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large grist mills, several stores and many leagues of land."
As is apparent from these quotations, Brayer has edit-
ed a most fascinating series of letters and with his scholar-
ly comments and introductions to each chapter has made
an important contribution to the historical knowledge of
the beginnings of the conquest of the West. P. A. F. W.

Uncle Sam's Stepchildren: The reformation of United
States Indian Policy, 1865-1887. By Loring Benson Priest.
(Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, 1942. 310
pages with index. $3.75).

Dr. Priest has developed this intensive study of the In-
dian problem topically under four headings: four unsuc-
cessful efforts at reform, the rise of interest in Indian re-
form, destruction of the old Indian system, and formulation
of the new Indian policy. The four unsuccessful efforts at
reform were: the policy of concentration of Indians on a
few large reservations; the attempt of the war depart-
ment to wrest control of the Indians from the interior de-
partment; the church nomination of Indian agents, which
did not improve conditions in the service; and the crea-



BOOK REVIEWS 173

tion of the Board of Indian Commissioners, which soon fell
under the domination of the interior department. At the
same time the old policies were being- modified: the treaty
system was abandoned officially in 1871, and annuities
were slowly diverted from knick-knacks and subsistence
supplies to the purchase of farm equipment and educational
facilities. The final change was the Dawes Act of 1887, in-
tended to break up the communal system of land holding
and make possible the assimilation of the Indian.

The reviewer has been hoping that continued study of
the Indian problem would reveal a more favorable picture
of just treatment of the red man by the white man, but this
study presents the usual story of selfish motives and con-
fusion in dealing with the natives. The trader, the cattle-
man, the squaw man, the partisan politician, the railroad
corporation, and even the churchman was too often moti-
vated by self-interest. The Indian might incidentally be
benefited, but progress toward that goal was slow and
painful compared with the returns to the white men who
administered to or had close contact with these wards of
the nation.

Outside of a few minor errors, the author has made
a worthy contribution to the literature on the subject, and
after a method far superior to much of the writing that
exists. If the story is painful to read, it is at least based on
authentic sources of information and not pure imagination
or sentimentalism. There is no formal bibliography, but
the footnotes at the end of the book reveal an extensive use
of printed source material and some use of manuscripts.

A final chapter summarizing and interpreting the
period covered by the study would have been useful to the
reader because of the many threads in the story. Instead,
the author has written a brief account of the failure of the
Dawes Act which really lies outside the scope of this work.
He terms this failure "the disastrous history of America's
first systematic effort to provide for Indian welfare," a
heady statement in view of his intention "to discuss con-



174 NEW MEXICO HISTORICAL REVIEW

troversial issues impartially" because "of current dis-
agreements."

Such a chapter would have been difficult since the
subject can almost be called "confusion worse confounded."
This is revealed in some conflicting generalizations: con-
centration was defeated by local opposition on page 7, but
by Western settlers and Eastern philanthropists on page 17.
"The average layman was not interested in the Indian
problem," (p. 30) ; "While most Americans were extremely
critical . . . , " (p. 36). "While Catholics could expect little
sympathy from government officials ..." (p. 35), "most
government officials were disposed to treat the Catholics
fairly. . . " (p. 35).

The discussion of Navajo police on page 139 might
be modified a bit. A force of 100 men was actually organized
in 1872 and served for a year at a wage of $7.00 per month.
They were disbanded on the recommendation of Agent Hall,
Arny's successor.

Frank D. Reeve

Economic Nationalism in Latin America. By Richard
F. Behrendt. (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico,
1941. Pp. 24.)

The first of a proposed series of short papers, under
the general title of Inter-Americana, it presents a rather
incisive analysis of factors which have been, and to some
extent still are, barriers to complete understanding between
the United States and the so-called Latin-American repub-
lics. No one could be better qualified to discuss this situation,
perhaps, than Dr. Behrendt, assistant professor of Inter-
American affairs at the University of New Mexico. Of
European birth and training, he was professor of economics
and sociology, dean of the faculty of social sciences and
economic adviser to the government of the Republic of
Panama for five years ; assistant director of the Pan Ameri-
can Good Neighbor Forum, co-editor of Pan American
Forum and Foro Panamericano, and lecturer in economics
and Latin American affairs in Chicago.

At the onset, the writer makes it clear that "it is



BOOK REVIEWS 175

inaccurate, and sometimes unfair, to refer to Latin America
as if it were a unit. Immense differences in economic, social
and cultural conditions can be found among the various
countries and even certain regions within the same coun-
try." The discussion, therefore, confines itself to a certain
extent to problems common to all nations of Latin America.

