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depository of the Society at Albuquerque and the collecting
of documents from county and state offices by the Historical
Records Survey Project opened a new and important phase
of work and responsibility. The project first supervised by
Dr. George P. Hammond, then by Dr. Herbert Brayer, and
now by Mr. Robert Massey, is located in the University
library and is doing most important work. The photograph-
ing of the Spanish and Mexican Archives has been com-
pleted and the photostat set is now in bound form to be used
for reference in Albuquerque, instead of placing further
strain on the fragile original archives housed in the vault
of the Old Palace. Many other records have been collected
and catalogued for reference. These include records from
the state capitol; from county offices, including material
that had been thrown out when the Santa Fe County Court
House moved to its new building; and private collections.
The Blackmore papers secured in London in 1932 by Mrs.
Robert Aitkin have been catalogued and augmented by Dr.
Herbert Brayer.

Dr. Brayer also recommended to the Society a project
for the microfilming of old newspapers, and that is now in
progress.

At the August meeting of the Society, Secretary Lan-
sing B. Bloom showed four Latin- American movies secured
through Miss Irene A. Wright of the Division of Cultural
Relations, Department of State, Washington.



NOTES AND COMMENTS 97

The recording secretary has been assigned more com-
pletely the handling of public information and the museum
front office has been given over to this service. The business
of the Society has been assigned to the Museum business
office, and the curatorial work to the archaeology curator,
while bulletins, leaflets, and publicity come under the new
activities of the secretary. This still further assures close
relations of our Society with the Museum and the School of
American Research.

Assistance was given to the sociology class of the Den-
ver University summer school and to other special study
groups. School classes were escorted through the museum,
including the Fort Wingate Indian School and classes of the
Santa Fe Indian School.

Exhibit loans have been made to our State University for
the Coronado Museum, and to the Philbrook Art Museum,
Tulsa, Oklahoma. Material was loaned to the Daughters of
the American Revolution for their play, also for their float
in the Defense Day parade ; to the Santa Fe stores for win-
dow displays during the premier of the Santa Fe Trail ; and
to museum staff members for lectures.

The original state flag (which belongs to the Society) ,
designed by Mr. Kenneth M. Chapman and Dr. Harry Mera
and made by Mrs. Mera, is being copied for a decoration for
the battleship, New Mexico, by an arrangement made by
Dr. Robert 0. Brown as requested by his brother in the navy,
Captain Walter E. Brown, who was placed in command of
the ship at Iceland recently. The New Mexico dates back to
the earlier world war and is a 40,000 ton ship. The flag de-
sign and sun symbol will be used on the bulk-head of the
captain's cabin and possibly on the ship's nine or ten small
motor boats.

The Palace of the Governors was used for the broad-
casting of Bob Ripley's "Believe It or Not" program which
featured Lew Wallace and the writing of part of Ben Hur
in this building.



98 NEW MEXICO HISTORICAL REVIEW

Requests by mail for historical information are increas-
ing more and more.

The state tourist bureau has taken a set of photographs
of the museum exhibits. The Colorado Fine Arts Center
made photographs of much of our Spanish Colonial Arts
material. The Santa Fe County Home Demonstration de-
partment made colored slides of colchas and Spanish designs
with the purpose of encouraging the use of native designs in
local homes.

Dr. Reginald Fisher has supervised recent installations
of the eastern rooms. A pulpit patterned after that of the
Las Trampas church has been added to the southeastern
room where Spanish Colonial religious art is displayed to
represent a typical old time New Mexico chapel. The north-
eastern room is being developed according to a plan of Dr.
Edgar L. Hewett, as a mission room. The Carlos Vierra
paintings of early New Mexico missions have been hung
here. Six models of the missions are being prepared.

Some of the more special accessions were : a portrait of
Governor Manuel Armijo, given by Mrs. Stephen E. Davis of
Las Vegas; two black dresses worn in Trail days, given by
Mrs. Henry Dendhal. One of these, made in Paris of black
velvet and lace, was worn in Santa Fe by Mrs. Abraham
Staab. A gift from F. D. Millet of the Waring School in
Santa Fe is a carved wooden coat of arms and notice taken
from the entrance hall of the Governor's Palace at Manila by
Brigadier General Francis V. Greene and given to Mr.
Millet's grandfather who was a newspaper correspondent
in the Philippines. There were a number of purchases of
early weavings and carvings.

The local chapter of the Daughters of the American
Revolution has added to its loan of old china which belonged
to Governor Thornton's wife, smaller collections of unusual
pieces from F. S. Donnell, Mrs. Frank M. Needham, and
Mrs. Gerald Cassidy.



