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familiares, Madrid, 1589; Juan Vicente Peliger, Formulario y
estilo curioso de escrivir cartas missivas, Madrid, 1599; or Juan
Paez de Valenzuela y Castillejo, Nuevo estilo y formulario de
escrivir cartas misivas y responder a ellas, Cordoba, 1630.]

(145) Otro del mesmo tamano yntitulado Letras humanas. [Diego de
Agreda y Vargas, Lugares comunes de letras humanas, Madrid,
1616.]

(146) Otro del mesmo tamano yntitulado Arte poetica. [Probably
Juan Diaz Rengifo (Diego Garcia Rengifo), Arte poetica
espanola, Salamanca, 1592.]

(147) Otro del mesmo tamano Yntitulado Marco Bruto de Quebedo.
[Francisco Gomez de Quevedo y Villegas, Primera parte de la
vida de Marco Bruto, Madrid, 1644.]

(148) Otro del mesmo Tamano Yntitulado, digo que no tiene Titulo
por estar dos foxas cortadas de el Principio Manuscrito, Y en
la Primera foxa dice la Pasion de Xpto Senor Nuestro &a. y
pasadas tres foxas empiessa lo foliado hasta el numero 101 y
despues hay Tambien dos foxas manuscritas.

(149) Un libro de Comedias de diferentes autores. [See no. 99, supra.]

(150) Otro libro de a folio yntitulado Vitorias de Xpto de Loaisa.
[Fray Rodrigo de Loaisa, Victorias de Cristo nuestro Redentor,
Sevilla, 1618. See no. 85, supra.]

(151) Un quadernito de a octabo sin cubierta ympresso en Madrid
1656 por Fray Martin del Castillo yntitulado Propal estra-
petali. [Fray Martin del Castillo was a prolific religious writer
of the seventeenth century. He became provincial of the
Franciscan province of the Holy Evangel of Mexico nd rector
of the Colegio de San Buenaventura.]

F. Books cited by Penalosa, probably in the Casa Real. 13

(152) Curia filipica. [See no. 26, supra.]

(153) Solorzano. Politica indiana. [Juan de Solorzano Pereira, Poll-
tied indiana, Madrid, 1648.]



13. A. G. M., Inquisicion, tomo 507.



BOOKS IN NEW MEXICO, 1598-1680 269

(154) Practica de Monteroso. [Gabriel de Monterroso y Alvarado,
Prdctica civil y criminal, Valladolid, 1566.]

(155) Sylvestro in sum. verbo immunit. [See no. 48, supra.]

(156) Antonio Gomez, 3. to var. c. 2. vers. 4. [Probably Antonio
Gomez, Variarum resolutionum juris civilis communis et regii
libri III, Salamanca, 1552, and later editions.]

(157) 1. Rebuf. 2. torn. ad. leg. g a llic. de immu. nuni. eccles. art. 1. gl.
1. num. 2. 14 [Probably refers to a work of Pierre Rebuffe,
French jurisconsult of the sixteenth century.]

(158) Julio Claro, in prac. lib. 5. [Probably refers to a work of the
Italian jurisconsult Chiaro (Clarus or Claro).]

(159) Tiber. Dec. 2. to. crali. 6. c. 28. num. 23. [Probably refers to
Tiberius Decianus. Tractatus criminalis utriusque censurae
duobus tomis distinctus, Venice, 1580, and later editions.]

Ill
BOOKS OWNED BY COLONISTS

A. Alonso de Quesada.

(160) Siete libros divinos y humanos.

B. Juan del Caso Baraona. 1 *

(161) Cinco libros de medicinas de graves autores.

C. Francisco Gomez de Torres. 11

(162) Libro de papeles de devocion.

D. Francisco de Anaya Almazdn. 18

(163) Un libro que se llama Curia Filipica. [See no. 26, supra.]

E. Diego Romero. 19

(164) Librito de diferentes oraciones y devociones.

F. Nicolas de Aguilar. 20

(165) Un libro intitulado Catecismo en lengua castellana y dentro del
otro libro muy pequefio intitulado Instruccion para examinar
la conciencia.



