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timony concerning the trip. This was two and
one-half weeks after they first arrived at the
mines.

I am inclined to believe that both expeditions followed
the first route outlined. Both had only a short time to spend
on the trip and would therefore have chosen the shortest
and easiest route. Moreover, it was business, not pleasure,
that took them this long way, and they did not waste time
in sightseeing. Espejo's expedition was in May and Far-
fan's in November. They could hardly have chosen poorer
times for crossing Anderson Mesa, for at both these sea-
sons it is muddy and walking is poor. They would have
wished to get over this bad part as quickly as possible. If
Espejo had gone via Turkey Tanks, Flagstaff, and Mormon
Lake, the distance over the mud and malpais would have
nearly doubled.

Farfan might have continued southwest from Sunset
Pass to Long Valley, and thence west to the mouth of Clear
Creek. This is possible since he mentions three rivers : first,
where he camped (though he says nothing of crossing it),
which could be Clear Creek; second, one flowing from the
north, the Verde. This would mean that he crossed the

46. Pines and oaks grow on top of Black Mountain,
and mesquites, walnuts, and cottonwoods in the valley
bottom. The valley is wide and has fine cultivated fields on
both sides.



36 NEW MEXICO HISTORICAL REVIEW

Verde below the mouth of Oak Creek, which does not fit with
his statement that the mines were only a little over one
league from the point of crossing the river. They would be
at least two or three leagues away. Moreover, in November,
with snow on the ground, the route over the plateau would
have been long and tedious, up and down ridges, and through
the very thick forest. Near the Rim, the precipitation is
greater than it is at points further north, and anyone who
knew the country would try to avoid it in winter.

As to the possibility that Espejo may have descended
to the Verde via Oak Creek or Sycamore Creek, as suggested
by Hammond and Rey, knowledge of the country indicates it
would be impossible. If one descended Oak Creek near the
head of the canyon, it would be very precipitous, and one
would arrive at a fine river, but it would be a long and weary
way through the thick growth in the bottom of the canyon
until one arrived "at a warm land" where prickly pear
flourished. The same can be said for Sycamore Canyon,
except that it has no permanent flowing river in it, only
occasional pools. In either case, Espejo would not have
passed any lake two leagues in circumference, only very
small lakes such as Rogers Lake.



LONDON TO SALT LAKE CITY IN 1867 : THE DIARY
OF WILLIAM DRIVER

Edited by FRANK DRIVER REEVE

INTRODUCTION

THE MIGRATION of the Mormons to the sagebrush plains
of Utah is too well known to require extensive com-
ment. The story has been written often, with praise and
condemnation for both the leaders and the community. The
following pages contain the account of a Mormon's trip
across sea and plain to the new Zion, in the Pioneer era of
Utah, or before the building of the transcontinental rail-
road. It is written in simple language, and with little knowl-
edge of those rules of composition that plague contemporary
students, but it gives an intimate insight into the experi-
ences of thousands of European immigrants who made pos-
sible the building of the America that we know today.

The narrator, William Driver, the son of George and
Mary Killing-worth Driver, was born at Bury St. Edmund,
county of Suffolk, England, May 3, 1837. His boyhood days
were spent in the village of Feltwell, Norfolk county, and
were probably quite similar to those of most English boys
except in regard to religion. At the early age of fourteen
his thoughts were troubled by the problem of religion, and
after several visits to Methodist meetings and contact with
Mormons, he joined the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-
day Saints.

About the year 1854 Mr. Driver went to London, prob-
ably through the influence of his father, a carpenter and
small-scale contractor, who died of consumption there two
years later. His time became divided between interest in
church work and the necessity of making a living. As a
traveling elder for the church, he preached in the Kent and
London conferences, the regional units for missionary work,
during 1856 and 1857. For the next several years he was
employed in the laboratory of Price's Patent Candle Com-

37



38 NEW MEXICO HISTORICAL REVIEW

pany of London and took advantage of the opportunity to
study pharmacy, or chemistry as it is termed in England.
Meanwhile, he suffered a loss in the death of his mother in
1857, for whose care he had felt considerable responsibility.
On August 16, 1858, he married Charlotte Emblem Boulter,
a native of Hastings, Sussex.