NOTES AND COMMENTS 99

The following memberships were added during 1941 :

The Philosophical Society of Texas

The Public Library of San Francisco

H. W. Prather, Santa Rosa, N. M.

B. Westermark Co., New York

J. L. Burke, Jr., Jal, N. M.

Department of Library and Archives, Phoenix

Dr. Peter M. Dunne, University of San Francisco

Mr. Henri Folmer, Chicago

Miss Mabel Adelaide Farnum, Brighton, Mass.

Floyd New Mexico High School

G. E. Fullerton, Glendale, California

John J. Gaffrey, Philadelphia

J. L. Hand, Watrous

Irving McNeil, Jr., El Paso

University of Notre Dame

Panhandle Plains Historical Society

John M. Slater, Washington, D. C.

The estimated number of visitors for the fiscal year
ending June 1941 was 70,000, there having been an increase
each month over 1940. H. J.

Cherokee Strip celebration. Last summer our Society re-
ceived a very urgent invitation from Ponca City, Oklahoma,
to participate in their anniversary observance of the open-
ing of the Cherokee Strip, for the reason that "New Mexico
furnished many of the original settlers who made the run
into the Cherokee Strip on September 16, 1893." We were
informed that the principal event would be the rededicating
of the "Pioneer Woman" statue which had been donated
to Oklahoma by their former governor E. W. Marland and
which stands in that city.

That statue, by the way, is not the same as the one
which now stands in the park on North Fourth Street, Albu-
querque. There were twelve studies submitted by eminent
sculptors, and the remaining eleven are today along the ave-
nue leading into the Marland estate. Replicas of one or more
of them were presented to neighboring states, and some of
our readers doubtless recall the furore stirred up by an artist



100 NEW MEXICO HISTORICAL REVIEW

faction in Santa Fe at the proposal to locate it in that city !
None of our officers could accept the cordial invitation
to attend the celebration, but at our request one of our es-
teemed members, Dr. Grant Foreman of Muskogee, Okla.,
did attend with Mrs. Foreman and later he wrote that the
whole affair was most enjoyable. In the exercises at the
statue, each visiting representative deposited a beautiful
wreath, and Dr. Foreman expressed our felicitations :

New Mexico, younger in statehood than Oklahoma,
is, at the same time, that ancient "Land of Cibola"
into which the first pioneer women came with Cor-
onado in 1540. With hearty greetings of the His-
torical Society of New Mexico, I lay here a symbol
of that homage which we all feel for the brave
women who are typified by this monument.



The Historical Society of New Mexico

(INCORPORATED)
Organized December 26, 1859



PAST PRESIDENTS

1859 COL. JOHN B. GRAYSON, U. S. A.
1861 MAJ. JAMES L. DONALDSON, U. S. A.
1863 HON. KIRBY BENEDICT

adjourned sine die, Sept. 23, 186S



re-established Dec. 27, 1880

1881 HON. WILLIAM G. RITCH
1883 HON. L. BRADFORD PRINCE
1923 HON FRANK W. CLANCY

1925 COL. RALPH E. TWITCHELL

1926 PAUL A. F. WALTER



OFFICERS FOR 1942-1943

PAUL A. F. WALTER, President

PEARCE C. RODEY, V ice-President

LANSING B. BLOOM, Corresponding Secretary
WAYNE L. MAUZY, Treasurer

Miss HESTER JONES, Recording Secretary



FELLOWS

PERCY M. BALDWIN EDGAR L. HEWETT

RALPH P. BIEBER FREDERICK W. HODGE

WILLIAM C. BINKLEY ALFRED V. KIDDER

LANSING B. BLOOM J. LLOYD MECHAM

HERBERT E. BOLTON THEODOSIUS MEYER, 0. F. M.

AURELIO M. ESPINOSA FRANCE V. SCHOLES

CHARLES W. HACKETT ALFRED B. THOMAS

GEORGE P. HAMMOND PAUL A. F. WALTER



CONSTITUTION

OF THE

HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF NEW MEXICO
(As amended Nov. 25, 1941)

Article 1. Name. This Society shall be called the Historical Society
of New Mexico.

Article 2. Objects and Operation. The objects of the Society shall be,
in general, the promotion of historical studies; and in particular, the
discovery, collection, preservation, and publication of historical ma-
terial, especially such as relates to New Mexico.

Article 3. Membership. The Society shall consist of Members, Fel-
lows, Life Members and Honorary Life Members.

(a) Members. Persons recommended by the Executive Council
and elected by the Society may become members.

