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in all directions. It is about twenty miles wide, northeast
to southwest, at its narrowest point and runs unbroken from
the vicinity of Williams in a southeasterly direction into
New Mexico. On this plateau, occasional springs and small
shallow lakes are found. The whole area is covered with old
lava flows and cinder cones. The lava flows are badly eroded
and the ground cover alternates between heavy clays and
weathered lava rocks, the "malpais" which is so bad for
both man and horse. The clay, when wet, is bottomless and
unspeakably sticky.

To the southwest of the pine belt is the Mogollon Rim,
a cliff about 2000 ft. high, which extends unbroken from a
point south of Williams, southeasterly to the White Moun-
tains. This cliff is a great barrier to travel, for except in a
few places where lavas from the plateau have flowed down
over it, it is most hazardous and difficult to descend. Below
this, fertile valleys with flowing streams lead to the Verde
River. The valleys are separated from one another by low
ridges covered with juniper in the higher parts and prickly
pear, mescal, and beargrass below.

Route 1 from the Hopi Villages to the Verde Valley

At the present time, old Hopis can remember having
gone to the Verde Valley over the old trail. This trail ran from
the Hopi villages directly southwest to near Winslow (in
the early days called Sunset Crossing), passing occasional
small springs on the way. The Little Colorado was crossed
at this point and a direct line made for Sunset Pass. This
is an opening about ten miles from the river between two
prominent lava capped mesas called Table Mountain and
Sunset Mountain. Salt Creek Canyon with deep pools of



ROUTES OF ESPE,
& FARFAN TO THE

ESPEJO'S PROBABLE

_ _ _ FARFAN 'S PROBABLE
ALTERNATE ROUTES

D PUEBLOS ABANDONED BEFC
MODERN TOWNS AND VILL
.~ TANKS o< SPRING

SCALE IN MILES




THE ROUTES OF ESPEJO AND FARFAN 25

water runs between the two mesas. Here the trail left the
canyon and headed more west for Chavez Pass, a small can-
yon leading- up to Anderson Mesa. At this point a seep
spring was encountered. A gently sloping valley leads up-
ward to a large shallow lake, called Hay Lake. There the
trail turned northwest to Jay Cox Tank, then west to Pine
Springs. Here a ridge of volcanic cinder cones must be
crossed, where the vegetation is dense with pines, Douglas
Fir and aspen trees on the north slopes of the hills. Within
a few miles, Stoneman Lake was reached, a beautiful small
lake in the bottom of an old crater. A long gentle slope
extends towards the west, and in a nearby canyon is Rattle-
snake Tank. The long slope, old lava flows covering the high
red cliff bordering the Verde Valley, leads down to Beaver
Head, a point at which the canyon of the Dry Beaver opens
out at the foot of the cliffs. From this point one can (1) fol-
low down 'the Dry Beaver southwest to its junction with the
Beaver Creek (sometimes called the Wet Beaver), (2) go
south over a gentle ridge to Beaver Creek, or (3) proceed
directly westward down grassy ridges to the Verde River.
The distance from Awatovi to the mines by this route is 152
miles.

It is likely that the route described is a very old Indian
trail, for in the 1300's the last remaining pueblos of north
central Arizona must have been joined together by it. There
were occupied pueblos close to the present Hopi towns ; then
on the Little Colorado were Homolovi, northeast of Winslow,
and Chevlon at the mouth of Chevlon Creek, a few miles up
the river. Chavez Pass Pueblo, Kinnikinnick Pueblo, and
Grapevine Pueblo were on the eastern border of Anderson
Mesa. In upper Beaver Creek, the pueblo at Montezuma's
Well was occupied, and Montezuma's Castle near the mouth
of that creek also flourished. On lower Oak Creek and along
the Verde as far north as Tuzigoot, were several large
pueblos. The yellow pottery then made by the Hopi was
traded in great quantity to all these other pueblos as far as
the Verde, so intercourse between the towns must have been



26 NEW MEXICO HISTORICAL REVIEW

constant. Moreover, there were no other pueblos then ex-
tant, for the large pueblos around the San Francisco Moun-
tains had been abandoned for fifty years or more.

