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He was engaged in, or dreamed of engaging in, cattle-
raisinng, salt refining, lead mining, agriculture, and he
envisaged a strong and populous Spanish frontier in the
Mississippi valley. He was the precursor of Lewis and
Clark ; he traversed Texas ; and he engaged in the Santa Fe
trade, long before his successors made those trails famous.
This island "creole" managed his affairs in such a manner
that even his enemies (and they were not few in number)
could not fail to recognize his talents.

In 1793 his fellow merchants unanimously chose him as
sindic to represent the merchants of St. Louis. Soon after-
wards he became the driving force in the movement to
restore commerce in the Spanish Illinois and to regain for
the king of Spain sovereignty over the Spanish dominions
in the Mississippi valley.

But of all his work Glamorgan is best known for his
activities in connection with the Mississippi Company. This
company was formed for the purpose of ousting the British
from Spanish territory and trade; for capturing the trade
with the Indians; for discovering a route to the Pacific
and joining the Missouri with Mexico and California; to
give Glamorgan a chance to get rich while at the same time
it offered an opportunity of defending the Spanish against
the onrush of the British and Americans, whom the Spanish
lived in dread of; and to defend the Spanish empire on its
long but undefended and unexplored northermost frontier ;
and to protect rich Santa Fe.

It was Glamorgan who suggested the formation of the
renowned "Company of the Discoverers and Explorers of
the Missouri." In addition, he persuaded a number of
merchants of Illinois to take part in the company. Although
he was but one of nine members of the company, it was
Glamorgan who became its director and managed the bold



JACQUES GLAMORGAN 107

schemes of his fertile imagination. In carrying them out
he succeeded in financially ruining not only himself but his
associates.

The company sent three costly expeditions up the Mis-
souri in an effort to drive the British from Spanish territory,
develop the valuable trade of the Upper Missouri Valley,
and discover a route to the Pacific Ocean. The first two
efforts were complete failures. The third, headed by James
Mackay and John Evans, hauled down the British flag from
a small fort among the Mandans. Part of this group then
began the long trek to the Pacific coast. Had they continued
on their planned route they might very well have been
successful. This expedition, like the first two was a financial
failure. No profits accrued from any of these ventures,
which fact, while not forcing Glamorgan to give up hope,
melted the financial hearts of his colleagues.

Although he ruined himself in the company, Glamorgan
made use of intrigue for personal gain. From the jealousies
and envy of the merchants, his associates, and by cleverly
rewriting the articles of incorporation of the company, he
acquired all but one of the original shares. He petitioned,
in the name of the company, for large land grants which
were conceded. Eventually these holdings came into his
hands. Whenever any individual asked the government for
trades which would endanger his bold schemes, Glamorgan
not only successfully opposed them but usually got the con-
cessions for the company and for himself. Those who con-
tinued to oppose the company found themselves controlled
through Glamorgan's ability to advance and furnish mer-
chandise.

He befriended and won to his side Regis Loisel, and
more important for a time at least, the wealthy British
merchant, Andrew Todd. Backed by the wealth, reputation
and recognized ability of Todd, Glamorgan boldly plunged
ahead with his schemes. A complete monopoly of the trades
of the entire Upper Mississippi valley as well as those of
the Upper Missouri valley would bring him wealth and



108 NEW MEXICO HISTORICAL REVIEW

most certainly would assure the Spanish sovereignty. Be-
lieving in this vast plan, he persuaded Todd to back him
completely. He then persuaded the Spanish officials to accept
Todd. Although in disrepute himself, he persuaded Gover-
nor General Carondelet to grant to Todd the exclusive
trade of the Upper Mississippi along with reduced import
and export duties and other commercial concessions.

Glamorgan got Carondelet to grant further exclusive
grants of trade to the Missouri Company as well as a subsidy
of 10,000 pesos for 100 militiamen who were to guard forts
which Glamorgan envisaged as established along a great
arc reaching from the Mississippi river to the Pacific ocean.
Moreover he persuaded Carondelet to make several im-
portant exceptions to the by-laws of the company.