(b) Fellows. Members who show, by published work, special
aptitude for historical investigation may become Fellows. Immedi-
ately following the adoption of this Constitution, the Executive
Council shall elect five Fellows, and the body thus created may there-
after elect additional Fellows on the nomination of the Executive
Council. The number of Fellows shall never exceed twenty-five.

(c) Life Members. In addition to life members of the Historical
Society of New Mexico at the date of the adoption hereof, such other
benefactors of the Society as shall pay into its treasury at one time
the sum of fifty dollars, or shall present to the Society an equivalent
in books, manuscripts, portraits, or other acceptable material of an
historic nature, may upon recommendation by the Executive Council
and election by the Society, be classed as Life Members.

(d) Honorary Life Members. Persons who have rendered emi-
nent service to New Mexico and others who have, by published work,
contributed to the historical literature of New Mexico or the South-
west, may become Honorary Life Members upon being recommended
by the Executive Council and elected by the Society.

Article 4. Officers. The elective officers of the Society shall be a
president, a vice-president, a corresponding secretary, a treasurer, and
a recording secretary; and these five officers shall constitute the
Executive Council with full administrative powers.

Officers shall qualify on January 1st following their election, and
shall hold office for the term of two years and until their successors
shall have been elected and qualified.



Article 5. Elections. At the October meeting of each odd-numbered
year, a nominating committee shall be named by the president of the
Society and such committee shall make its report to the Society at
the November meeting. Nominations may be made from the floor
and the Society shall, in open meeting, proceed to elect its officers by
ballot, those nominees receiving a majority of the votes cast for the
respective offices to be declared elected.

Article 6. Dues. Dues shall be $3.00 for each calendar year, and
shall entitle members to receive bulletins as published and also the
Historical Review.

Article 7. Publications. All publications of the Society and the selec-
tion and editing of matter for publication shall be under the direction
and control of the Executive Council.

Article 8. Meetings. Monthly meetings of the Society shall be held at
the rooms of the Society on the third Tuesday of each month at
eight P. M. The Executive Council shall meet at any time upon call
of the President or of three of its members.

Article 9. Quorums. Seven members of the Society and three mem-
bers of the Executive Council, shall constitute quorums.

Article 10. Amendments. Amendments to this constitution shall be-
come operative after being recommended by the Executive Council
and approved by two-thirds of the members present and voting at
any regular monthly meeting; provided, that notice of the proposed
amendment shall have been given at a regular meeting of the Society,
at least four weeks prior to the meeting when such proposed amend-
ment is passed upon by the Society.



Students and friends of Southwestern History are cordially in-
vited to become members. Applications should be addressed to the
corresponding secretary, Lansing B. Bloom, University of New Mexico.
Albuquerque, New Mexico.



w v* trww to tf tra in* tra wire in* w vu y^ uv w y y y y y y to y y y y y y y t y



NEW MEXICO
HISTORICAL REVIEW



VOL. XVII



APRIL, 1942



No. 2



^ Library
Kansas City, Mo,




PALACE OF THE GOVERNORS



PUBLISHED QUARTERLY BY

THE HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF NEW MEXICO

AND

THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO



NEW MEXICO
HISTORICAL REVIEW

Editor Managing Editor

LANSING B. BLOOM PAUL A. F. WALTER

Associates

PERCY M. BALDWIN GEORGE P. HAMMOND

FRANK T. CHEETHAM THEODOSIUS MEYER, 0. F. M.

VOL. XVII APRIL, 1942 No. 2

CONTENTS

Jacques Glamorgan: Colonial Promoter of the Northern Border

of New Spain A. P. Nasatir 101

The Rev. Hiram Walter Read, Baptist Missionary^ (ed.) L. B. B. 113

The Confederate Territory of Arizona, from Official Sources

F. S. Donnell 148

Book Reviews :

Haggard (ed.), Three New Mexico Chronicles

Dorothy Woodward 164

Fulton (ed.), Diary and Letters of Josiah Gregg, I

P. A. F. W. 165

Carroll (ed.), Guddal P'a: Abert's Journal, 1845 _. _ L. B. B. 169
Brayer (ed.) , To Form a More Perfect Union _. P. A. F. W. 170
Priest, Uncle Sam's Step-Children Frank D. Reeve 172

Behrendt, Economic Nationalism in Latin America

P. A. F. W. 174

Haggard, Handbook for Translators of Spanish Historical

Documents Eleanor B. Adams 176

Notes and Comment 178

Martin Amador and Mesilla Valley history

Subscription to the quarterly is $3.00 a year in advance; single
numbers (except Vol. I, 1-4, and II, 1) may be had at $1.00 each.

Volumes III-XVI can be supplied at $4.00 each; Vols. I-II are
out of print in part.