It is made evident that growing nationalism has widen-
ed the gap into a gulf, separating the nations of the Ameri-
cas, not only politically, but also economically. Despite the
infiltration of European capital and industry, the people
of the Americas demand and advocate "the restriction and
even final elimination of the economic activities of
foreigners. Obstacles in the way of economic independence
are formidable. There is political unrest, for instance. Says
the writer: "Most educated people depend on the govern-
ment for making a living through public offices. * * * They
exercise a tremendous strain on the public treasuries."
Then there "is the discrepancy between the broad masses
of the population, among whom a very low standard of
living and scarcity of formal education prevails, and a rela-
tively small group of large land owners and military and
political key personages." The trend toward socialism is ap-
parent, in fact, decisive, for to attain the nationalistic aims,
it is the government which must take the place of the
foreign investors as "there does not exist yet a sufficiently
broad and potent class of capitalists."

In conclusion, Professor Behrendt urges intelligent co-
operation between the United States and its neighbors to
the south. "Otherwise, 'el capitalismo yanqui' will find the
sociological tide in most Latin American countries turning
against it more strongly every day." For the present, it is
sought to buy good will rather than to earn it and "there
is great danger in approaching an understanding of Latin
America by means of night club attractions, tourist propo-
ganda and Hollywood productions."

The study is an important contribution by the School
of Inter-American Affairs of the University of New Mex-
ico, which is being ably organized by Dr. Joaquin Ortega,



176 NEW MEXICO HISTORICAL REVIEW

recently called from the University of Wisconsin, to
strengthen the important influence which the University of
New Mexico has already attained in the field of Latin
American relations. P.A.F.W.

Handbook for Translators of Spanish Historical Documents.
By J. Villasana Haggard. Assisted by Malcolm Dallas Mc-
Lean. Archives Collection, University of Texas. (Oklahoma
City, 1941. Pp. 198.)

This volume serves the useful purpose of bringing
together various aids, hitherto dealt with only in widely
scattered works, for the benefit of persons interested in
reading and translating documents in the Spanish language.
It must be remembered, however, that Spanish historical
documents relating to the colonies deal with such a wide
area and so many varied problems that it is impossible to
lay down a single set of rules which will prove satisfactory
in all cases. Thorough knowledge of the languages involved
is only the first step. The translator must have a sound
general acquaintance with the background of the material
with which he is working, or the active collaboration of
someone who does. Very often it is essential to consult
specialists in other fields. A handbook such as this can spare
us a certain amount of the initial drudgery, but the long
slow work of solving the problems which each document
presents cannot be avoided.

In general Mr. Haggard's theory of translation is
sound, if a bit too arbitrary. Undoubtedly there are some
who will disagree with his rules for transcription. In many
cases it is advisable to transcribe documents exactly as they
stand, but in preparing documents for publication there is
much to be said for modernizing spelling and punctuation
for the benefit of those who may be interested in different
phases of the material presented and yet have insufficent
knowledge of the peculiarities of earlier Spanish phrase-
ology and spelling to read them with ease, or even to in-
terpret them accurately, when they are left in their original
form. If the editor is not competent to modernize, it is open
to doubt whether he is competent to transcribe.



BOOK REVIEWS 177

Unfortunately the Handbook contains serious errors in
both palaeography and translation. The original of the first
sample translation is so obscure that it would be impossible
to make a definite translation without the aid of related
documents to clarify the situation. Undoubtedly Mr. Hag-
gard had access to such. Other translations are at fault
because of misunderstanding of Spanish legal procedure
and points of civil and canon law. In certain cases the
transcriptions are incorrect, e. g., Fr. A. archopo. Mex.
Conqt. for Fr. A. archieps. (archiepiscopus) Mexicanus;
Hos. App. co (translated as "Apostolic Hospitaller") for
Not. App. co (Apostolic Notary) ; and in Appendix B,
Specimens number 17 and 18, attributed to Munoz y Rivero,
contain outstanding errors in transcription.

