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Juan de Onate, in the year 1604 on the expedition to those
provinces." On this point Hodge writes: "Bandelier (Doc.
Hist. Zuni Tribe, 93) states that Figueredo did not accom-
pany Onate, and Bancroft does not include him in his list
of Ofiate's associates in 1598, but this is no indication that
Fray Roque did not join Onate later." 34 We find no evidence,
however, in the contemporary documents, that Figueredo
was ever in New Mexico prior to 1629, when he came with

30. Memorial (Ayer ed.), p. 198.

31. Vetancurt, op. cit., vol. 4, p. 328.

32. Bezerro General, p. 126.

33. Relacion Verdadera q. el p e predicador fr. Fran. co Perez Guerta . . . higo al
R mo , Commiss. Gen. 1 . . . , [1617]. A.G.N., Inquisici6n, tomo 316, ff. 149-74.

34. Benavides, Memorial (Ayer ed.), p. 197.


the band of thirty friars who were brought by Fray Estevan
de Perea in that year.

Thus it would appear that from 1601 to the end of the
Onate regime there were only ten friars in New Mexico at
one time or another. These were Fray Juan de Escalona,
Fray Francisco de Velasco, Fray Pedro de Vergara, Fray
Francisco de Escobar, Fray Juan de San Buenaventura,
Fray Lazaro Ximenez, Fray Isidro Ordonez, Fray Alonso
de San Juan, Fray Cristobal de Quinones, and Fray Joseph

According to Vetancurt, Escalona died in New Mexico
in 1607 and Quinones in 1609. 35 Ximenez took dispatches to
the viceroy in the autumn of 1607 and then returned to New
Mexico in the following year. In the autumn of 1608 he
again went to New Spain, together with Fray Isidro Ordo-
nez, taking new reports which prompted Viceroy Velasco to
appoint Pedro de Peralta as governor of the province and to
send out a new group of friars with Fray Alonso de Peinado
as commissary. 36 Peralta and Peinado arrived in New Mex-
ico early in 1610. Fray Francisco de Velasco evidently left
New Mexico in 1607 with Ximenez, for a letter of the audien-
cia dated June 23, 1608, reveals that he was then in Mexico
City and about to leave for Spain. 37 Although he later re-
turned to Mexico and became provincial of the Order in
1629, he never went back to New Mexico. Fray Alonso de
San Juan was in the province in 1607, 38 but he must have
gone to New Spain that year or the next, for we have evi-
dence that he was a member of the Peinado group that went
out to New Mexico in 1603. 39 Tavera is recorded as bringing
dispatches from Onate in the summer of 1609. 40 It appears,
therefore, that not more than three friars were left in New
Mexico at the end of the Onate period, viz., Fray Francisco

35. Vetancurt, op. cit., vol. 4, pp. 137, 207-09.

36. A.G.I., Mexico, leg. 27 ; Hammond, op. cit, pp. 178-79.

37. Audiencia to the king, Mexico, June 23, 1608. A.G.I., Mexico, leg. 72.

38. Cf. note 23, supra.

39. In a dispatch to the Holy Office, dated September 18, 1622, Fray Estevan de
Perea states that Fray Alonso de San Juan "came with me" to New Mexico. A.G.N.,
Inquisicion, tomo 486. Since we know that Perea was a member of the Peinado group,
it is evident that San Juan also journeyed to New Mexico at the same time.

40. Lo ultimamente proveido . . . , September 28, 1609. A.G.I., Mexico, leg. 27.


de Escobar, the commissary, and two lay brothers, Fray
Juan de San Buenaventura and Fray Pedro de Vergara. In-
deed, there may have been only two, for Torquemada seems
to imply that Escobar died while holding office as commis-
sary. 41 He was still alive in 1608, 42 but his death may have
occurred sometime during the following year.

