bonheur, Thomas Cole, Daniel
Huntington, J. F. Kinsett, and T. B. Griffin.

The Rogers Collection, given to the University by the sculptor,
Randolph Rogers, embraces his entire collection of casts and models
of his own works, more than a hundred in number. It forms the
chief material for the study of this important American artist.

The De Criscio Collection of Inscriptions, acquired through the
generosity of Henry P. Glover, of Ypsilanti, comprises about two
hundred fifty original inscriptions in Greek and in Latin, mostly
from the neighborhood of Pozzuoli.

The Todd Collection of Egyptian Antiquities was presented by
Mr. A. M. Todd, of Kalamazoo.

The collections of coins and medals include the Richards collec-
tion of Greek and Roman coins, the Horace White collection of
European medals, and the Bagley, Fritchey^ and Jewett collections
of American medals and coins.


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68 The University


The Steams Collection of Musical Instruments, donated by the
late Frederick Steams, A.M., of Detroit, is considered by authori-
tative critics, both in this country and abroad, one of the most sig-
nificant of modem collections. It contains about 1,500 examples of
every type of musical instrument, and its value for purposes of inde-
pendent study and original research is heightened by the fact that
the scientific aspects of Insirumentenkunde have been emphasized
rather than mere beauty of form or historic interest. Still these fea-
tures have not been ignored, as will be observed by a study of the
instruments, notably those from India and Japan, while many of the
instruments are rich in historical significance.

The collection has recently been arranged in an appropriate
room in the Hill Auditorium. A comprehensive illustrated catalogue
was published in 19 19. Although not formally included in this col-
lection, the Frieze Memorial (Columbian) Organ may be considered
as belonging ta it, as it is a fine example of organ building in this
country at the time of its erection. It was rebuilt and enlarged at
the time of its transfer from University Hall to its present location.

The educational aspects of the collection are emphasized by the
fact that Mr. Steams presented to the General Library a very in-
clusive collection of books bearing on the subject. This feature will
be emphasized still more in the near future, when a complete card
catalogue of all references to instruments contained in the General
Library will be at the command of students.


In the several laboratories of the University opportunities are
provided for practical instruction in physics, chemistry, mineralogy,
geology, zoology, psychology, botany, forestry, actuarial work, engi-
neering, histology, physiology, hygiene, electrotherapeutics, pathology,
anatomy, and dentistry.

The laboratories designed primarily for students of engineering,
of medicine, and of dentistry are described in later chapters.


The first floor of the Physics building is devoted to experimental
work in heat, electricity and magnetism, and to research. It contains
about 8,000 square feet and is divided into fourteen rooms, including
a battery room, a large laboratory for advanced work in heat, another
large room for electrical measurements, and a smaller one for pho-
tometry. Two rooms are used for instruction in direct and alternat-
ing current machinery and radio communication, and are equipped


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The Laboratories 69

with various t3rpe6 of machines and apparatus in common use, with
the necessary instruments for testing. The rest of the rooms on this
floor are used for research.

The battery room contains two storage batteries; one consisting
of one hundred and twenty cells».of ten amperes capacity, and one»
consisting of eighteen cells, of twenty-five amperes capacity. A switch-
board, wired to all parts of the building, serves for the distribution
of current from the batteries as well as the 220 and no volt direct
current from the University power house and the 220 and no volt
alternating current from the city lines. Comprcs.sed air is also avail-
able in the rooms.

On the second floor are two lecture rooms, one seating one hun-
dred twenty and the other four hundred students. An apparatus
room is adjacent to each lecture room. This floor contains in addi-
tion a large laboratory for beginners, the library, offices, and research

The third floor contains eleven rooms, the two largest of which
are used as laboratories for beginners. Two rooms are used as class
rooms and the rest for the advanced work in sound, light, and elec-

The laboratory is well supplied with apparatus from the best
European and American makers. The list includes accurate standards
for all kinds of physical measurements, a dividing engine, chrono-
graph, and a large number of chemical balances, tuning forks, and
resonators, from Koenig. In light, it includes seven spectrometers,
two Abb^-Pulfrich interferometers, a Michelson interferometer, a
polariscope from Schmidt and Haensch; in heat and electricity,
pyrometers, a Callendar bridge, a thermogalvanometer, three potentio-
meters, several pieces of apparatus for magnetic testing, a Siemens
and Halske oscillograph, and many other standard instruments.

The annual budget allows the addition each year of apparatus
needed for the work of graduate students and for illustration of
recent advances in physics.