The lists of stock Spanish words, phrases, and ex-
pressions with their English equivalents are of interest but
must be used with caution since many of these expressions
have other meanings of equal importance and frequency.
These lists contain a large number of Southwestern terms
and should be particularly helpful to those interested in
that field. Certainly it would be almost impossible to compile
a comprehensive list of expressions of this kind, for they
are indefinite and vary exceedingly according to place,
period, and subject under discussion. Such specialized terms
as those describing caste are to be found in works like
Nicholas Leon's Las castas de Mexico Colonial o Nueva
Espana (Mexico, 1924). The interpretation of legal terms
requires extreme care and the works of specialists must be
consulted.

The sections dealing with weights and measures and
monetary values have definite value. It is to be regretted,
however, that a table of Spanish monetary values in terms
of one another was not included.

An excellent, though not exhaustive, bibliography is
appended.

Eleanor B. Adams
Division of Historical Research
Carnegie Institution of Washington



NOTES AND COMMENTS

Martin Amador and Mesilla Valley history. Last fall dur-
ing the annual observance of the Fiesta de la Frontera, one
of the local papers carried a feature article regarding Don
Martin Amador and a "combination plow" which he in-
vented fifty years ago.

It seems that on January 19, 1892, he was issued a
patent for what was, in effect, a forerunner of the modern
cultivator. As described in newspaper clippings of that
time, it was "a miracle of simple ingenuity and works like
a charm. The need for an implement with which to cut to
pieces the matted roots of alfalfa has long been felt, and
the problem has been successfully solved by the genius of
our fellow townsman, Don Martin Amador. The implement
consists of a pair of low truck wheels, to the axle of which
is attached a frame-work of four parallel, horizontal bars
to which the plows are made fast. Underneath the tongue
a chain works its whole length, and passes over a roller
at its front end.

"To this same frame-work may be attached the knives
for cutting the perpendicular walls, the 18-inch plows for
cleaning the dirt out of an acequia, the plows for throwing
up acequia and cotton borders ; a gang of 7- or 8-inch plows
for loosening up, and a scraper for throwing up borders."

In reply to an inquiry from New York, he was said to
have asked $100,000 for a half-interest. Some weeks later
he was reported to have refused a cash offer of $70,000
and to be planning himself to start a small factory at Las
Cruces. This did not materialize and the patent seems to
have lapsed many years ago. Though it brought Don
Martin no financial return, it did bring him honors and
distinction even from a scientific body in far-away Paris.

Martin Amador was born on November 11, 1839, in the
city of Paso del Norte (the Juarez of today). He came to
Brazito at the age of nine, settling at Fort Fillmore, per-

178



NOTES AND COMMENTS 179

haps from its beginning in September 1851. He remained
at the post for about eight years, and during this time he
learned to read and write English.

The first silver mining in the Organ Mountains is said
to date from about 1819 and was done by Don Antonio
Garcia of Paso del Norte. The ore taken out was brought
on burros to a crude smelting furnace near the site of the
later Fort Fillmore. Whether these properties were acquired
by Hugh Stephenson is not known, but W. W. H. Davis (El
Gringo, 374) stopped in 1853 for a look at the Stephenson
furnace near Fort Fillmore; also in or about 1856 Martin
Amador entered Stephenson's employ report says as
"manager."

When the Civil War broke out, he returned to his
native Mexico. At that time he was twenty-one years of
age, and a family tradition has it that he was much dis-
turbed because the young lady whom he wanted to marry
was also being courted by another young caballero who
later was to be governor of the State of Chihuahua. But
young Amador was successful in winning the hand of Dona
Refugio Ruiz, and in 1863 (after the Confederates had been
driven out of the valley) he returned with her and settled
in Las Cruces. Four children of this marriage are still
living: Mrs. Clotilde Terrazas, widow of the late Antonio
Terrazas, Mrs. Emilia Garcia, widow of the late Jesus
Garcia, and Frank Amador, all of Las Cruces; and Juan
Amador of El Paso.

In fact, the name "Amador" has long been associated
with the Mesilla Valley. Don Martin himself was active
in civic affairs, serving a term as probate judge and another
time being appointed a deputy U. S. marshal. Old-timers
associate the name with his business in drygoods and
groceries; and in the horse-and-buggy days the Amador
Livery stables were well patronized. And everyone in
Cruces knows the old Amador Hotel, which must now be
about seventy years old and is still serving the public. Per-
haps it is of interest to recall that, when the railroad came



180 NEW MEXICO HISTORICAL REVIEW

through in the early Ws and the county-seat was brought
back from La Mesilla across the old river-bed, several terms
of the district court were held in the Amador Hotel until
the new court-house was ready in 1884. If anyone wants to
recover some atmosphere of the long ago, may he find it
possible to visit occasionally some place which enshrines
the past like this old hostelry in Las Cruces. L. B. B.