In the summer of 1598 Ofiate established provincial
headquarters at the pueblo of San Juan. Construction of a
church was started on August 23 and the dedication services
were held on September 8. The first mission assignments
were made by Father Martinez on September 9, as follows :
Taos and Picuris, Fray Francisco de Zamora ; Tewa pueblos,
Fray Cristobal de Salazar, aided by the lay brothers, San
Buenaventura and Vergara ; Tano area and the Keres pueblos
on the Rio Grande, Fray Juan de Rosas ; Pecos and the Tiwa
and Tompiro pueblos of the Salinas area, Fray Francisco de
San Miguel ; Tiwa pueblos of the middle Rio Grande and the
Piro area, Fray Juan Claros ; Jemez district, Fray Alonso de
Lugo; Sia, Acoma, and the Zufii and Hopi areas, Fray An-
dres Corchado. 43 Unfortunately the contemporary sources
record relatively little information concerning missionary
activity during the next three years. Certain facts, however,
can be gleaned from the printed documents for 1598-1599
and from the manuscript sources for the year 1601. 44

The base from which missionary work was carried on
was at first the pueblo of San Juan, and later the pueblo of
San Gabriel to which Onate transferred his headquarters
sometime in 1599 or 1600. The first baptisms were per-
formed at San Juan soon after the arrival of the friars in
1598, and throughout the Ofiate period the Tewa pueblos,

41. Torquemada, op. cit, vol. 3, p. 598

42. We are told that Escobar approved the action of the cabildo of San Gabriel
in electing Cristobal de Onate as governor in 1608. Velasco to the king, February 13,
1609, A.G.I., Mexico, leg. 27.

43. Hammond, op. cit., pp. 103-104, and sources cited.

44. "Ytinerario," in Coleccion de documentos ineditos . . . , vol. 16, pp. 228-276 ;
H. E. Bolton, Spanish exploration in the Southwest, 1542-1706 (New York, 1916), pp.
212-267 ; and MS sources cited in notes 15 and 16, supra. Cf. also Hammond, op. cit ,
pp. 148-49.


being nearest the provincial capital, undoubtedly received
the greatest attention. At the time of the desertion in 1601
there were convents (friar-residences) and churches in San
Gabriel and San Ildefonso. The priests in charge were
Fray Lope de Izquierdo and Fray Francisco de San Miguel

Father Zamora visited the Taos-Picuris area in the
autumn of 1598, but probably remained there a relatively
short time. There is evidence, however, that one of the
donados was at Picuris during the period prior to the deser-
tion in 1601.

Father San Miguel, accompanied by the donado Juan
de Dios, went to Pecos in 1598. After a short stay San Miguel
apparently returned to provincial headquarters, leaving
behind the donado who remained for a while longer. We
have no evidence that San Miguel ever visited the pueblos of
the Tiwas and Tompiros in the Salinas district which also
comprised part of his mission assignment. After the depar-
ture of Martinez in 1599, he served as commissary, with
headquarters at San Juan and later at San Gabriel. As
noted above, he was guardian of the convent in San Ildefonso
in 1601, probably having been assigned to that pueblo after
the arrival of the new commissary, Fray Juan de Escalona,
in December, 1600.

The documents of 1601 record that Father Lugo and
one of the donados labored for a time among the Jemez In-
dians, and we also have reference to a church where the
Indians came for instruction. Lugo returned to Mexico in
March, 1601. The donado may have remained with the
Jemez for a longer period, but the year 1601 probably marks
the end of effective work in that area for many years. 45

Fathers Rosas, Glares, and Corchado may have visited
parts of their respective, mission fields in the autumn of 1598,
but we have no record of their activities thereafter. This
lack of information is an argument in favor of the surmise,
stated above, that they died in New Mexico prior to March,

45. See Scholes, "Notes on the Jemez missions in the seventeenth century," El
Palacio, XLJV (1938), 62-63.


We learn that two of the friars who came in 1600, Fray
Alonso de la Oliva and the lay brother, Fray Damian Escu-
dero, labored at Santo Domingo, apparently with the aid of
one of the donados. After the departure of Oliva in the
spring of 1601, Escudero may have stayed on at Santo
Domingo until the following autumn, when he left the prov-
ince with the other friars who withdrew at that time.