When the American explorers came into Arizona in the
last century, they used the same routes. Lieutenant J. C.
Ives, traveling without guides from the Colorado River to
Fort Defiance, tried to go across country from the mouth
of Canyon Diablo to the Hopi towns but was unable to find
water. He turned back and followed the Little Colorado up
to Sunset Crossing, where he found a well marked Indian
trail leading northeast. This he followed and arrived at the
Hopi villages in two and one-half days. 5

At a later date, when military posts were established at
Camp Verde and Fort Apache, one of the wagon roads fol-
lowed this old trail from Sunset Crossing to Chavez Pass,
Stoneman Lake, Beaver Head and Camp Verde. 6 The old
ruts and deep blazes on the trees can still be seen.

Route 2

A route from Awatovi to the mouth of Canyon Diablo,
on the Little Colorado, could be easily followed, passing
springs such as Coyote Springs in the Polacca Valley, and
following down that to its junction with the Oraibi, then pro-
ceeding west to the river. Crossing the river, the north side
of Canyon Diablo can be followed to its junction with Wal-
nut Creek, then to Walnut Tank, and Turkey Tanks (Cos-
nino Caves) , where the yellow pine forest begins ; and from
there, leaving the canyon, and going westward to the foot
of Elden Mountain, close to Flagstaff, where there are
springs. This was the route taken from the mouth of Canyon
Diablo to Flagstaff by Whipple in 1853-54, 7 and Beale in

5. Ives, Lt. J. C. Report upon the Colorado River of the West. Senate Ex. Doc.
36th Congress, 1st Session. Washington, 1861, pp. 117-119.

6. Wheeler, Lt. Geo. M., Preliminary Report of Explorations and Surveys South
of the Central Pacific R. R., principally in Nevada and Arizona. Washington, 1872.
Map.

7. Whipple, Lt. A. W. "Route near the 35th Parallel. Vol. Ill of Reports of
Explorations and Surveys to Ascertain the most practical and economical route for a
Railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean." Senate Ex. Doc. No. 78,
33rd Congress, 2nd Session. Washington, 1853-54, pp. 78-82.



THE ROUTES OF ESPEJO AND FARFAN 27

1857-58. 8 Crossing low ridges south of Flagstaff, Clark
Valley, the upper valley of Walnut Creek, is entered, and
leads almost to Mormon Lake. From this point it is not far
to Stoneman Lake, where the yellow pine forest ends, and
the descent to Beaver Creek can be made via Rattlesnake
Tank as in the previously mentioned route. The distance is
172 miles from Awatovi to Jerome over this route.

Route 3

By following the old Hopi trail to Sunset Pass, and then
the south side of Salt Creek Canyon, one arrives on Ander-
son Mesa. Turning southwest, one can follow up long ridges,
heavily forested with yellow pine, and cut by many side can-
yons, to various water holes and small lakes such as Lost
Eden, Little Springs, and so arrive at Long Valley.

From Long Valley it is possible to proceed westward,
crossing south of the headwater tributaries of West Clear
Creek, to Galloway Butte, Salmon Lake, Thirteen Mile Rock,
down a canyon, and thence down long ridges to the cross-
ing of Clear Creek near the mouth of that stream, then up
the Verde to the mines. This is an arduous road, for from
the east edge of Anderson Mesa to Thirteen Mile Rock there
is a yellow pine forest very dense the greater part of the
way, for the altitude is about 7,000 to 8,000 ft. and the rain-
fall is very great so close to the rim. There are innumerable
ridges and washes to cross, with but few landmarks. By this
route the distance from Awatovi to Jerome is 160 miles.