Robert E. Lee Archives. The board of trustees of Wash-
ington and Lee University has recently establishd the Robert
E. Lee Archives as a division of the new Cyrus Hall Mc-
Cormick Library. It is proposed to make the school which
Washington endowed and to which Lee gave the last five
years of his life a national repository of source material
concerning the entire life of Robert E. Lee. Washington
and Lee already owns four thousand manuscript items
concerning Lee's life, and its collection of Lee books, pam-
phlets, and pictures is large. The most improved methods
of cataloging mannuscripts have been adopted.

To aid in this work a national advisory committee of
prominent scholars and public men is being formed. Dr.
W. G. Bean is chairman of the local committee, and Dr.
Allen W. Moger of the history faculty has been made Lee
archivist. He will attempt to locate and secure other original
manuscripts, photostats, and copies of original Lee items.
It is particularly hoped that the numerous admirers of
General Lee who possess individual letters to or from him
will realize that the Robert E. Lee Archives at Lexington,
Virginia, is the appropriate place where they will be pre-
served for posterity.



The Historical Society of New Mexico

(INCORPORATED)
Organized December 26, 1859



PAST PRESIDENTS

1859 COL. JOHN B. GRAYSON, U. S. A.
1861 MAJ. JAMES L. DONALDSON, U. S. A.
1863 HON. KIRBY BENEDICT

adjourned sine die, Sept. 23, 1863



re-established Dec. 27, 1880

1881 HON. WILLIAM G. RITCH
1883 HON. L. BRADFORD PRINCE
1923 HON. FRANK W. CLANCY

1925 COL. RALPH E. TWITCHELL

1926 PAUL A. F. WALTER

OFFICERS FOR 1942-1943

PAUL A. F. WALTER, President

PEARCE C. RODEY, V ice-President

LANSING B. BLOOM, Corresponding Secretary
WAYNE L. MAUZY, Treasurer

Miss HESTER JONES, Recording Secretary



FELLOWS

PERCY M. BALDWIN EDGAR L. HEWETT

RALPH P. BIEBER FREDERICK W. HODGE

LANSING B. BLOOM J. LLOYD MECHAM

HERBERT E. BOLTON THEODOSIUS MEYER, O. F. M.

MARION DARGAN FRANK D. REEVE

AURELIO M. ESPINOSA FRANCE V. SCHOLES

CHARLES W. HACKETT ALFRED B. THOMAS

GEORGE P. HAMMOND PAUL A. F. WALTER



CONSTITUTION

OP THE

HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF NEW MEXICO
(As amended Nov. 25, 1941)

Article 1. Name. This Society shall be called the Historical Society
of New Mexico.

Article 2. Objects and Operation. The objects of the Society shall be,
in general, the promotion of historical studies; and in particular, the
discovery, collection, preservation, and publication of historical ma-
terial, especially such as relates to New Mexico.

Article 3. Membership. The Society shall consist of Members, Fel-
lows, Life Members and Honorary Life Members.

(a) Members. Persons recommended by the Executive Council
and elected by the Society may become members.

(b) Fellows. Members who show, by published work, special
aptitude for historical investigation may become Fellows. Immedi-
ately following the adoption of this Constitution, the Executive
Council shall elect five Fellows, and the body thus created may there-
after elect additional Fellows on the nomination of the Executive
Council. The number of Fellows shall never exceed twenty-five.

(c) Life Members. In addition to life members of the Historical
Society of New Mexico at the date of the adoption hereof, such other
benefactors of the Society as shall pay into its treasury at one time
the sum of fifty dollars, or shall present to the Society an equivalent
in books, manuscripts, portraits, or other acceptable material of an
historic nature, may upon recommendation by the Executive Council
and election by the Society, be classed as Life Members.

(d) Honorary Life Members. Persons who have rendered emi-
nent service to New Mexico and others who have, by published work,
contributed to the historical literature of New Mexico or the South-
west, may become Honorary Life Members upon being recommended
by the Executive Council and elected by the Society.

Article 4. Officers. The elective officers of the Society shall be a
president, a vice-president, a corresponding secretary, a treasurer, and
a recording secretary; and these five officers shall constitute the
Executive Council with full administrative powers.

Officers shall qualify on January 1st following their election, and
shall hold office for the term of two years and until their successors
shall have been elected and qualified.