Information is also very inadequate for the period from
1601 to 1610. Such evidence as is available indicates that
missionary activity was concentrated in the Tewa and Rio
Grande Keres districts. A convent was maintained at San
Gabriel, from which the nearby pueblos of San Juan and
Santa Clara were undoubtedly administered. From time to
time the friars probably visited the other Tewa settlements,
but we have no evidence that friars maintained continuous
residence in any of them. After he relinquished office as
commissary, Escalona devoted himself to the conversion of
the Rio Grande Keres. It is recorded that he was serving
in Santo Domingo in 1604, 46 and he apparently remained
there until his death in 1607. Vetancurt attributes the
founding of a convent, church, and infirmary at San Felipe
to Fray Cristobal de Quinones. 47 But there can be little
doubt that the San Felipe foundations were established at a
later date by Fray Cristobal de Quiros, for whose services
Vetancurt mistakenly gives the credit to Quinones. It is
possible, however, that Quinones worked among the Keres
prior to his death in 1609.

If the estimate of seven thousand conversions reported
to the viceroy in 1608 48 is correct, or even partially so, it may
be inferred that missionary activity had been extended to
other districts besides those of the Tewa and Rio Grande
Keres. The most likely areas in which the work would have
been carried on are the Tano district, the pueblos of Sia and
Santa Ana, and possibly the Tiwa pueblos in the region of
modern Bernalillo. We have no positive evidence, however, to

46. A.G.N., Provincias Interims, tomo 34, exp. 1.

47. Vetancurt, op. cit., vol. 4, p. 137 .

48. Hammond, op. cit., p. 176. Torquemada, op. cit., vol. 3, p. 478, has "more
than 8,000."


substantiate this inference. With only two or three friars
left in New Mexico at the end of 1609, it may be assumed that
missionary activity was at a minimum when Onate's govern-
ment came to a close.

3. FRIAR PERSONNEL, 1610-1616

As we have noted in section 1, there were apparently
only two or three friars left in New Mexico at the end of
1609. As the result of reports brought to Mexico City
toward the end of 1608 by Fray Lazaro Ximenez and Fray
Isidro Ordonez, the viceroy decided to provide additional
support for the missions. Supplies and transportation were
provided for nine friars 49 who left Mexico City in the spring
of 1609 and arrived in New Mexico early in the following
year. 50 The leader of this group was Fray Alonso de
Peinado, who served as commissary, or local prelate, from
1610 to 1612. In 1611 Fray Isidro Ordonez, who had re-
turned with Peinado, went back to New Spain to obtain sup-
plies and additional recruits for the missions. A group of
eight new friars was enlisted and accompanied Ordonez to
New Mexico, arriving in August, 1612. 51 On his return
Ordonez assumed office as commissary and served as head
of the missions until the end of 1616. Counting the friars
who remained in New Mexico at the end of the Onate period,
the nine who came from Mexico in 1609, and the eight
brought by Ordonez in 1612, we have a maximum total of
twenty to account for between 1610 and the end of 1616,
when the next group arrived.

On the basis of various sources, 52 we are able to compile
the list of twenty friars, as follows :

1. Fray Francisco de Escobar, former commissary. If

49. The accounts for the supplies and transportation are in A.G.I., Contaduria,
legs. 711, 712, 850.

50. Fray Joseph Tavera, who brought dispatches from Onate in 1609, was Bent
by Velasco as messenger to deliver supplementary instructions to Governor Peralta,
then en route to New Mexico. A.G.I., Contaduria, leg. 712. There is no evidence,
however, that Tavera actually went on to New Mexico at this time.

51. Accounts for supplies furnished to this group are in A.G.I., Contaduria, legs.
714, 715, 850.

52. The most important source is the Relacion Verdadera of Fray Francisco
Ptrez Guerta. Cf. note 33, supra.


he was still alive when Peinado arrived in 1610, he must have
died within the next year or two, for he is not mentioned in
the record of events of 1612 et seq.

2. Fray Juan de San Buenaventura, lay brother.

3. Fray Pedro de Vergara, lay brother. He went to
New Spain sometime after 1610 and returned to New Mex-
ico in 1613 or 1614. 53

The Peinado group of 1609

4. Fray Alonso de Peinado. Commissary, 1610-1612.

5. Fray Lazaro Ximenez. He is not mentioned in the
record of events subsequent to 1612, so we assume that he
had gone back to New Spain or had died prior to that time.