14. We are not entirely certain of our reading of this citation which appears as
a marginal note.

15. A. G. I., Mexico, leg. 25.

16. Ibid.

17. Biblioteca Nacional, Mexico, leg. 1, doc. 8.

18. A. G. M., Inquisicion, tomo 582, exp. 2.

19. A. G. M., Inquisicion, tomo 586, exp. 1.

20. A. G. M., Inquisicion, tomo 512, exp. 1.



270 NEW MEXICO HISTORICAL REVIEW

(166) Un librito impreso de los quatro evangelios.

(167) Un libro pequeno aforado de tablas negras pequeiias muy viejo
que al principio no tiene titulo y al medio parece ser de exerci-
cios y consideraciones.



G. Cristobal de Anaya

(168) Un catecismo y exposicion de la doctrina sancta impreso en
Madrid ano de mill seiscientos y cinquenta nueve.

(169) Un libro a quarto intitulado trauajos de Jesus. [Venerable
Tomas de Jesus, Trabajos de Jesus, 1602, 1609.]

(170) Otro libro pequeno intitulado breve catecismo.



21. A. G. M., Inquisici6n, tomo 682, exp. 2.



BOOK REVIEWS

Crusaders of the Rio Grande. By J. Manuel Espinosa.
(Chicago, Institute of Jesuit History, 1942. Pp. 410 ; frontis-
piece, bibliog., index. $4.00.)

The final word on the tempestuous life of Don Diego de
Vargas, reconqueror, recolonizer, ruler of New Mexico,
appears to have been written. It is more than a biography,
it is an exciting chronicle of a momentous period in the early
history of the Spanish Southwest. The story is well told,
and is presented in attractive typography and binding.

It is one of the curious facts of historical research, that
it is unlikely that the biography of any other important
figure in New Mexico history could be presented in such satis-
factory detail as that of the hero of the reconquest. The
reason, according to the author is this :

It was the rule during the period of Spanish
domination in America to have every document of
official importance executed in triplicate, one copy
remaining at the seat of local government, another
going to the viceregal authorities, and the third to
the royal administrators in the mother country.
Consequently copies of the most important official
New Mexican records were filed in the govern-
ment archives of Santa Fe, Mexico City, and
Madrid and Seville, Spain. These original docu-
ments, most of which have survived, are now pre-
served in the State Museum and in the office of the
Surveyor General in Santa Fe, the Archive General
y Publico de la Nacion in Mexico City, the Archive
of the Indies in Seville, and the Biblioteca Nacional
and Biblioteca de la Real Academia de la Historia
in Madrid. Since New Mexico was a Franciscan
mission field, the Franciscan records of New Mex-
ico and New Spain constitute another group of im-
portant materials for the period.

The thousands of pages of archive material filmed by
Professor Lansing Bloom during his research in the Archive

271



272 NEW MEXICO HISTORICAL REVIEW

of the Indies at Seville, Spain, and elsewhere, on behalf of
the Historical Society of New Mexico, the Museum of New
Mexico, the School of American Research and the Univer-
sity of New Mexico, are now housed in the Coronado Library
at the University, and were available to the author, as was
the abundant material in the Archive General in Mexico
City uncovered by Professor Herbert E. Bolton of the Uni-
versity of California, an honored Fellow of our Society.

Dr. Espinosa sifts original and secondary sources as
well as published material, correlating the facts and weaving
them into an authentic and fascinating narrative. New Mex-
ico's hero, "Don Diego Jose Lopez de Zarate Vargas Pimentel
Zapata y Lujan Ponce de Leon Cepeda Alvarez Contreras y
Salinas, Marques de Villanueva de la Sagra y de la Nava de
Bracinas," emerges from the book a great military genius,
a resourceful colonizer and an accomplished statesman well
deserving of the posthumous honors paid him annually in
the Santa Fe Fiesta.