As a result, Todd, who as a foreigner was specifically
excluded, was given an equal share in the company. Caron-
delet ordered that all merchandise should be purchased
through Todd, while Glamorgan revised the by-laws so that
he could receive a 21/2% commission on all transactions of
the company. In addition he arranged a contract with Todd
whereby he received a high commission on all goods pur-
chased by the company. Thus despite the opposition of the
other merchants of St. Louis. Glamorgan grasped into his
own hands the monopoly of the Indian trade in both the Up-
per Missouri and Upper Mississippi valleys. To take care of
these advantages and to press for more, Glamorgan re-
organized his own affairs and formed "Glamorgan, Loisel
and Company" which made the arrangements and asked
for concessions when not permitted to, or by, the Missouri
Company Clamogran thus acting in a dual capacity.

Glamorgan succeeded in this enterprise, in part be-
cause he appeared to be fully supported by the resources of
Todd, and because the governor was most anxious to oust
the British from Spanish domain and to establish a route
to the Pacific coast. Needless to say, Glamorgan made the
most of Mackay's and Evans* explorations.



JACQUES GLAMORGAN 109

But these dreams toppled when Todd died during the
yellow fever epidemic at New Orleans in 1796. Todd's heirs
and creditors besieged St. Louis and New Orleans to get
all they could. They made no effort to continue Todd's
enterprise nor his contracts. This was one time that
Glamorgan overshot his mark. He was heavily indebted
to the Briton, whose heirs and agents forced Glamorgan to
the brink of bankruptcy.

Nevertheless, by sheer personality, by long flattering
dreamy letters, and by visits to New Orleans, Glamorgan
held on to all of the government concessions granted to the
company. In fact, he gained more. He was bold enough to
propose continuing efforts to defend the Spanish Empire
and to discover a route to the Pacific, even in the face of
financial ruin.

Glamorgan successfully opposed all of his opponents
and kept them from taking advantage of his reverses. When
any of his many opponents made claims against him, the
results were meagre as no one would ever testify against
him. He took advantage of this situation, knowing that if
his creditors pressed him he would have to foreclose on his
debtors and thereby ruin many of the inhabitants of
St. Louis.

Hence even Trudeau supported him. This, to Glamor-
gan, was the cue to ask for more. He again petitioned for
10,000 pesos, 2,000 pounds of gunpowder a year, and one-
half million arpents of land.

At the same time, Glamorgan owed 25,000 pesos to
Todd's estate, and another 74,000 pesos to Daniel Clark of
New Orleans. The latter brought suit but Glamorgan
hurried to the capital and effected a settlement. An agree-
ment was made in 1799, and Clark as well as Chouteau of
St. Louis, both of whom previously opposed Glamorgan, now
aided him, protected his property, and gave him financial
support and credit.

With the accession of weak governors in the colony,
the gains of the company were wiped out in the main.



110 NEW MEXICO HISTORICAL REVIEW

Glamorgan's opponents began to get trades which previously
had been reserved for the company. The British were
greatly strengthened on the Upper Missouri and were
descending as far as the Mahas. On the Mississippi, they
nearly usurped the trade north of St. Louis.

Again Glamorgan descended to New Orleans, this time
supported by Charles Dehault Delassus, lieutenant governor
at St. Louis. Daniel Clark Jr., advanced credits and
reasserted his bold schemes after a lapse of activity for
some time. In order to claim a new offer of a reward, he
sent Heney to discover the route to the Pacific. He was
thwarted by the British on the Upper Missouri.

Stripped of everything but a measly trade privilege
with the Panis republic, Glamorgan asked and obtained the
exclusive trade of the Otos, Mahas, and Poncas, all specu-
lative trades on account of the British influence and in-
trusions. He also received the Kansas trade which was
sure and profitable. Moreover, he renewed his request for
10,000 pesos, for 100 militiamen and 2,000 pounds of gun-
powder. In this he was thwarted by the intendent of Lou-
isiana and the state of war between Spain and England,
and the consequent lack of support and the usual negligence
of Spain.

Soon, however, Glamorgan's competitors prevailed
upon the weak-willed Governor Casa Calvo and he was
again stripped of all privileges except the trade of the Panis.
Again he resorted to making money by backing the efforts
of others. He obtained a one-third interest in the Loisel-
Heney contract and company. By this device, Glamorgan's
plans for the Spanish frontier were carried on until the
occupation of Louisiana by the Americans. Another thrust
was made towards the Pacific and Glamorgan again de-
scended to New Orleans to solicit the aid of the government.
Conflicting exclusive grants made by favoritism of the
governor and the need of arranging his business affairs
also caused this descent to New Orleans.