When Camp Verde and Fort Apache flourished as
military posts, General Crook's wagon road between these
two points followed this route from Camp Verde to near
Long Valley.



8. Beale, Edward F. "Wagon Road from Fort Defiance to the Colorado River."
House Ex. Doc. No. 124 35th Congress, 1st Session, Washington, 1858, pp. 47-50.



28 NEW MEXICO HISTORICAL REVIEW

ITINERARY OF ESPEJO'S TRIP TO THE MINES
(ABBREVIATED FROM LUXAN'S NARRATIVE,

EDITED BY HAMMOND AND REY)
Date Leagues

April 30 5. 1. We left the Pueblo of Aguato 9 for the mines,
1583 taking along with us the necessary guides. We

marched 5 leagues to a waterhole which was in-
sufficient for the horses, 10 so they were two
days without water. We named this place El
Ojo Triste.

May 1 10 1. Marched two hours before daybreak. We halted
midway for a siesta. Reached a fine and beautiful
river, almost as large as the Del Norte, contain-
ing many groves of poplars and willows. River
flows from south to north. 11 It is settled by a war-
like mountain people.

May 2 61. To a deep stream where there are many large

pools of rainwater which would be sufficient for a
whole year. 12 This route is rich in abundant pas-
tures and cedar forests. The cedar bear a fruit
the size of hazel nuts which are somewhat tasty. 13
May 3 Remained at the same place.

May 4 61. Went through a mountain 14 dense with cedar

forests and ash. trees. 15 We found many water

9. Aguato is Awatovi. This pueblo was destroyed by
the Hopis in 1700, and never again occupied.

10. Farfan's account described a similar spring at the
end of the first day's march. It could be Comar Spring or
Pyramid Butte Spring, or any others in the Moqui Butte
Region.

11. The Little Colorado River.

12. Deep pools of this description are Sunset Tanks, per-
manent water holes in Salt Creek Canyon. They also
describe Turkey Tanks on Walnut Creek.

13. Hammond and Rey, page 105, footnote 125, state
that there must be an error in the text and that pinyon trees
with edible nuts must have been meant. However, Mr. A. F.
Whiting, curator of botany, Museum of Northern Arizona,
points out that at least two species of junipers with large
single-seeded edible berries flourish in this area. These are
Juniperus utahensis and uniperus monosperma. Some berries
remain on these trees well into the spring.

14. "Through a mountain" may describe entering
Chavez Pass Canyon, which leads to Anderson Mesa. There
are many cedars and pinyons in this locality.

15. Ash trees is a misnomer, as there are none to be
found in this area. The most common deciduous tree is the
oak.



THE ROUTES OF ESPEJO AND FARFAN 29

Date Leagues

holes and small cienagas. 16 We stopped by a
beautiful and large cienaga which was 2 leagues
in circumference, surrounded by numerous pines,
cedars, and many waterpools which can be utilized
for irrigation. 17 This region is inhabited by a
mountain people because it is a temperate land.

May 3 & 71. Traveled through a very broken and rough moun-
May 6 tain, with bad roads and very dangerous in an

enemy country. 18 We descended a slope so steep
and dangerous that a mule belonging to Captain
Espejo fell down and was dashed to pieces. We
went down by a ravine so bad and craggy that we
descended with difficulty to a fine large river 19
which runs from northwest to southeast. 20 The
river is surrounded by an abundance of grape-
vines, many walnut and other trees. It is a
warm land and there are parrots. 21 The land is
rather warm than cold. This river we named El
Rio de las Parras.

We found a rancheria belonging to mountainous
people who fled from us. We saw plants of natural

16. Water holes and cienagas well describe such places
as Jay Cox Tank, Hay Lake, Cow Lake, etc. The lakes are
very shallow even when full.