Before introducing Don Diego de Vargas to his readers,
the author treats briefly of the events and circumstances
which set the stage for the Reconquest. "The Spanish policy
looked to the civilizing of the Indian as well as to the hold-
ing of the frontier * * * it saw in the mission the best pos-
sible agency for bringing this about," concludes Espinosa.
Therefore "the spiritual welfare of the natives was the
dominant interest of the Spanish Crown in New Mexico in
the seventeenth century. * * * Missionary success was
also paid for with the blood of forty-nine martyrs. * * *
The indecent manner in which the missionaries were mur-
dered gave evidence of the contempt which many of the
Indians had toward the Christian religion and the degree of
paganism into which they had relapsed. At Jemez, for
instance, the natives entered the room of Father Juan de
Jesus in the night, seized him, stripped him of his garments,
and in the light of burning candles they forced him to ride a
pig through the cemetery, in the course of which he was
beaten cruelly amid scoffing and ridicule. They then re-



BOOK REVIEWS 273

moved him from the pig, made him get down on his hands
and knees, and took turns riding on his back, beating him
mercilessly to prod him on." The Franciscan was finally
clubbed to death and his body thrown into the woods in the
rear of the pueblo. His bones were found and identified in
later years and taken to Santa Fe where they now repose in
an adobe wall in the rear of the present Cathedral.

Chapter I opens with a brief review of the family back-
ground and the life of Vargas from his baptism in 1643,
and his marriage in 1664 to the wealthy Dona Beatriz
Pimentel de Prado of Torrelaguna, to June, 1688, when at
the age of 45, he received his royal appointment as governor
and captain general of New Mexico. The struggle to pre-
pare for the reconquest which he offered to effect at his own
expense, the bickering with the ecclesiastical authorities,
the difficulties to gather the former settlers to accompany
the expedition, are reviewed in detail.

In the chapters that follow are related vivid details of
the reconquest, including the two entradas into Santa Fe
and all that happened in between. It is an exciting story in-
cluding incidents of treachery, fifth columnists, Quislings,
propaganda, cruelty, hardship, suffering, reprisals, such as
even at this day mar human history. In a four months cam-
paign Vargas had restored "twenty-three pueblos of ten
Indian tribes to Spain's empire in America and to Christian-
ity." But it was merely a temporary conquest for the In-
dians soon reverted to their former state of rebellion.

The colonists who accompanied the second expedition
to Santa Fe suffered greatly from continued snows and icy
winds. Vargas himself was ill most of the time with chills
and fever. Earlier in the year he had been thrown by his
horse and lay prostrate with a wrenched knee and two hard
kicks in the abdomen. Nevertheless he rode on for six
leagues "where a doctor twisted his knee back into its proper
position and where he spent three days convalescing." He
then continued riding though in constant pain and had him-
self bled and purged. Of the seventy families in the expedi-



274 NEW MEXICO HISTORICAL REVIEW

tion, twenty-seven were negroes and mestizos. The cost of
outfitting was 7000 pesos and it started out with 900 head of
livestock, over 2000 horses and 1000 mules. The food supply
ran desperately low by the time the colonists reached Luis
Lopez, "so low that the people began to sell arms, jewelry,
and horses to the Indians in exchange for grain and vege-
tables." It was a sorrowful picture that the conquistadores
presented but for the indomitable faith and will of Vargas.

When they reached La Bajada "the faint of heart became
panicky" and a number planned to desert. The ring leaders
were Francisco de Ayala, Diego Grimaldos and Manuel
Vargas. Food boxes were broken into and garlic and choco-
late, the latter indispensable to the seventeenth century
Spaniard, were stolen as well as several head of livestock,
a great number of the stoutest horses, all the loose clothing
handy and an extra arquebus. Besides those mentioned the
deserters included Felix Aragon, Gregorio Ramirez, Fran-
cisco de la Mora, Nicolas de Espinosa, Pedro L6pez, Pedro
de Leyba, Miguel Duran, Maria de la Cruz, Andres de
Arteaga, Bernardo, Miguel and Jose Manuel Rodriguez and
several others. Three were recaptured, the others made
their way to Sonora and Casas Grandes. This is but a modi-
cum of one of the most interesting and thrilling stories ever
told.

Chapter headings such as "The Battle of Santa Fe,"
"Continued Hostilities," "Meeting the Economic Problem,"
"Pacification of the Pueblos," "Rebuilding Missions and
Settlements," "The Struggle for Existence," "The Pueblo
Revolt of 1696," "Indian Warfare," "The Road to Final Vic-
tory," "Border Politics," "The Return of Vargas," indicate
the flow of events graphically delineated.