The Chemistry and Pharmacy building is a modern fire-proof
four-story building erected in 1909. It is provided with an efficient
ventilation system and its rooms are all well lighted. The total floor
area of 104,500 square feet includes 127 rooms, comprising adequate
class and lecture rooms, a capacious library and reading room, cen-
trally located dispensing and store rooms with facilities for dispensing
on the main floors, and ample laboratory accommodations. The
supply of roatine materials and apparatus is extensive, as is also the
special equipment for research. Facilities for investigations in the
various branches of chemistry and pharmacy are provided in numerous
well-eqnipped smaller laboratories interspersed amidst the offices and
private laboratories of the teaching staff. The library is in charge


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70 The University

of a University librarian, and is a part of the regnlar University
Library system. It houses the chemical library and is especially rich
in its files of journals, there being full sets of all the important
chemical journals, many of which are comparatively rare. All classes
in chemistry and pharmacy, excepting physiological chemistry in the
Medical Schools, are taught in this building.


A four-story fireproof building was erected in 191 5 for the use
of the departments of botany, forestry, zoology, mineralogy, psychol-
ogy, and zoology.

The main part of the building is a reinforced concrete skeleton
frame with reinforced concrete and terra cotta tile floor construction.
The outside walls are finished with cut stone and brick and the
window sash is of steel.

On account of its location between the diagonal walk on the
one side and North University Avenue on the other, the building is
of irregular shape. The approximate measurements are for the north
side 243 feet, for the east side 263 feet, for the west side 150 feet;
and the south side, with a series of breaks, is made to conform in
general with the diagonal walk and trees. A greenhouse is located on
the south side at the east comer. The building encloses a court
120 feet across. A corridor about 700 feet in length runs through
the center of each floor. There is a clear span of approximately 23
feet between the corridor and the exterior walls on both the campus
and court sides. The form of construction gives unusually large
windows, and these combined with the light court in the center allow
excellent illumination of all rooms. The corridor floors are finished
with terrazzo, the floors of the rooms with cement. The building
contains 270 rooms. The basement under the first floor contains an
extensive tunnel in which is centered the plumbing, steamfitting, and
electric work; rooms for the air supply fans; machine rooms for
the two freight elevators ; and caves for the use of the various depart-
ments. Each department is given a section from roof to basement
At the southwest comer on the diagoi^al walk is located a lecture
room seating 500, with a preparation room attached. The lecture
table is built in sections; each section runs on rollers and can be
taken to any part of the building for the preparation of material.
These sections fasten to stanchions set in the cement floor; at the
stanchions all sorts of plumbing and electric supplies are available,
including low-voltage storage battery current. An isolated and well
lighted library for all departments in the building is located above
the lecture room. This portion of the building is carried on struc-
tural steeL

The building is equipped with a unit system of waste pipes,
water, gas, and compressed air, which will enable any change in
plumbing to be made at small cost at any time in the future. All


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The Laboratories 71

piping is exposed. There is a vacuum cleaning system throughout.
Alternating current is used for power and for lighting and is avail-
able everywhere. There is a unit system of distribution of direct
current of 220 volts and special outlets for direct current at 75 volts
are well distributed. Cistern water and filtered water are available
at certain places in the building. The building is well ventilated
with a complete air supply and exhaust system. A special separate
exhaust is provided for the toilets* and certain other rooms. Pneu-
matic switches and diaphragm motors are used to control ventilation.
The temperature is controlled by thermostats.


The mineralogical laboratory comprises 36 rooms located in the
northeast portion of the Natural Science building. A suite of five
rooms, designed esx)ecially for research, are located on the first floor.
Three of these rooms have light-tight shutters, and are provided
with piers equipped with water, gas, compressed air, and alternating
and direct currents. The packing, store, and grinding rooms are
also on this floor. The mineral collections, lecture room, model and
apparatus rooms, and an office are on the second floor. The labora-
tories for the courses in general mineralogy, blowpipe methods, and
mineral and rock analyses, several offices, and a stock room are on
the third floor. On the fourth floor are the laboratories for lithology,
petrography, crystal measurements, and physical crystallography, a
small lecture room, and offices for the staff and advanced students.
A crystallization room is located in the sub-basement.

The laboratory is well equipped with crystal models, natural
crystals, and lecture and working collections of minerals, rocks, and
thin sections. There is an excellent equipment of goniometers, polar-
ization microscopes, and other crystallographic-optical instruments
necessary for the thorough study of minerals. These instruments are
all of the most modem and approved types. The blowpipe and chem-
ical laboratories possess every facility for the qualitative and quanti-
tative determination of minerals and rocks. The equipment of the
laboratory is such that special attention can be given to graduate
work, and special investigations in mineralogy and petrography.