17. A cienega 2 leagues in circumference would be at
least five or six miles around, a very large lake for this
region. Mormon Lake is the only one this large, and it is
surrounded by yellow pines and cedars. To the east of it
are many small lakes. As this was in May after the winter
snow had melted, every lake and pool would be full.

18. The region between Mormon Lake and Rattlesnake
Tank is full of cinder cones and weathered lava flows, and it
is rough. The forest is thick and would have been danger-
ous, because they could not see an enemy approaching.

19. If they went southwest from Rattlesnake Tank area
directly to Beaver Creek they would have had to go down
one of the short steep tributary canyons. Such a canyon
would be two or three miles in length. They arrived at a
large river, which could be Beaver Creek.

20. The directions appear to be wrong. Perhaps they
should be northeast to southwest.

21. When one descends the plateau to Beaver Creek,
there is a very noticeable change in climate. Today there are
many winter Dude Ranches along this valley. Parrots could
have been Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha, the Thick-Billed
Parrot, which is not there today, but inhabits similar loca-
tions in southern Arizona and northern Mexico.



30 NEW MEXICO HISTORICAL REVIEW

Date Leagues

flax similar to that of Spain, and numerous
prickly pears. 22

May 7 61. We reached a cienaguilla which flows into a

small water ditch and we came to an abandoned
pueblo. 23 We marched at times close to the
Parras River. 24 Mountainous people who had
fled awaited us near the said river. They had
crowns of painted sticks on their heads, and
jicaras of mescal and pinyon nuts and bread
made from it. 25

They gave us metals as a sign of peace and many
of them came to show us the mines. In this
locality we found many peaceful rustic people.
They had planted maize. We named this cienaga
that of San Gregorio. 26

May 8 41. We left this place and marched 4 leagues to the

mines and discovery on which we had gone. Mid-
way we found a large and copious river which
flowed from north to south, which we called El
Rio de los Reyes. 27 Close to it was a cienaga into
which flowed a stream of water. Rustic people
with crosses on their heads waited for us. Many
of them came with us to the mines which were in
a very rough sierra; 28 so worthless that we did

22. In upper Beaver Creek, prickly pears are a prom-
inent feature of the vegetation even today.

23. Mr. Erik K. Reed of the U. S. National Park Service
at Santa Fe has suggested that this could be Montezuma's
Well with its famous ditch. The water from the Well is
heavily impregnated with lime from the Verde Limestone, and
the sides of the ditch (made by pueblo people several hun-
dred years previous to this) are coated with travertine. It
is a prehistoric ditch, petrified. Beside the Well, is a
large pueblo ruin, and there are many others down the
valley.

24. They appear to be following down the river, though
not always in the valley.

25. Mescal and pinyon grow on the south-facing slopes
of the plateau and not in the valley itself.

26. This was probably a swampy place along the river.
They appear to have followed down the river to the vicinity
of Montezuma's Castle and then turned northwest.

27. This was the Verde River.

28. The mines are located on the east side of Black
Mountain, five or six miles from the river. Farfan says
that it was at a good height, but one could go to it on
horseback.



THE ROUTES OF ESPEJO AND FARFAN 31

Date Leagues

not find in any of them a trace of silver, as they
were copper mines and poor. 29 So we determined
to return to the camp at once.

May 9 Left this place, returned to Aguatovi and on the

17th arrived at Alona.

ITINERARY OF FARFAN'S TRIP TO THE MINES
(ABBREVIATED FROM BOLTON, P. 240 ff.)

Nov. 17 6 1. From the first pueblo of Moki, 3 Farfan set out
1598 with eight companions and traveled 6 leagues

west through a land of sand dunes without tim-
ber. Where they camped, they found a small
spring, where the horses could not drink al-
though there was plenty of water for the men. 31

Nov. 18 3 1. Set out west, and came to a river which flowed
towards the north, of moderate width, carrying
considerable water, with many cottonwoods, level
banks, and little pasture. 32

3 1. Further in the same direction, to the slope of a
mountain range, where they camped without
water. 33

Nov. 19 2 1. Arrived at a grove of small pines and at a very
deep pool, which was ample to water all the
horses, and more too. 34
2 1. Along a mountain range, which was covered with

29. Espejo's own account says that the mines were
rich. (See Bolton, p. 187.) Silver is found with the copper,
the modern workings show.