An "Epilogue" sums up the author's conclusions as to
the changes in social, economic and political conditions dur-
ing the years of the reconquest. He writes : "Many commen-
tators fail to recognize the change which came over the land ;
generalizations which apply to the earlier era do not hold
true in the same sense in the later period. * * * Hence-



BOOK REVIEWS 275

forth the military phase of viceregal and provincial policy,
* * * accompanied by greater emphasis upon permanent
and self-supporting civilian settlements, took precedence
over missionary enterprise." Further : "Eloquent testimony
of Vargas' good judgment as a town founder, or refounder,
was the growth of the villa of Santa Cruz commonly known
as La Canada. * * * Clear evidence that upper New Mex-
ico was 'the bulwark of New Spain' and its advancing
frontier of settlement, was the remarkable growth of the
El Paso district." Finally :

"Always it must be emphasized, New Mexico was an
isolated frontier community, its people living simple village
and rural life. * * * In general the life of the province was
the usual provincial Spanish life of far removed frontiers.
Through long isolation, Spanish folk tradition became fixed."
The bibliography cites the ten principal archives as well as
manuscript sources together with a long list of printed
works consulted as secondary sources. The index while not
exhaustive is helpful. Altogether, Crusaders of the Rio
Grande is a volume that should have a place not only in
every historical library but also in every school room and
home in which New Mexico traditions are cherished.

P. A. F. W.

Pichardo's Treatise on the Limits of Louisiana and Texas,
III. Edited by Charles W. Hackett. (Austin, University of
Texas Press, 1941. Pp. xxii + 623 ; bibliography, index.
$6.50.)

With this volume, three-fourths of the monumental
"argumentative treatise" of Father Pichardo are now avail-
able in English translation. The work will conclude with a
fourth and final volume to appear later.

The first two volumes were reviewed in an earlier issue
(THE NEW MEXICO HISTORICAL REVIEW, X, 54-57) and our
criticisms then stated, both adverse and favorable, do not
need to be repeated.

As Dr. Hackett explains in his preface, Volume III now



276 NEW MEXICO HISTORICAL REVIEW

before us opens with a concluding chapter of Pichardo's
Part II (which began in Vol. I and continued through all
of Vol. II) which is an exhaustive, and at times labored,
dissertation on the "Plains of Cibola" and which marshals
the arguments and quoted authorities of Father Pichardo to
prove that Soto as well as Coronado visited those plains. As
to Soto's route, Pichardo depended wholly on secondary
sources, the works of Garcilaso de la Vega and Antonio de
Herrera. Unfortunately he seems not to have had access to
the account of the "Gentleman of Elvas" which is the near-
est to a primary source which we have. This, with the data
from Ran j el (gotten and used by Oviedo), was the basis of
the Soto story as given by T. H. Lewis in Spanish Explor-
ers. It is hardly fair of our editor to give the impression
(p. xi) that Lewis did not pay due attention to Garcilaso's
work; Lewis did, but he found Garcilaso's work too full of
mistakes to be reliable. Yet surprisingly Dr. Hackett seems
to regard Pichardo's work as definitive: he avers (p. xxii)
that the "conclusions of the erudite cleric will . . stand the
test of time and historical investigation."

Perhaps a simple test of the relative value of the auth-
orities above cited is to ask the question : did any of the Soto
expedition see buffalo? It is a remarkable and significant
fact that the Elvas account makes absolutely no mention,
direct or even allusive, to this prolific animal of the plains ;
but notice (p. 88) how the Inca is quoted :

In all their wanderings through Florida, these
Spaniards saw no cattle, and although it is true
that in some parts they found fresh beef (sic),
they never saw cows, nor could they get the Indians,
either by threats or friendly advances, to tell them
where they were.

Had Garcilaso stopped with a period after "cattle," he would
have been correct. The rest of this quotation may be regard-
ed as pure embroidery. Nor is Pichardo's explanation con-
vincing, that the Spaniards failed to see them because of
their migrations. He would have us believe that they were



BOOK REVIEWS 277

on the plains of Cibola all through the winter of 1541-42 and
yet didn't see buffalo !