6. Fray Isidro Ordonez. Commissary, 1612-1616.

7. Fray Andres Baptista.

8. Fray Agustin de Burgos.

9. Fray Bernardo de Marta.

10. Fray Estevan de Perea.

11. Fray Cristobal de Quiros.

12. Fray Alonso de San Juan, lay brother. As noted in
section 1, he had previously been in New Mexico. He went
back to New Spain again, probably in 1614, but returned to
New Mexico with the new group of friars who arrived at the
end of 1616.

Friars who came with Ordonez in 1612

13. Fray Cristobal de Asumpcion, lay brother. He
probably returned to New Spain in 1613, and is not men-
tioned again in New Mexico. 54

14. Fray Pedro de Haro de la Cueva.

15. Fray Jeronimo de Pedraza, lay brother.

16. Fray Francisco Perez Guerta.

17. Fray Andres Perguer.

18. Fray Juan de Salas.

19. Fray Andres Suarez (or Juarez).

20. Fray Luis de Tirado.

53. In A.G.L, Contaduria, leg. 717, we find record of a payment of 50 pesos,
executed September 27, 1613, to assist Vergara to return to New Mexico.

54. Ordofiez sent a friar with dispatches to Mexico in 1613. By a process of
elimination, we find that Asumpcion was probably the person selected to serve as
messenger. He is not mentioned again in the contemporary sources.


As a result of the increased number of friars in New
Mexico during the years 1610-1616, there was a marked ex-
pansion of the missionary program, although progress was
retarded to some extent by a prolonged controversy between
Fray Isidro Ordonez, who took office as local prelate in
August, 1612, and the provincial governors. The chief
source of information for this period is an account (Relation
Verdadera) written by Fray Francisco Perez Guerta, one
of the friars who came with Ordonez in 1612. 55 A few
details also are found in Benavides' Memorial of 1634 and
in Vetancurt.

After the founding of Santa Fe in 1610, the convent
that had been maintained at San Gabriel during most of the
Onate period was transferred to the new provincial capital.
We have no information about the actual founder of the
Santa Fe convent and church, nor do we know the names of
the friars who served in the villa from 1610 to 1612. When
Ordonez arrived in 1612, he assigned Fray Luis de Tirado,
one of the friars who came in that year, as guardian of the
Santa Fe convent, and this friar served as parish priest in
the villa until the end of 1616. 56

Although missionary activity was carried on at San
Ildefonso from time to time during the Onate period, the
founder of the permanent mission was Fray Andres Bap-
tista, who came to New Mexico with Peinado in 1610. He
served as guardian of the convent of San Ildefonso until
1632. 57 There was also a convent at Nambe as early as May,

55. Cf. note 33, supra.

56. Other friars who served at Santa Fe prior to the Pueblo Revolt were Fray
Bernardo de Aguirre (1617 and 1622-23), Fray Ascensio de Zarate (1622), Fray
Pedro de Hortega (1626-29), Fray Tomas de San Diego (1629-32), Fray Jeronimo de
Segovia (1634-35, Fray Antonio de Ibargaray (1635), Fray Domingo del Espiritu
Santo (1636-37) and 1641), Fray Juan de Vidania (1637-41), Fray Antonio de
Aranda (1639), Fray Antonio Perez (1641), Fray Juan Juarez (1643), Fray Nicolas
Hidalgo (1643), Fray Miguel Sacristan (1659 et ante), Fray Diego Rodriguez (1659
or 1660), Fray Nicolas de Freitas (1661), Fray Miguel de Guevara (1662), Fray
Nicolas de Enriquez (1663-64), Fray Francisco Gomez de la Cadena (1665-69, 1679-80),
and Fray Juan del Hierro (1672). (In this list and those which follow, we have not
included lay brothers.)

57. Other friars who served at San Ildefonso prior to the Pueblo Revolt were
Fray Diego Franco (1640), Fray Miguel de Guevara (1661), Fray Felipe Rodriguez
(1667). Fray Andres Duran (1672), Fray Luis de Morales (1680).