30. First pueblo of Moki was Awatovi, where they
obtained Hopi guides.

31. Compare Luxan's description of the first night's
camp.

32. This was the Little Colorado. It is important to
remember that prior to 1880, when the modern period of
over-grazing and erosion started, the Little Colorado was a
permanent flowing stream lined with cottonwoods and wil-
lows, and with many beaver dams.

33. As there are no mountain ranges close to the Little
Colorado, it is possible that they approached Sunset Moun-
tain, one of the lava-covered mesas forming Sunset Pass.

34. See footnote 4. Sunset Tanks fits this description
better than Turkey Tanks, because at the latter place large
pines (yellow pines) are found, as well as small ones. In
the entry for Nov. 20th, Farfan carefully distinguished
"large, tall pines."



32 NEW MEXICO HISTORICAL REVIEW

Date Leagues

snow. They camped on a slope where was found
a small amount of grass for the horses, but no
water. 35 Two of the Indians whom they were tak-
ing as guides said there was water very near
there. Also a camp of Jumana Indians. They
called this Rancheria de los Gandules. 36 These
Indians were sent back to their own rancherias
to reassure the rest of the people that they (the
Spaniards) were not going to injure them, and
wanted to find out where they secured the ore.

Nov. 20 2% 1. To said rancheria which was deserted. Two
chiefs and a woman received the Captain and
gave them pulverized ores and a great quantity
of ground dates (datil), and a few pieces of
venison. One chief agreed to go with them to show
them where the ore came from.

6 1. Left rancheria, going up a smooth hill. Reached
a plain and a very large pine grove with many
large tall pines, which is the beginning of the
mountain range, all of which was covered with
snow which reached to the knees. 37 They trav-

place where the pine forest begins.

eled about 6 leagues along the mountain range,
and at the end of this distance they found a
rather low valley without snow and with very
good grass, water, and wood, where they spent the
night.ss

35. Luxan says "thru a mountain." I believe this was
Chavez Pass. The north-facing slope would be snowy, for
they describe eighteen inches or two feet of snow further on.

36. This water was perhaps Hay Lake. The country
around is open and grassy. The camp of Jumana Indians
seems to have been temporary, for Farfan sent them back
to their own rancherias. Also these people appear to have
come from the region towards which the Spanish were
progressing. They were probably Yavapai.

37. Turning westward at Hay Lake, one soon comes to a

38. This was one of their longest day's marches. In
Bancroft, 1888, p. 139, footnote, the translation is given
that they traveled "6 1. in mountains to Agua de Valle." This
fits the terrain much better than "along the mountain
range." At this point they were traversing the high ridge
of cinder cones beween Pine Springs and Stoneman lake.
The elevation is about 7,500 ft. If they followed down the
lava flows to Beaver Head, they would have reached a low
valley without snow and with water, grass, and wood.



THE ROUTES OF ESPEJO AND FARFAN 33

Date Leagues

Nov. 21 21. They came to a rancher ia ( Rancher ia de los
Cruzados), where they found a chief and about
30 Indians, stained with ores of different colors.
The chief of this rancheria accompanied them.
3 1. They set out from it and traveled through a land
of pine groves, with the finest pastures, many cat-
tle, very large prickly pears, and many and large
maguey patches, where they saw Castilian par-
tridges, a great many deer, hares, and rabbits. 39
They came to another rancheria where the In-
dians gave them powdered ore, mescal, and veni-
son. They camped there on the bank of a river of
fair width and much water, with good pasture
and a cottonwood grove. 40

Nov. 22 4 1. The chief of the last rancheria consented to take
them to the mines. Having traveled 4 leagues
through very fine fertile land with extensive pas-
tures, they came to another river, wider than
the first, where they spent the night. This river
flowed almost from the north. 41 They crossed it.