The motive for emigrating to Utah was probably a com-
bination of religious zeal and an opportunity for economic
betterment. After arriving in Salt Lake City, Mr. Driver
had the not uncommon experience of a pioneer in struggling
to realize something tangible from the lure of the New
World. He worked for the Deseret Telegraph Company in
building a line from Franklin, Idaho, to St. George, Utah.
Employment was also secured as a teamster for bringing
immigrant families from the plain, and in some form on
the construction of the Union Pacific Railroad. Next he
became cashier for the drug firm of William Godbe & Com-
pany of Salt Lake City. At the end of two years he was sent
to take charge of their branch business in the railroad boom
town of Ogden, often referred to as the Junction City.
Later, in 1871, he established himself in business with
Doctor C. S. Nellis, operating under the firm name of
Driver and Nellis. He bought out his partner after two
years, and in 1878 his son George was taken into the busi-
ness under the firm name of Driver & Son. They eventually
owned four stores, located in towns north of Ogden and in
Montpelier, Idaho.

Mr. Driver was ordained to the office of a Seventy, or
elder especially commissioned for missionary service. With
his business successfully established, he returned to England
in 1879 to carry out his new responsibility. His trip was
rounded out with travel in Scotland and France. At home
again, he took an active part in the public affairs of the city
and was elected councilman in 1886, and was sent as a dele-
gate to the state constitutionl convention in 1895.

For several years Mr. and Mrs. Driver won the prize at
the Pioneer Day celebration for having the largest number



DIARY OF WILLIAM DRIVER 39

of children in Weber county. Only seven lived to adulthood,
but they and their children were quite sufficient to overflow
the eleven large, high ceiling rooms of the new mansion, the
usual symbol in America of material success, on the occasion
of family gatherings.

Enjoying a cigar in the front porch rocking chair in the
evening, and a glass of ale with cracker and cheese at bed-
time, Mr. Driver lived long enough to see a town grow from
a village, and to feel that he had taken part in a worthy
movement. At the age of 83 he passed away quietly in his
Ogden home. Three years later Mrs. Driver followed him,
taking forever that precious Victorian purse in the pocket of
the third petticoat, and the pennies that grandchildren
bought treasures with at the corner store.

Name of Ship "Caroline" 1
Tonnage 1130
President of Company

S. H. Hill
Councellors

W. W. Raymond, J. S. Fullmer
Number of Passengers 350
Port of London
Sailed 5th May 1866
Stewards

J. L. Dolton, T. S. Friday
Clerk, W. Foulger

Thursday

May 3rd 1866. Went with my Wife to the London Docks to see the
Packet Ship Caroline, Bound for New York, received telegram from
Bro Thurber notifying myself and Family to be ready to sail by this
Ship on the 5th of May.

4th Friday

At home disposing of Goods & Preparing to start for the Docks,
great difficulty in clearing out, Met with an accident, The Cart convey-



1. The diary was written without punctuation or correct capitalization of words.
Commas and periods have been inserted for the convenience of the reader. The
original spelling has been retained throughout. It is particularly difficult to distinguish
between the capital and small letter s in the mss., and between T and F.

The diary is now in the possession of Mrs. George Steinbach, San Gabriel, Cali-
fornia, granddaughter of William Driver, and daughter of Mrs. W. B. Pearson (Ida
May Driver).



40 NEW MEXICO HISTORICAL REVIEW

ing our luggage broke at the tail and threw Ellen, Willie 2 & my Brother
John with great violence to the Ground, also Broke a Box that fell
with them, afterwards went on and arrived at the Docks about 8
oclock P M.