Address business communications to Mr. P. A. F. Walter, State
Museum, Santa Fe, N. M.; manuscripts and editorial correspondence
should be addressed to Mr. Bloom at the University of New Mexico,
Albuquerque, New Mexico.

Entered as second-class matter at Santa Fe, New Mexico
UNIVERSITY PRESS, ALBUQUERQUE, N. M.



NEW MEXICO HISTORICAL
REVIEW

VOL. XVII APRIL, 1942 No. 2

JACQUES GLAMORGAN:

COLONIAL PROMOTER OF THE NORTHERN
BORDER OF NEW SPAIN

By A. P. NASATIR

IN DEFENSE of its vast empire in North America, Spain
was forced to occupy both California and Louisiana in
the latter part of the 18th century.

British aggression on the Pacific coast culminated in
the Nootka Sound Controversy. This affair was part and
parcel of, and intimately linked with, the Anglo-Spanish
economic rivalry in the upper Mississippi and Missouri
valleys. In this colony (Louisiana), rivalry between the
Spaniards and the British reached its climax in intense
economic warfare between rival traders of the two nations.
Here on the northeastern frontier of colonial New Spain,
merchants from St. Louis bore the brunt of aggression
from the British posts.

Rich treasures in furs from the upper reaches of the
Mississippi and Missouri valleys as well as the precious
metals of New Mexico were an irresistible attraction to
the enterprising British and Scotch traders from Canada.
From Montreal, Detroit, Chicago, Mackinac, Prairie du
Chien, and the Lake of the Woods, British merchandise was
carried by resourceful British traders deep into Spanish
domain. Not only were the British agents aggressive, but
they carried with them desirable, superior goods. More-
over, this merchandise could be sold at a very reasonable
price. British traders were also British agents who were

101



102 NEW MEXICO HISTORICAL REVIEW

backed in their penetrations of Spanish territory by a trade-
conscious home government. Literally hundreds of British
merchants plied the rivers and streams to the west of the
Mississippi. Hence the great bulk of furs extracted from
the upper valleys above the Des Moines and Platte rivers
found their way to the Great Lakes posts rather than to
Spanish New Orleans.

In marked contrast, the profits-starved merchants of
the Spanish posts were neglected, hampered and bound by
the rigid stupidity of their own government. Spain never
discarded paternalism in her control of the colonies. Al-
though anxious for wealth and for domination of the Indian
tribes, Spain adhered to classical mercantilism. The out-
moded Spanish economic system was already crushed under
a great weight of taxes, poor merchandise highly priced,
involved, complicated and expensive transportation routes,
a cumbersome organization and a paternalistic hierarchy.
To these ills must be added the evils of nepotism, graft,
inefficiency, ignorance, and shortsightedness.

In the face of such a burden, trade could survive only
in an empire which was in fact a closed corporation. A
rigidly enforced monopoly and strict control of the Indians
were necessary features of the Spanish economic system.
Down to the period of the American Revolution, Spain had
been highly successful in holding the savages of her north-
eastern frontier to allegiance and had been able to exclude
all foreigners. In fact the Spaniards took the aggressive
and held a part of the Indian trade to the east of the Mis-
sissippi. When Spain, however, became involved in costly
wars, she always found it necessary to withdraw support
from this remote frontier. Although Louisiana was prized
as a key to the wealth of New Mexico, Spain naturally
forsook the defense of this exposed frontier in favor of
more highly prized possessions.

Left to their own devices, the Spaniards of the Mis-
sissippi valley were unable, on account of the lack of money
and merchandise, to maintain their advantage in the



JACQUES GLAMORGAN 103

struggle with the Britishers for the control of the Indians
and profitable trade with them. Therefore it is not sur-
prising to find that at the close of the American Revolution
the Spanish traders had not only lost their trade east of the
Mississippi river, but that as well within territory distinctly
under their own jurisdiction west of the river.

Thus Spain had the difficult task of defending a long
frontier line and an immense territory against an aggres-
sive and well equipped rival. The province could expect
neither troops, nor aid from the decadent court of Charles
IV. Furthermore the Americans were becoming a menace
to Spanish sovereignty in the tremendous surge of their
westward movement, and the insidious propaganda of the
French Revolution created fear throughout Spanish
America. The situation of the Spaniards in the Mississippi
valley was critical indeed as the last decade of the eighteenth
century opened.