Nov. 23 2 1. Having traveled 2 leagues further they came to
another river, much larger, which flowed from the
north. They crossed it. 42

1 1. They went one league further to the slopes of
some hills, where the Indian chief said the mines
were whence they got the ore. And arriving at the
slopes of the said hills, the banks of the said rivers
could be seen, with deep ravines having the
finest of pastures and extensive plains. 43 As it

39. This is similar to Luxan's description (see footnote
19), only even more descriptive of the region of the Beaver
Creek area near the foot of the plateau. The cattle he men-
tioned might have been antelope.

40. They appear to have followed down the Dry Beaver
to its junction with Beaver Creek, where they camped on the
bank.

41. Turning northwest from the mouth of the Dry
Beaver they would come to lower Oak Creek. The best cross-
ing is near the present site of Cornville, above the deep
canyon which forms directly below. Here also the stream
flows north and south, before emptying into the Verde.

42. Continuing towards the mines, they would soon
arrive at the Verde River, a stream larger than Oak Creek
and flowing from the north.

43. This describes exactly the view as one ascends the
slope to Jerome.



34 NEW MEXICO HISTORICAL REVIEW

Date Leagues

was late, they camped that night on the slope of
these hills, at a spring of water which issued
from one of them, very large and carrying much
water almost hot. 44

Nov. 24. Six Indians from different rancherias in these

mountains joined him and took him up to the said
mine, which was at a good height, although one
could go up to it on horseback, for these Indians
had opened up a road. Here they found an old
shaft, three estados in depth (16Mj ft.), from
which the Indians extracted the ores for their
personal adornment and for the coloring of their
blankets, because in this mine there are brown,
black, water-colored, blue and green ores. The
blue ore is so blue that it is understood that some
of it is enamel. The mine had a very large dump,
where there were many and apparently very good
ores which are the ones which have been enumer-
ated. 45

The vein is very wide and rich and of many out-
crops, all containing ores. The vein ran along
the hill in plain view and crossed over to an-
other hill which was opposite, where they took
from twenty to thirty claims for themselves and
for the companions who had remained at the
camp as a guard for the Senor governor.
Vein of San Francisco 14 to 15 claims
Vein of San Gabriel 14 to 15 claims
Vein of Guerfanos 10 to 12 claims

The veins are so long and wide that half of

44. Bolston said, p. 244, footnote 3, that the hot spring
might be the clue to the location. However, as far as I
know there is no hot spring near the mines now.

45. Compare the following description of the mine as
set forth in 1884 by Patrick Hamilton. He was describing
the properties of the United Verde, and said : "The Chrome
South (one of the claims) adjoins Eureka on the East.
Traces of old dumps, shafts, and tunnels have been found
on this claim showing it to have been worked in the past.
Stone hammers and other implements of the same material
have been uncovered in the old workings and portions of
the vein show it to have been stoped by the ancient miners
in the manner in vogue at the present day." Patrick Ham-
ilton, Resources of Arizona, 3rd ed. reissued and enlarged.
A. L. Bancroft & Co., San Francisco, 1884.



THE ROUTES OF ESPEJO AND FARFAN 35

Date Leagues

the people of New Spain can have mines there.
At a quarter of a league, half a league, or a
league, there is a very great quantity of water
from said rivers and spring, where many water
mills can be constructed, with excellent water
wheels, and water can be taken out with the
greatest ease.

Near to the very mines themselves, are enor-
mous pines, oaks, mesquites, walnuts, and cot-
tonwoods, and as has been stated, great pastures
and plains and fine lands for cultivation. 46

Dec. 11 They had returned to Cibola and gave their tes-



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