Sunday May 5th

Towed down the River Thames by a Steam Tugg, passed the
Nore Light ship at 10 [minutes] to 5 P M, very calm, attended
A Meeting on Board, I was appointed to preside over the 3rd Ward,
The company being divided in 7 Wards. Instructions were given
to be observed for the preservation of health among the passengers,
one important item keeping the Gangways Thoroughly Clean by scrap-
ing & Having Berths kept well aired and striving to demean ourselves
so that nothing tending to immorily [immorality] be made manifest,
That Gods blessings might be with us on our journey across the
Ocean.

Appointed Times for different Wards to Cook, also time for Prayer
in the various Wards. Wallace Foulger Clerk of Meeting.

7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, llth, We were beating about making little
Headway against a strong Head wind.

12th. Gale still blowing, very Wet and Foggy Weather, our Good
Ship lost her Course and before The Pilot Discovered our position
We were within a few Rods of South side of Isle of Wight, 3 We lost
a Yard and Sail, several ropes snapped like Thread, we tacked ship
and anchored at the "Motherbank," A providental Escape from Ship-
wreck. My Willie very Sick, My Wife sick with Rhumatics, Myself
from a Severe Cold. Nearly all on Board Very sick, a Boisterous Week.

Sunday 13th

Monday at Anchor all day, attended on Willie who is very sick
indeed, some said he would die, a report of his Death circulating over
The ship, a Calm Day.

Monday 14th

A slight breese, left the anchorage and Sailed past Isle of Wight.
Afternoon very Calm. Willie little better, my Wife still very sick with
Rhumatics, attended Willie all night.



2. William Charles, the fourth child, born December 26, 1863, at Wandsworth,
Surrey (now a part of greater London), died at sea May 21, 1866.

Ellen Barbara was the third child, born July 27, 1862, at Battersea, London. She
married John James Reeve of Ogden, Utah, and died in San Francisco, California, in
1935.

3. The Isle of Wight lies close to the south-central coast of England and shelters
the entrance to Portsmouth and Southampton.




WILLIAM DRIVER



DIARY OF WILLIAM DRIVER 41

Tuesday 15th

A good breese blowing all day from the East, Sailing about 8
Knots an Hour, passed Falmouth, afternoon off the Welch 4 Coast.
The Docter said Willie was better but it is no Miracle. Wife very
sick.

Wednesday 16th

Passed Lizard Points a t 1/2 past 7 oc P M on Tuesday. This
Morning we have a strong Wind Blowing from the East. Willie slept
better. Myself afflicted With severe cold in the Head. 1/4 past 4PM
hauling anchors on Deck, in the Evening 30 past 8 Some person
came to companion Ladder and rose the cry of Fire in Cooks Galley
attending Willie.

Thursday 17th

Attending Willie all Day, left at Night without a light, Willie
very Sick, strong breese lasting all Day, Sailing about 10 Knots per
Hour. Captain Ordered Galley Fire to be extenguished at 6 oc P M.

Friday 18th

Morning again quite calm weather, ship rolling very much, made
but little progress today, attending on Willie all Day who have been
very restless, my Wife better in Health, myself suffering from severe
cold, Nelly [and] George 6 well. Wind getting up slightly, making
about 3 Knots an Hour, then again lulling us almost still, a Sister
confined Yesterday. Bro Hill gave me Portwine for Willie. Just
pumping ship, a strong wind sprung up lasting all night. Willie
very restless, I got but little or any sleep.

Saturday 19th

Morning a good breese blowing from the East, sailing along
first class, Wind increasing, blowing a Gale and Raining, Taking in
Canvass. Poor Willie is getting very weak, Wife sick, George, Nelly
and myself pretty well, but begin to feel quarmish, Several on Board
are very seasick, nothing to give our dear Baby to suck but cold tea
and Sugar. Willie has been very restless all night, This morning life is
very Weak, wind blowing strong all night. Those who come to sea
should be very careful to bring with them as many comforts as pos-
sible, especially for the children such as Arrow root, 7 Soft Biscuits,



4. This was really the coast of Cornwall, the southwestern county of England.

5. The Lizard is the southern-most tip of England on the coast of Cornwall.

6. George William, the first child, born August 9, 1859, at Brighton, Sussex.
He married Mary Luenna Farr of Ogden, Utah, and died at San Diego, California, in
1936.