Glamorgan returned to St. Louis carrying orders for



JACQUES GLAMORGAN 111

aid to be given to the Missouri Company and to promote
its interests for resistance to British aggression. Further-
more, the company was granted the exclusive trade of the
entire Missouri valley beginning with the Kansas Indians
with but one exception, and that exception to Chauvin
was probably backed by Glamorgan himself. In fact, Lieu-
tenant-Governor Delassus was ordered explicitly to support
Glamorgan as director of the company.

Glamorgan backed all experienced men in the Upper
Missouri. He gave nearly 38,000 pesos in goods to Jacques
D'Eglise who was to explore to the Pacific and perhaps to
Santa Fe as well. Loisel and Company actually led the
activities on the Upper Missouri, keeping in mind Glamor-
gan's schemes to establish Spanish dominion in all of that
vast area; and Glamorgan, now even supported by his
former enemies and competitors, used Loisel's work as a
basis for acquiring more land grants from the Spanish
officials.

With the advent of the American acquisition of Lou-
isiana, Glamorgan did not stop his activities even though
he no longer possessed the advantages of his intimate
friendship with the government officials. Despite his earlier
hatred for the Americans and despite his many enemies,
he was a respected citizen. In 1804 he was appointed by
Governor W. H. Harrison as one of the first judges of the
common pleas and quarter sessions in St. Louis, and he
rented his house to the government to be used for a jail.

However the life of a judge and a plain American
citizen was not the life for this promoter par excellence.
He continued as an active merchant but never again engaged
in vast promotional schemes as he had done under the
Spaniards. He could not, however, resist the lure of high
profits and the speculation on which easy money devolved.
Despite his advanced age he again entered into business. In
1807 Glamorgan requested and was granted an American
license to trade with the Pawnee Republic, thereby giving
him a ruse to enter upon his larger scheme of trade with
Santa Fe. A few days later he and Manuel Lisa formed a



112 NEW MEXICO HISTORICAL REVIEW

company and bought goods to trade on the frontiers of
New Mexico. List, now interested in his larger schemes of
the Missouri river trade, probably declined to continue
operations with Glamorgan. Glamorgan ascended to the
Platte river and entered the Pawnee villages under his
trading license. He then set out for Santa Fe where he
arrived with three others, a slave and four cargoes of goods.
He was sent to Chihuahua but in the next year returned to
Missouri, traversing Texas without difficulty and bringing
back maps and other materials.

Thus this intriguing adventurer who repeatedly failed
to blaze the trail later made famous by Lewis and Clark
was actually the first to make a trading venture into Santa
Fe and return to Missouri with his profits, however little
they probably were. Old man that he was, Glamorgan did
not repeat his venture. Always the promoter, he offered
to the public information on the trade with Spanish New
Mexico. It does not appear that he himself had any oppor-
tunity to profit from this idea.

Glamorgan fell ill and on October 30, 1814, made out
his will, in which he asked first that his debts be paid and
that $150.00 be distributed to the poor. His goods were to go
to his four natural children. His principal assets had
dwindled to a few accounts which amounted to perhaps only
six or seven hundred dollars.

At his death, Glamorgan was more than eighty years
old. He had made and lost fortunes through his sheer
business acumen, facile pen, and servile attitude. That he
was an economic promoter par excellence is not to be
doubted. Although never admitted to the social set of St.
Louis, he looms large as an outstanding figure in the history
of the northeastern frontier of New Spain. During the
last decade of the Spanish regime in the Mississippi valley,
this obscure, visionary island Creole earned the gratitude
of the decrepit, helpless Spanish government in the defense
of whose frontier, Spain in no small part owed a debt of
gratitude to Jacques Glamorgan. Can one be blamed for
dreaming grandiose schemes?



THE REV. HIRAM WALTER READ
BAPTIST MISSIONARY TO NEW MEXICO

BORN IN Jewett City, New London County, Connecticut,
June 17, 1819. Hiram Walter Read, 1 was baptized into
the fellowship of the Baptist Church, Oswego, New York, on
March 11, 1838. He received his education at Oswego Acad-
emy and Madison (now Colgate) University, Hamilton,
New York. He was ordained to the ministry and began his
pastoral work at Whitewater, Wisconsin, in 1844. He was
pastor and chaplain to the Wisconsin senate. During this pe-
riod, he attained a reputation as a successful evangelist.