Article 5. Elections. At the October meeting of each odd-numbered
year, a nominating committee shall be named by the president of the
Society and such committee shall make its report to the Society at
the November meeting. Nominations may be made from the floor
and the Society shall, in open meeting, proceed to elect its officers by
ballot, those nominees receiving a majority of the votes cast for the
respective offices to be declared elected.

Article 6. Dues. Dues shall be $3.00 for each calendar year, and
shall entitle members to receive bulletins as published and also the
Historical Review.

Article 7. Publications. All publications of the Society and the selec-
tion and editing of matter for publication shall be under the direction
and control of the Executive Council.

Article 8. Meetings. Monthly meetings of the Society shall be held at
the rooms of the Society on the third Tuesday of each month at
eight P. M. The Executive Council shall meet at any time upon call
of the President or of three of its members.

Article 9. Quorums. Seven members of the Society and three mem-
bers of the Executive Council, shall constitute quorums.

Article 10. Amendments. Amendments to this constitution shall be-
come operative after being recommended by the Executive Council
and approved by two-thirds of the members present and voting at
any regular monthly meeting; provided, that notice of the proposed
amendment shall have been given at a regular meeting of the Society,
at least four weeks prior to the meeting when such proposed amend-
ment is passed upon by the Society.



Students and friends of Southwestern History are cordially in-
vited to become members. Applications should be addressed to the
corresponding secretary, Lansing B. Bloom, University of New Mexico.
Albuquerque, New Mexico.



s



w w yy tfy MM v* W w tn* mi in* tra w m* m vu w u y t y * y * y u y ^ y



NEW MEXICO
HISTORICAL REVIEW



VOL. XVII



JULY, 1942



No. 3







PALACE OF THE GOVERNORS



PUBLISHED QUARTERLY BY

THE HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF NEW MEXICO

AND

THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO






NEW MEXICO
HISTORICAL REVIEW

Editor Managing Editor

LANSING B. BLOOM PAUL A. F. WALTER

Associates

PERCY M. BALDWIN GEORGE P. HAMMONL

FRANK T. CHEETHAM THEODOSIUS MEYER, 0. F. M.

VOL. XVII JULY, 1942 No. 3

CONTENTS

Duke Paul Wilhelm von Wiirttemberg . Frontispiece

A Brief Biography of Prince Paul Wilhelm of

Wiirttemberg (1797-1860) Louis C. Butscher 181

Books in New Mexico, 1598-1680

Eleanor B. Adams and France V. Scholes 226

Book Reviews :

Espinosa, Crusaders of the Rio Grande. P.A.F.W. 271

Hackett (ed.), Pichardo's Treatise on the Limits

of Louisiana and Texas . . . L.B.B. 275

Notes and Comments

Hugh Stephenson and the Brazito Grant. 279



Subscription to the quarterly is $3.00 a year in advance; single
numbers (except Vol. I, 1-4, and II, 1) may be had at $1.00 each.

Volumes III-XVI can be supplied at $4.00 each; Vols. I-II are
out of print in part.

Address business communications to Mr. P. A. F. Walter, State
Museum, Santa Fe, N. M.; manuscripts and editorial correspondence
should be addressed to Mr. Bloom at the University of New Mexico,
Albuquerque, New Mexico.

Entered as second-class matter at Santa Fe, New Mexico
UNIVERSITY PRESS, ALBUQUERQUE, N. M.




DUKE PAUL WILHELM VON WURTTEMBERG

(A photograph taken with a camera of his own construction, early
summer of 1844, in the wilds of southeastern Arkansas L. C. B.)



NEW MEXICO HISTORICAL
REVIEW

VOL. XVII JULY, 1942 No. 3

A BRIEF BIOGRAPHY OF PRINCE PAUL WILHELM
OFWtrRTTEMBERG (1797-1860)

By Louis C. BUTSCHER

THE WRITER is at the very outset aware of the serious
handicap that the personage he is undertaking to por-
tray in this sketch is even by name known to not more than
half a dozen people, and to these only so remotely that the
name spells little more than the object of a controversy that
has nothing whatsoever to do with the distinguished service
he has rendered to the natural sciences.

Paradoxical though this utter oblivion of the memory
of the man may seem, it is quite easy of explanation. Unlike
any other man known in history, he worked not for world-
fame, though he would have had glory enough had he had
the slightest inclination for publicity but solely for the
joy this work gave him. Of all his vast gifts, gifts which he



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