7. Arrow-root: a nutritive starch plant, valued especially for children and
invalids.



42 NEW MEXICO HISTORICAL REVIEW

Port Wine, Brandy, Preserved Milk, Sherbet, & This from bitter
experience.

Sunday 20th

Morning Wind blowing strong all day, great signs of stormy
weather. Poor Willie very Bad all day, nearly worn out myself, Wife
Poor, others of Family pretty well. 1.30 P M to day a large French
ship passed us Homeward Bound, in the Night went for Wife to come
to Willie, I thought he was dying, rallied a little afterwards. Sea
very rough, Ship rolling, The roughest night since we came on Board.

Monday 21st

Morning very rough, ship rolling fearfully, just threw me of [off]
a stoll and broke a Glass Tumbler. 2 oc P M ship still rolling fear-
fully, Pots, Dishes, Pails, Provision Thrown across the Gangways in
promiscus Heaps creating great confusion amongst the Passengers. A
Child of Bro Cox's from London has just Died. The Lord has still
spared my Dear child For which Blessing unto me I do hope to Live
to Praise Him. Another fearful Lurch, Tins flying in every direction.
Pro Cox's child was burried at 8 oc P M. Willie my Dearest Child was
very ill all night untill 7.30 a m when he was released from his Suf-
ferings, God bless his dear Soul, how he suffered, he came to his death
Through Mr. Poulters Cart breaking on St Anns Hill, Wandsworth,
Surrey, England. Oh how I mourn This great affliction, Lord help
me by thy power to bear it as from thy Hand and stimulate me to more
nobly and faithfully serve Thee and may I live to prepare to meet
Him in a Happier and better World with his dear Sister Elizabeth
Maryann 8 and at The Ressurection of the Just may I be there to meet
them, O God grant these blessings in the Name of Jesus. My Wife
is much cut up.

Tuesday 22

Weather fair, Ship rolling very much, afternoon saw my Dear
boy sown in canvass by first and second Mates, he was burried at 7
P M, Captain Adey read the Burial service, in Latitude 48 Deg 22
min North, Longitude 20-12, on Monday May 21st 1866, he was born
Dec 26th 1863 at Wandsworth, he was a fine intelligent boy, God bless
him, peace to his slumbering ashes. He was taken from our berth by
order of Docter into the Forecastle, a most unfit place where he took
cold as he laid opposite the Hatchway, his spine was injured and he
had a malignant sore Throat. The Dr Told me had he been on Land
he might have recovered!! A beautiful Day, Wind nearly due East,
Cooks galley on Fire. No cooking this afternoon, a strong 3/4 Wind
blowing which lasted all night. At the Prayer Meeting, Elder S. H.



8. Maryann Elizabeth, the fifth child, born August 28, 1865, at Wandsworth,
Surrey. She married Joseph F. Burton of Ogden, and died in Salt Lake City in 1931.



DIARY OF WILLIAM DRIVER 43

Hill said it had come to his knowledge that some Person had been sell-
ing Consecrated Oil at the rate of one shilling per spoonfull and said
those who had do [ne] so would be Cursed and Their Money with Them.

Wednesday 23rd

Morning a strong wind still blowing, sailing along Gaily. No
breakfasts cooked this Morning in consequence of the chimney not
being completed. A Bro Tracey supplied us with Water, had Coffee for
Breakfast. Noon, Wind still blowing very strong, Weather very Cold.
Great Dissatisfaction among the folks in consequence of their not
being able to get their food cooked. Night, A good breese blowing,
Public Prayers at Amidships.