Again, in a work which depends wholly, as does the
Pichardo treatise, on the copying and argumentative inter-
preting of source material, there are countless ways in which
a factor of error may creep into the text. We call attention to
a single example (p. 100) where Vetancurt is quoted as say-
ing that to Father Escobar Don Juan de Onate "gave posses-
sion from the Rio del Norte to the Port of Buena Es-
peranza, 200 leagues to the east." Apparently Vetancurt
was none too clear as to where Onate and Escobar were
when that "possession" was given; Pichardo's comments
make it worse ; and to cap it off, some copyist or translator
gives us "to the east" where Vetancurt said "to the south"
(al austro). Certainly the editor, Dr. Hackett, knows that,
when Onate in 1601 hoped to find a harbor in the Quivira
country from which to send ships direct to Spain, he headed
for the great plains northeast from San Gabriel. Quivira
definitely was not in what later became eastern Texas, in
spite of Pichardo's clever handling of his sources.

Perhaps the reader will find in the entire treatise no
better example of Pichardo's tortuous reasoning than in his
"Part III" which takes up most of this volume and will be
concluded in the next and final volume. He begins (p. Ill)
with the remarkable assertion that "God himself, Creator
of heaven and earth, decreed (sic) that rivers, whenever
possible (sic) , should be the boundaries of kingdoms, prov-
inces, and properties." But the French, "going against that
decree of God," had from the seventeenth century insisted on
the conflicting principle that frontiers should follow the
dividing lines between watersheds ; and to avoid the spilling
of blood, the Spanish monarch had, "though with grief in his
heart," suffered the French encroachments which had re-
sulted. This principle having thus been established, it should
of course be observed in fixing the frontier between French
Louisiana and New Spain, and Pichardo therefore accepts
and warmly endorses the dividing line proposed by d'Anville,



278 NEW MEXICO HISTORICAL REVIEW

shrewdly ignoring the 'fact that this line conforms to
neither the one principle nor the other. As shown by the
Pichardo map of "New Mexico and Adjacent Regions" the
d'Anville line as it ran northwest cut directly across the Red
and Arkansas Rivers to 41 north latitude and was ex-
tended by Pichardo due north across the Missouri River!
Not only had the French been "unjust" repeatedly in tres-
passing beyond that line; so also was the Lewis and Clark
expedition in going up the Missouri River although sup-
posedly that river was in the very heart of our Louisiana
Purchase. It is somewhat ironic that the boundary finally
agreed upon under the Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819 con-
formed more nearly to both the above principles than did
Pichardo himself: it followed the Sabine River and long
stretches of both the Red and Arkansas Rivers, and it con-
ceded to the United States the entire watershed of the
Missouri.

The fact is, as we get a more comprehensive view of the
entire verbose disquisition, that Pichardo seems throughout
to have had this d'Anville line as his objective. His queer
ideas as to the "plains of Cibola" and the location of Quivira
are essential parts of the "build up." And there is certainly
significance in the relative location of the d'Anville line and
the hypothetical route by which Pichardo took Coronado
far south (when he was said to be going north) into the
woodland region (but still the "plains of Cibola") of eastern
Texas without being sure that he could get him back to the
Tiguex pueblos before winter set in. To Pichardo that seems
to have an inconsequential detail, and his map ignores it.

Dr. Hackett has done a tremendous lot of work, excel-
lent work, in making the Pichardo treatise available in these
fine volumes for students of the Southwest. But in endorsing
Pichardo's findings as "conclusive," Dr. Hackett seems to
have put himself on the spot. We shall look forward with
much interest to the next and final volume of his work.
L. B. B.



NOTES AND COMMENTS

Hugh Stephenson and the Brazito Grant. Since our
editorial note in the April issue regarding Don Martin
Amador, his daughter Mrs. Clotilde Terrazas has supplied
some further details. As to Hugh Stephenson and the Bra-
zito Grant she writes :

It did not cost him a cent, for my great-great-
grandfather, Don Francisco Garcia de Noriega,
was the owner and he made him a present of that
share. Don Francisco was a multi-millionaire. He
had a son named Antonio, and several other sons
and daughters, one of whom was Guadalupe Garcia
de Noriega who married a Spaniard Don Agapito
Albo. These were my great-grandparents.