The department of Geology and Geography is located in the
Natural Science building. Special laboratories have been provided
for the work in general geology, historical geology and paleontology,
physiography and other lines of geographic instruction, and economic
and soil geology. In addition there have been provided special re-
search laboratories, a map and folio room, the Russell seminary
room, photographic dark rooms, and a common departmental library
for works treating especially of the natural sciences. The geological


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collections are arranged in a museum room immediately adjoining
the paleontological laboratory. Modern lecture and class rooms and
a large auditorium for the common use of the several natural science
departments supply all necessary facilities for lecture and class in-
struction. Meteorological instruments are conveniently located on
the roof of the building, but the instruments for the study bf earth-
quakes are retained in the observatory.

The collections of economic rocks and minerals which are made
use of in connection with the courses in Economic Geology, have been
considerably augmented during the past few years through purchase
and exchange, so that the occurrence and the associations of the
various ores and minerals of economic importance can be well illus-


The botanical laboratory occupies the southern portion of the
Natural Science building. The installation includes a variety of
laboratories, private research rooms, and apparatus composing an
equipment competent to deal with many of the problems of modem
biology. Besides the usual provision for morphological work, there
are provided means of working with vacuum and pressure ; refrigera-
tion rooms, in which constant temperatures from zero degrees upward
may be employed; a greenhouse of 1400 square feet attached to the
main building and divided into several rooms for securing differences
of moisture, temperature, and illumination ; a larger greenhouse with
laboratory and garden, especially for research, located a mile from the
laboratory; photographic rooms; equipment for chemical biology and
for mycology and plant pathology.

The department also has a cryptogamic herbarium, a phanero-
gamic herbarium, and a museum. The University owns various tracts
of land within and on the borders of the city of Ann Arbor which
contain meadows, a bog, a small lake, ponds, and a woodlot. These
are all used by the botanical department for field work and ecology.


In 1913 the University acquired 20 acres of land for a Botanical
Garden, on the southwest side of Packard Street just beyond the city
limits. This is a tract of level, fertile land with excellent moisture
conditions, and is much more accessible for students during the winter
months than is the old garden in the Arboretum. The interurban cars
pass by the tract and the city cars run within 40 rods.

The Botanical Garden offers excellent opportunities for all phases
of botanical instruction and research concerned with growing plants.
Its physical equipment includes at present four greenhouses, with a
combined area of 7,850 square feet, ample work rooms, a boiler house
with modern equipment, and a two-story brick laboratory, with steam


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The Laboratories 73

heat, electric lighting, and water. An important feature of the green-
houses is the provision of five separate rooms for individual research,
each with independent ventilation and automatic heat control. Ample
space is provided for the propagation and cultivation of plants for
experimehtal purposes. During the past season, six acres of experi-
mental grounds were under cultivation. The Garden offers to a few
qualified students unexcelled facilities for investigation in genetics
and practical plant breeding. Recent work has included general re-
search in the genetics of Oenothera, and special studies on peas, beans,
sugar beets, tomatoes, and other economic plants.

A collection of growing plants for teaching and exhibition pur-
poses is being developed, and contains about seven hundred species,
including some of the more important economic and ornamental
species of the tropics and a small but representative collection of
hardy plants. The Botanical Garden provides for the decoration of
University buildings and for annual floral displays.


Through the gifts of friends and an agreement with the City of
Ann Arbor, the University has come into possession of a parcel of
land containing about ninety acres. The city cooperates with the
University in developing this tract as a park and arboretum.

The land is within the eastern boundary of the City of Ann Arbor
and fifteen minutes' walk from the campus. It has a frontage of
more than three-quarters of a mile on the Huron River and in-
cludes the well-known School Girls* Glen. The topography is exceed-
ingly varied, the highest point being 185 feet above the river. The
soils vary from heavy clay to light sands.

About fifteen acres of hillside and ravine are already covered
with native trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants.

A tentative plan worked out by Mr. O. C. Simonds, landscape
gardener of Chicago, and further developed by Professor Tealdi of
the department of Landscape Design at the University, contemplates
three distinct features: The beauty of the tract ^s a public park; a
collection of native plants, shrubs, trees, particularly those of the
Michigan flora; and collections of decorative shrubs, trees, and peren-
nials employed in landscape designs to be represented here for inspec-

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