Thursday 24th

Pretty good Wind blowing, much Grumbling among some of The
people about the Provisions. Saw a Ship ahead of us. Yesterday a
stuntsail 9 fell down from the Mast, the sail covered those who sat on
the Forecastle, much complaint against the Cooks, a light fair breese
blowing, Weather Dull, just saw a Ship. 7-45 P. M good breese blowing
which lasted through the Night. One of the Sailors told me he had
crossed the Atlantic from Liverpool to New York Eighteen Years but
never before experienced such a fine passage as We have had, The Cap-
tains Cook said he never saw such a passage although he had crossed
35 times. Bro Hill gave Orders for all open lights to be out at 9 oc
P M, some were very slow to observe this.

Friday 25th

A. beautifully fine Morning, a pleasant breese, Two ships in sight,
all of my family feel well today, Weather very calm. Saw a steam-
ship pass us Homeward Bound, also Two sailing ships. In the evening
Cloudy, saw a seal fish. Public Prayers Amidships.

Saturday 26th

Morning a good breese blowing on our course. Family well, Cake!
and coffee for Breakfast. Sister Read from Cambridge gave me Baked
Flour for Polly to suck through a tube. Night very rough weather,
T[oo] much so to hold Public Prayers, supposed to be near the Banks
of Newfoundland, saw one ship today. Rough and Foggy Night.

Sunday 27th

Very boisterous Morning and very cold, Wind Northerly, my
George overbalanced and fell from the Top Berth unto the Deck.
Afternoon held Meeting Between Decks, Speakers Elders Hill and T. S.



9. Stunsail or stuns'le: contraction of studding sail, a light sail set at the end of a
principal square sail for steadying the ship.



44 NEW MEXICO HISTORICAL REVIEW

Friday. A fight between to [two] sailors, one a Norwegan. A very
cold Day, afternoon calm and also at Night. Prayers were offered in
the various Wards.

Monday 28th

Morning Calm, Wet, and foggy. Saw a Whale, my Wife rather
sick, children pretty well, also myself a cold excepting which has
troubled me since I came on Board. A Brother Cook said he had
received a revelation informing him that our ship will arrive in New
York on Wednesday next. Becalmed on the "Banks." 10 A large four
Mast steamer passed us Homeward Bound, saw several Whales and
Flocks of Birds. In the Evening a breese sprung up and continued to
increase in force during the Night, Rainy, cold and Foggy, some con-
siderable Quarrelling among some Members of the fifth Ward, fogg
Bell ringing.

Tuesday 29th

Wind blowing hard, canvass furled, The jibbom 11 plunging into the
Waters, Wheather Wet and Fogy, several porposes near ship, Fog Bell
ringing. Family Well colds always excepted. We are now according to
Bro Hill off the Banks of Newfoundland. A strong Head Wind blow-
ing, Heavy sea rolling, Ship tossing very much, Pails, Tins, Barrels,
People etc rolling about in beautiful confusion. Head Wind all Night.
On Monday evening at 7 oc A Swiss Brothers child was committed to
the Deep.

Wednesday 30th

Fine clear Morning with a strong head Wind, very cold, Heavy
swell on, saw a shoal of Porposis, some jumped clear from the Water,
during the day Wind vered round and we sailed along Firstrate untill
4 A M When it suddenly changed ahead of us. My George fell from
The Deck to the Bottom of the Hatchway. J. S. Fullmer gave Notice
That some person had lost coat and Bonet and he wished That those
who had found the same would bring them to him. Weather very fogy.

Thursday 31st

Morning Calm and Dull, rice boiled for Breakfast, no bread in
stock, at 4 A M This Morning the Wind changed suddenly ahead of
the ship, caught the sails and drove us back at the rate of 9 knots an
hour. A cry of all hands on Deck rather frightened some of the
folk as the[y] felt the imme[n]ce straining of the Ship, when the
wind struck her we were in great Danger of foundering. Calm most



10. The Banks of Newfoundland, famous fishing grounds for Canadian and New
England fishermen.

11. Jib boom or jibboom : a spar extending foreward from the bowsprit and
holding the lower corner of a jib sail which is triangular shaped and the foremost sail
on a ship. The jib boom could easily dip into the sea in heavy weather.