In 1849 he went to New Mexico as chaplain at Fort
Marcy, and for over two years he was preaching to the



1. Perhaps the reader will join the editor in being nonplussed to find the name
of this first Protestant missionary in New Mexico given as "Hiram Walter" Read.
Every mention of him previously seen has given the name as "Henry W." or merely
"H.W." Read (Reed). Probably Bancroft and all subsequent writers have followed W.
W. H. Davis who, in El Gringo (N. Y., 1857), p. 270, calls him "Henry W." And yet,
curiously enough, even Heitman, Historical Register (Washington, 1903), I, p. 819,
shows "Henry W. Read" as chaplain at Fort Marcy, N. Mex., 16 July 1849 to 15 Mar.
1852.

The name as here given conies from genealogical as well as church records. The
biographical sketch supplied with the transcripts by the Rev. Mr. Weaver (see below)
was accompanied by the following list of sources consulted :

Cathcart, W., The Baptist Encyclopaedia (Phila., 1881), 962-3.

Vedder, H. C., A Short History of the Baptists (Phila., 1907), 238-9.

Burrows, J. L., American Baptist Register for 1852, 222.

Reed, J. W., History of the Reed Family in Europe and America (Boston, 1861),
533.

Bishop, H. F., Historical Sketch of Lisbon, Connecticut (Brooklyn, 1903), 59-60.

Gray, A. B., Survey of a Railroad Route on the 32d Parallel (Cincinnati, 1856).

Farish, T. E., History of Arizona, vol. Ill, 196-7.

Bancroft, H. H., History of Arizona and New Mexico (1888), 521-2.

Twitchell, R. E., Leading Facts of New Mexican History, II, 350.

Coan, Chas. F., A History of New Mexico (Chicago, 1925), I, 364.

Journals, 1st Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Arizona, 1864: pp. 13-14.
58, 68, 102.

Heitman, F. B., Historical Register and Dictionary of the U. S. Army, 819.

Adjutant General of the Army, Prisoner of War Records.

General Accounting Office, Old files.

Post Office Department, Appointment Records.

The American Baptist Home Mission Society (New York), Home Mission Record,
1849-52.

The Texas Baptist Herald (Austin), January 15, 1885.

The El Paso Times, February 8, 1895, obituary.

113



114 NEW MEXICO HISTORICAL REVIEW

United States troops, to the Indians and to the Mexicans. He
explored the settled parts of New Mexico and laid the foun-
dation for Baptist mission work in all this region. It is chief-
ly this exploratory work which is shown by the sources here
published. Later (1852-54), he was back in New Mexico
again, organizing churches, locating other missionaries, and
establishing schools for the Baptist denomination.

Later, he returned east where he labored for the Ameri-
can Baptist Home Mission Society and the American and
Foreign Bible Society. For a time he lived in Virginia, near
Washington, D. C. Here he founded the Columbia Baptist
Church, Falls Church, Virginia, and helped in many revival
services. During the Civil War, he served the United States
government at Washington, in the field and in hospitals. He
was taken prisoner by the Confederates at Savage Station,
Virginia, on June 30, 1862, but on September 21 he was ex-
changed for the Reverend W. F. Broaddus of Fredericks-
burg, Virginia, one of the famous Baptist ministers of that
day.

He assisted in the establishment of the Territorial gov-
ernment of Arizona (1863) and served as the first postmas-
ter at Prescott from January 22, 1864, to May 18, 1865. He
is said to have made a visit to California in 1864.

Later in 1865 he settled in Hannibal, Missouri, where he
became a noted evangelist. His labors extended to eastern
cities and to many of the larger towns of the country. Dur-
ing his ministry he baptized nearly a thousand persons and
led thousands more to Christ who were baptized by others.

Few facts are know about his family. His parents were
Caleb and Mary (Leffingwell) Read. Also he was twice
married, but just when occurred the death of his first wife
Alzina (who was with him in New Mexico) cannot be stated.

From January 1, 1880 to February 10, 1882, he was pas-
tor of the Baptist Church at Virginia City, Nevada. At the
latter date he departed to accept a missionary assignment
at El Paso, Texas. He died in that frontier town on February



THE REV. HIRAM WALTER READ 115

6, 1895, at the advanced age of seventy-five years, and his
remains were buried in Concordia Cemetery.

The above meager and fragmentary sketch follows
pretty closely information supplied by the Rev. Rufus W.
Weaver, executive secretary of the District of Columbia
Baptist Convention, and secured by the Hon. Carl Hayden,
U. S. senator from Arizona. From the latter it came to our
desk recently in an exchange of material, together with the
group of transcripts which follow. It is at once evident that
these latter also are only a fragmentary record and of a very
limited period, but they will be found of considerable inter-
est because of the composite picture which they give of
New Mexico just after the American Occupation, especially
at Santa Fe, Taos, and El Paso. L. B. B.