Under Governor Esteban Miro at New Orleans and
his lieutenant at St. Louis, Manuel Perez, half-hearted and
time worn methods were applied for the relief of this des-
perate situation. One or two or three small forts were
planned to be erected at strategic entrances used by the
wily British. The idea was simply to keep the English out.
But as Godoy was later very aptly to describe the situation,
"you cannot lock up an open field." Intrigues with the
American Westerners and counter-colonization of Ameri-
cans, Germans, Flemings and even Britons failed to add any
real security.

Into this dismal and desperate situation stepped the
Baron de Carondelet appointed governor of Louisiana in
1791. Carondelet was a nepotistic appointee with a French
accent and a female handwriting, with a fear for any slight
rumor, but with a facile pen that tires the researcher who
plows through the thousands of lengthy letters : in writing,
Carondelet made a vain effort to arouse the Spanish gov-
ernment into a vigorous defense of its own empire. The
genial Zenon Trudeau was appointed to the commandancy



104 NEW MEXICO HISTORICAL REVIEW

of Upper Louisiana. Trudeau, who had many fine qualities
and a fund of common sense unusual in such appointees,
succeeded where others had failed miserably.

Under these two leaders, the business elements of St.
Louis and New Orleans were given renewed heartening and
the Spaniards assumed an aggressive role. A workable plan
was needed: Spain had to act to preserve its empire. To
oust the foreigners, to garner in renewed profits, to gain
the friendship of the Indians, to explore the domain and
carry the Spanish flag to the uttermost limits of its juris-
diction these were the prime objectives of Lieutenant-Go v-
ernor Trudeau.

Into this desperate situation stepped also an aggressive,
capable, enterprising, and far-sighted promoter Jacques
Philippe Glamorgan. Glamorgan, Clarmorgan, Glenmorgan,
Clenmorgan, Claimorgan, Morgan (all variations of the
same name, Jacques or Santiago Glamorgan) indicate the
obscurity of his birth and nationality. Furthermore, the
fact that he was either born or spent his early life in Guade-
lupe Island and the West Indies gives some credence to the
belief that he was of Portuguese stock. Quite probably he
was of mixed Welsh, Portuguese, and French blood. He
may have carried a trace of Negro blood as well.

Of his early life, little is known. In the present docu-
mentation he emerges into history as a merchant in the
West Indies. As early as 1780 he became associated with
Thompson and Company of Kingston, Jamaica, probably in
the slave trade between that island and New Orleans. He
was also associated with Marmillion and Company of New
Orleans.

He seemed to have enjoyed a good reputation, for in
the records of the court at New Orleans no doubt is indicated
about collecting 2,500 dollars in debts from him even though
he was out of the country at the time. He was back in Spanish
Louisiana by 1783, and in the latter -part of that year, or
very early in 1784, he ascended to Upper Louisiana in com-
pany with his friend and associate, Francois Marmillion,



JACQUES GLAMORGAN 105

merchant of St. Louis. Glamorgan himself tells us in 1793
that he had been a resident of Illinois for more than ten
years.

Because of his business acumen, past reputation, and
perhaps some money, Glamorgan quickly came to be a well-
known and respected merchant in the Spanish Illinois
country. His interests soon spread into many parts of the
upper Mississippi valley. In 1783 he was empowered to
act as proxy for, and was given power of attorney for,
Gabriel Cerre, of one of the best known families in St.
Genevieve. Four years later he instituted court proceedings
against Pierre La Coste of Michilimacinac for the sum of
15,947 livres and 14 sous. Many other financial transactions
could be cited, but Glamorgan was interested in real estate
as well. He purchased some property soon after settling
in Upper Louisiana. This acquisition was but the beginning
of his land and real estate speculation which eventually
topped the million arpent figure. He early took an interest
in civic affairs and made donations to, and became a warden
of, the church in Ste. Genevieve.

Thus we see Jacques Glamorgan as a slave dealer, fur-
trader, merchant, financier, land speculator; and although
he never married, he was father of four children. He was
to become known in Louisiana as a statesman, an explorer
and a promoter.

Glamorgan was endowed with a tremendous imagina-
tion, together with an illusive pen and a glib tongue. His
ability to put vast dreams onto paper and persuade all of
their reality was envied by everyone. He was respected by
all but he was not accepted socially by the aristocratic
French Creoles of the province. This was less a reflection
upon his charming personality than upon his well-stocked
harem of colored beauties. He was known to be intriguing
and at times his probity was somewhat doubted. Usually
he was found to be pliant and even servile, but he was accus-
tomed to conducting great operations.

He cultivated the friendship of the important merchants



106 NEW MEXICO HISTORICAL REVIEW

of New Orleans, Cahokia, Kashkaskia, Michilimackinac, and
Montreal. He never failed to get what he wanted from the
Spanish officials; if not directly, he achieved his purpose
indirectly.



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