DIARY OF WILLIAM DRIVER 45

of the Day. Sundown a breese blowing about six knots, standing with
my Wife on the Forecastle to witness a magnificent sunset. Family
poorly.

Friday June 1st

Calms and head Squals all Day, made little if any progress. Nelly
attacked with Measles or scarletena 12 very poorly myself. Saw one
ship to day.

Saturday 2nd

Ellen very sick, Bro S H Hill gave us some Brandy and Sister
Watts some saphron 13 Which is considered good for Measles. Evening
sailing with A fair Wind which have continued, Though slightly,
Through the day. Bro. Hill ordered Ellen to be moved into the Fore-
castle. I considered it a most improper place and objected to her being
removed from our berth, Dr. said its not necessary to have her re-
moved as the decease have not Developed itself, saw A fishing Smack.
Public Prayers at 8 P M, afterwards Breese freshened and blew pretty
strong at 9 P M.

Sunday 3rd

Morning Fogy and Wet with A Head Wind blowing, a Steamship
passes us early this Morning. Ellen more cheerfull, very fretful
Through the night. Boiled Rice for Dinner, Ellen, Wife and myself
very sick. Afternoon Calm, A Fishing Boat with 15 Hands on Board
passed near us. Three days sail from Cape Sapel. 14 Public Meeting
Amidship, J. S. Fullmer spoke. At Public Prayers Bro Hill threatened
to suspend some from fellowship unless they repented. Saw one ship
to day.

Monday 4th

An Easterly Wind blowing, stuntsails up, sailing along Gaily at 8
knots an Hour. Ellen seems a trifle better this Morning Up all Night
with her. Saw a large shoal of Porposis. Fair wind all Day. Sailors
made cable ready for anchoring, expect to arrive at New York on
Thursday. Ellen is progressing favourably, myself and Wife better.
Fight between a sailor and second Mate. Public Prayers, Bro. Hills
called on The saints to cease Backbiting. Strong Wind all night, Ship
roll.

Tuesday 5th

Fogy, Wet and calm morning. Ellen Better. A ship passed near
us in the Night. Fogy at Intervals, several large Grampuses 15 seen,



12. Scarlatina or scarlet fever.

13. Saphron: specie of crocus, used in making a beverage for a purgative and
blood purifier.

14. Cape Sable, southwestern tip of Nova Scotia Peninsula.

15. Grampus: "large mammal of the dolphin family which feeds on seals, por-
poises, and smaller dolphins."



46 NEW MEXICO HISTORICAL REVIEW

head wind all Day with a heavy swell on. Ellen Better, myself and
wife very unwell. Polly estremely cross. I feel very weak and quite
tired of being at Sea. Bro Dalton gave us a Can of sweet Milk for
Polly. Public Prayers, saw two Ships.

Wednesday 6th

Morning very Fogy and Wet, Sea smooth as a sheet of glass,
Weather very warm. Ellen little better, sailors washing Decks and
Bulwarks. I shall be glad to see New York, calm nearly all day, Breesy
towards evening, at 8 P M A strong head wind with thick mist. Public
Prayers, Bro Hill said Towels had been stolen from the rigging and
called on those who have stolen them to return them or he would call
for them. Ellen and Family better.

Thursday 7th

Morning Head wind and Fogy, afterwards cleared, saw a
schooner. Ellen better. Evening saw a ship, Head Wind still blow-
ing. Public prayers, Brother Hill spoke very pointedly to those on
board who had been guilty of theft.

Friday 8th
Morning calm, Yards 16 squared, about 7 oc A. M. a slight breese

16. The cross spars on the masts which support the sails on a square rigged ship.

Blowing Favourable, at Noon Had some codfish for dinner, several
Fishing boats lying at anchor. Ellen better. Strong Wind all last
night, making good progress. Public Prayers, Bro Dolton Prayed.
Wrote letters to my Brother Robert [and] Fatherinlaw.

Saturday 9th

Morning strong Wind blowing, ship rolling considerably. Captain
sharpening sails to stand in towards Land which in a few hours we



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