1613. The founder of this mission was Fray Pedro Haro de
la Cueva, a member of the group brought by Ordonez in 1612.
The same friar is recorded as being at Nambe in 1628, and
he probably remained there for another five or six years.
Fray Andres Suarez, who came to New Mexico in 1610, was
guardian of Nambe in 1635 and continued to serve the mis-
sion until at least 1647. 58 There is evidence that there was
a church in San Juan prior to 1616, possibly the structure
erected by Onate and his associates in 1598. This pueblo and
the other Tewa settlements were evidently administered
from San Ildef onso and Nambe.

The first permanent mission among the Tanos was
established at Galisteo sometime during the years 1610-1612
by one of the friars who came with Peinado, but his name
is not known. In August, 1612, after the arrival of Ordonez,
Peinado was named guardian of Galisteo, but soon there-
after he was removed and sent to San Ildefonso to assist
Baptista. Fray Bernardo de Marta was guardian of Galisteo
in 1615, and Fray Francisco Perez Guerta was in charge of
the mission for a time in the early part of 1616. A second
Tano mission was founded at San Lazaro as early as 1613,
for we learn that Fray Andres Perguer was guardian of the
convent in June of that year. Fray Agustin de Burgos was
guardian there in 1614. We shall see, however, that San
Lazaro convent was not a permanent foundation.

The Santo Domingo mission, established in the Onate
period, became the ecclesiastical capital when the headquar-
ters of provincial government were transferred from San
Gabriel to Santa Fe. Peinado resided in Santo Domingo
when he was not out on trips of inspection in other areas,
and it was there that Ordonez held a chapter meeting of
friars on his arrival in 1612. The name of the friar who
served there as guardian prior to 1612 is not recorded. Fray
Bernardo de Marta was in charge of the mission in 1613-

58. Other friars who served at Nambe prior to the Pueblo Revolt were Fray
Antonio de Ibargaray (1662), Fray Felipe Rodriguez (1664), Fray Juan de Zamorano,
(1672), Fray Tomas de Torres (1680).


1614. 59 Cochiti is mentioned as a visita in 1614 and San
Felipe in 1615.

The convent of Sia, first mentioned in July 1613, was
probably founded by Fray Cristobal de Quiros, who came
with Peinado in 1610. He apparently served at Sia until
1617 when he was transferred to Santo Domingo. 60 Santa
Ana is recorded as a visita of Sia as early as 1614.

Fray Estevan de Perea, a member of the Peinado group,
initiated the missionary program among the Rio Grande
Tiwa, founding a mission at Sandia soon after his arrival in
1610. He continued his labors there until he went to New
Spain in the autumn of 1626. On his return to New Mexico
in 1629 he served a brief term (his second) as custodian, and
resided again at Sandia from 1630 to 1633, when he took
charge of the convent at Cuarac. Vetancurt tells us, how-
ever, that he died and was buried at Sandia. 61

A second Rio Grande Tiwa mission was established at
Isleta by Fray Juan de Salas, who came to New Mexico in
1612. Salas is mentioned as guardian of Isleta at the time
of Governor Peralta's arrest by Ordonez in August, 1613,
but the mission had probably been founded during the latter
part of 1612 or early in 1613. Salas remained at Isleta as
guardian until he became custodian in 1630, and apparently
he continued to reside there during his term of office as pre-
late (1630-1632) , 62

69. Other friars who served at Santo Domingo prior to the Pueblo Revolt were
Fray Juan de Escalona (1604-07), Fray Cristobal de Quiros (1617), Fray Andres
Suarez (1621), Fray Martin de Arvide (1625), Fray Francisco de Avila (1640-41),
Fray Joseph de Paredes (1656), Fray Juan de Plasencia (1661-62), Fray Francisco de
Acevedo (1663-64), Fray Tomas de Torres (1667), Fray Gabriel de Torija (1667-68),
Fray Nicolas de Freitas (1669), Fray Juan Bernal, Fray Juan del Val (1672), Fray
Juan Talaban, Fray Francisco Antonio de Lorenzana, and Fray Jose de Montes de
Oca (1680).