HOME MISSION RECORD

New York, December, 1849
Our Duty to New Mexico

In our last paper we gave notice that Rev. H. W. Read
has arrived at Santa Fe, in New Mexico, and has made
arrangements to remain there permanently. In this number
we present our readers extracts from his letter, in which
he announces that fact. We believe it impossible for Chris-
tians to read them without thankfulness to God for his
preservation, and a clear discernment of the Divine provi-
dence which conducted him to that city, and hedged up his
way against proceeding further.

His letter is too long to be transferred entire to our
columns. It presents a story of trials, hardships, and an-
noyances, requiring great patience and firmness; which,
however, Mr. Read and his estimable wife seem to have
exercised in health and sickness, and without which, at least
once, they would have been left without protection in the
dreary wilderness, exposed to the cruelties of hostile Indians,
and destitute of adequate means of advancing or returning.
But God, in whom they trusted, and whose cause it was their
object to promote, raised up for them faithful and efficient
friends, and conducted them safely through the dangers and
afflictions of the way.



116 NEW MEXICO HISTORICAL REVIEW

And now they are in New Mexico. The extracts alluded
to show what prospects of usefulness have already dawned
upon them, and what additional means and appliances are
necessary we may say, demanded, by an equally clear
providence, at our hands, as God's servants for laying
the religious foundations of a State which must inevitably
rise to importance, and for promoting the best interests of
the thousands who now live in gross darkness and sin.

The Executive Board have sanctioned the arrangement
of Mr. Read. With a population of 100,000 souls in the ter-
ritory, uninstructed in Gospel truth by a single evangelical
preacher, with near a thousand Americans imploring him
to remain, and many Mexicans favorably disposed to study
the religion he preaches, it was his and our duty to acquiesce
in the overruling guidance of the Divine hand. Is it not also
our privilege to rejoice in the event, as a token of Divine
pleasure in the instrumentality of the Society in accomplish-
ing his own good purpose.

Other missionaries are needed there. What is one
among so many thousands? Even the Mexicans, and the
very Indians, will be glad to receive them. The Pueblo
Indians "the most intelligent of the tribes" deserve the
attention of kind and faithful teachers, and doubtless would
listen to those who might be sent. But the Americans, our
brothers, our sons who are there, or shortly will be there
what Christian will willingly assume the responsibility of
neglecting their spiritual interests?

Our missionary must not be allowed to labor alone. The
circumstances under which his temporal necessities are
provided for, though desirable in some respects, are un-
favorable to his extending his labors as far as usual for
missionaries. 2 There is work enough already for another in
Santa Fe, and for still another in adjacent villages. Besides
which he, more than most missionaries, needs counsel and
support amidst the peculiar duties and trials of his station.
Our Divine Master sent forth his disciples two and two, and
missionary Societies should follow his example. It is hoped
that at least two or three good men will be found, who will
be ready to proceed at the earliest practicable moment.

But, does not this event suggest to the Baptist denom-
ination a train of thoughts of solemn importance? Here is
a field of great extent and interest, offered for their culti-



2. The editor of the Home Mission Record is alluding of course to Mr. Read's
chaplaincy at Fort Marcy in Santa Fe.



THE REV. HIRAM WALTER READ 117

vation. The God whom they worship and to whose service
they profess to devote themselves, in answer to their prayers
to be used for the promotion of his glory, deigns to present
them that field, and says to them in these providences : "Go,
work in my vineyard." Now shall we go? It is an honor
conferred upon us. Will we receive it and act worthy of it?
Are our prayers and men and money ready for the offerings
which the altar of his love and condecension now invites?
Too long has it been our custom to delay till others, more
zealous, more faithful, outstrip us in obedience, and bear
away the crown of rejoicing.

Here is a good beginning, and God has approved it by
relieving us of the usual pecuniary burden of such under-
takings. It encourages a continuance of our efforts. IT CAN-
NOT BE FOLLOWED UP EFFICIENTLY WITHOUT IN-
CREASED SUPPORT FROM OUR FRIENDS. Let them
think of the great extension of our territory the tens of
thousands of benighted heathen and paganized Christians,
now our fellow-citizens ; and the many more thousands of
comparatively unenlightened minds pouring in upon us
from every quarter : and then let them decide of what value



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