So you see, Stephenson did not buy that land.
As I understand, my mother said that he was Don
Francisco's Godchild that is why he made him a
present of that land.

It may be interesting to add that Don Agapito Albo of El
Paso del Norte was one of the seven deputies chosen early in
1822 to constitute the first legislature of New Mexico (Old
Santa Fe, I, 146, 164.) The El Paso district continued to be
a part of New Mexico until the summer of 1824, when it
was transferred to the State of Chihuahua. L. B. B.



279



The Historical Society of New Mexico

(INCORPORATED)
Organized December 26, 1859



PAST PRESIDENTS

1859 COL. JOHN B. GRAYSON, U. S. A.
1861 MAJ. JAMES L. DONALDSON, U. S. A.
1863 HON. KIRBY BENEDICT

adjourned sine die, Sept. XS, 186S



re-eetablitked Dec. *7, 1880

1881 HON. WILLIAM G. RITCH
1883 HON. L. BRADFORD PRINCE
1923 HON. FRANK W. CLANCY

1925 COL. RALPH E. TWITCHELL

1926 PAUL A. P. WALTER

OFFICERS FOR 1942-1943

PAUL A. F. WALTER, President

PEARCE C. RODEY, V ice-President

LANSING B. BLOOM, Corresponding Secretary
WAYNE L. MAUZY, Treasurer

Miss HESTER JONES, Recording Secretary

FELLOWS

PERCY M. BALDWIN EDGAR L. HEWETT

RALPH P. BIEBER FREDERICK W. HODGE

LANSING B. BLOOM J. LLOYD MECHAM

HERBERT E. BOLTON THEODOSIUS MEYER, 0. F. M.

MARION DARGAN FRANK D. REEVE

AURELIO M. ESPINOSA FRANCE V. SCHOLES

CHARLES W. HACKETT ALFRED B. THOMAS

GEORGE P. HAMMOND PAUL A. F. WALTER




I 1 A



MM wire MM vw MM yy ww ww ww M tf wy MM trww y w M y



NEW MEXICO
HISTORICAL REVIEW



VOL. XVII



OCTOBER, 1942



No. 4




PALACE OF THE GOVERNORS



PUBLISHED QUARTERLY BY

THE HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF NEW MEXICO

AND

THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO



mi mi futifui HA futfm A* fuiim mi ** mi a* im m AA RM,an M HA: an w* **



NEW MEXICO
HISTORICAL REVIEW

Editor Managing Editor

LANSING B. BLOOM PAUL A. F. WALTER

Associates

PERCY M. BALDWIN GEORGE P. HAMMONL

FRANK T. CHEETHAM THEODOSIUS MEYER, 0. F. M.

VOL. XVII OCTOBER, 1942 No. 4

CONTENTS

Origins of the Foreign-born Population of New Mexico

during the Territorial Period. Richard A. Greer 281

Adventuring to Santa Fe: the Book of the Muleteers

Arthur Woodward 288

Account of Adventures in the Great American Desert
by Duke Paul Wilhelm von Wurttemberg (con-
cluded) .... Louis C. Butscher 294

Index 345

Errata 351



Subscription to the quarterly is $3.00 a year in advance; single
numbers (except Vol. I, 1-4, and II, 1) may be had at $1.00 each.

Volumes III-XVI can be supplied at $4.00 each; Vols. I-II are
out of print in part.

Address business communications to Mr. P. A. P. Walter, State
Museum, Santa Fe, N. M.; manuscripts and editorial correspondence
should be addressed to Mr. Bloom at the University of New Mexico,
Albuquerque, New Mexico.

Entered as second-class matter at Santa Fe, New Mexico
UNIVERSITY PRESS, ALBUQUERQUE, N. M.



NEW MEXICO HISTORICAL
REVIEW

VOL. XVII OCTOBER, 1942 No. 4



ORIGINS OF THE FOREIGN-BORN POPULATION OF

NEW MEXICO DURING THE TERRITORIAL

PERIOD

By RICHARD R. GREER

IN THE United States the foreign-born population has
always been an object of practical interest and a factor of
importance and significance in political, economic and social



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