60. Other friars who served at Sia prior to the Pueblo Revolt were Fray Agustin
de Burgos (1622), Fray Francisco Alvarez (1640-41), Fray Tomas de Alvarado (1662),
Fray Nicolas de Enrfquez (1665), Fray Pedro de Villegas (1666), Fray Lucas Mal-
donado (1670-71), Fray Felipe Pacheco (1672), Fray Nicolas Hurtado (1680).

61. Other friars who served at Sandia prior to the Pueblo Revolt were Fray
Francisco Fonte (1635), Fray Nicolas Hidalgo (1640-41), Fray Crist6bal de Velasco
(1648), Fray Fernando de Velasco (1659), Fray Salvador de Guerra (1660), Fray
Felipe Rodriguez (1660-61), Fray Francisco de Munoz (1662, 1663, 1665, 1667, 1669,
1672), Fray Nicolas Echavarria (1668), Fray Juan de Jesus (1672), Fray Tomas de
Tobalina (1680).

62. Other friars who served at Isleta prior to the Pueblo Revolt were Fray Diego
L6pez (before 1629), Fray Jeronimo de la LLana (1634), Fray Francisco de la


As noted above, Fray Alonso de Peinado was assigned
to Galisteo in August, 1612, but within a short time was sent
to San Ildefonso. Because of poor health, he spent some
time in Santa Fe in 1613, and during the controversy be-
tween Ordonez and Governor Peralta he manifested lack of
sympathy for the commissary's actions. The relations
between Ordonez and his predecessor became so strained
that Peinado decided to "banish himself" and undertake the
conversion of the pueblo of Chilili, a Tiwa pueblo on the
eastern side of the Manzano mountains. His work there
started not later than 1614, and possibly as early as 1613. In
1616 Fray Agustin de Burgos went to Chilili to assist him in
the baptism of his neophytes. Peinado served at Chilili until
his death in 1622 or 1623. 63

Thus we find that during the period from 1610 to 1616
there were ten mission centers with convents or friar-
houses: Santa Fe, San Ildefonso, Nambe, Galisteo, San
Lazaro, Santo Domingo, Sia, Sandia, Isleta, and Chilili.
In 1617 the cabildo of Santa Fe reported that there were
eleven churches in the province. 64 This number evidently
included the churches in the missions with convents and
the church at San Juan. Apparently no churches had been
built in San Felipe and Cochiti, visitas of Santo Domingo,
nor in Santa Ana, visita of Sia.

In 1616 a new group of seven friars was sent out to
the New Mexico missions. This group apparently arrived
at about the end of December, 1616. At the same time Fray
Estevan de Perea received a dispatch naming him local

Concepcion (1636-38), Fray Juan Juarez (1640-41), Fray Miguel de Sacristan (1658,
1660), Fray Francisco de Salazar (1659-60), Fray Salvador de Guerra (1660),
Fray Diego de Parraga and Fray Joseph de Paredes (1662), Fray Tomas de
Alvarado (1665), Fray Nicolas del Villar (1668-69), Fray Hernando de Monroy (ca.
1669), Fray Francisco G6mez de la Cadena (1672), Fray Juan de Zavaleta (1680).

63. We have a letter of Peinado, dated at Chilili on October 4, 1622, A.G.N., Civil,
tomo 77. In the following year reports were evidently sent to Mexico City indicating
that fourteen friars were then serving in New Mexico. A list of fourteen as of that
year can be compiled without including Peinado, so we infer that he died in the latter
part of 1622 or in the following year before the dispatches were sent to New Mexico.
Other friars who served at Chilili prior to the Pueblo Revolt were Fray Francisco
de Salazar (1634-36, 1659), Fray Fernando de Velasco (ca. 1660,), and Fray Fran-
cisco Gomez de la Cadena (1671-72).

64. Bancroft, op. cit., p. 159.


prelate with the title of custodian. The decision of the
superiors of the Franciscan Order in Mexico City to give
the New Mexico missions the status of a custodia, or semi-
autonomous unit, wtihin the province of the Holy Evangel
was undoubtedly inspired to a very great extent by the

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