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(To be concluded)



NECROLOGY

Alvan Newton White. Alvan Newton White died at
his home in Silver City on the morning of Monday, June
18, after a brief illness. White was born on May 8, 1869,
at Fallbranch, Washington county, Tennessee, the son of
Richard Jasper White and Nancy Jane Lady White. After
attending public schools in Tennessee, he entered Greene-
ville and Tusculum College, Tusculum, Tenn., and thence
went to Carson-Newman College, Jefferson City, Tenn.,
from which he received his A.B. degree in 1893. After
years of the practice of law in Tennessee, Oklahoma and
New Mexico, he was admitted to the bar of the United
States Supreme Court on March 9, 1916.

White came to New Mexico in 1896. Three years
later, on October 24, 1899, he married Louise Dickinson
at Nashville, Tenn. Her death a few months ago, hastened
his own demise, according to his friends. Three children
were born to the couple; Justine, deceased; Athington of
Silver City, and Arneille, wife of Bernard Roberts of Santa
Fe. Six grandchildren and several brothers are members
of the immediate family.

Soon after engaging in law practice at Silver City,
White was named city attorney, serving in 1897 and 1898.
His first elective office was that of superintendent of schools
of Grant county, an honor he held for three terms, 1901
to 1907. First attempts to enter upon a legislative career
were frustrated, having been defeated for the legislative
house in 1898, for the territorial senate in 1906 and the
constitutional convention in 1910. After that, he was
invariably successful at the polls, being elected a member
of the New Mexico house of representatives from 1926 on,
serving four times as its speaker, 1931, 1933, 1935 and
1937, chosen three times as such unanimously. His knowl-
edge of legislative procedure and his fairness in presiding
made him a favorite of both parties. In 1929, he func-
tioned as Democratic floor leader in the house. White
was chairman of the Democratic central committee of
Grant county 1926 and 1927, member of the state bar

269



270 NEW MEXICO HISTORICAL REVIEW

commission 1931 to 1939, assistant district attorney of the
Sixth Judicial District of New Mexico in 1932, federal di-
rector for New Mexico of the United States Employment
Service, member of the American Bar Association having
been a member of its house of delegates 1937-1939, presi-
dent of the New Mexico Bar Association 1936-1937. He
was a Baptist, a 32d degree Mason, a Knight Templar, a
Shriner, and an Elk. As one of the incorporators and presi-
dent of the New Mexico Society for the Preservation of
Antiquities, White was deeply interested in the School of
American Research, the Museum of New Mexico and the
New Mexico Historical Society, never failing to guard their
interests in legislative matters. Author of a "Geography of
New Mexico," published in 1918, White also wrote various
official reports and contributed articles to sundry publica-
tions. His funeral took place at Silver City on Wednesday,
June 20. P. A. F. W.

Numa C. Frenger. Stricken during a session of dis-
trict court at Las Cruces, over which he presided, on the
evening of Monday, June 11, Judge Numa C. Frenger died
early the following morning, victim of an attack of acute
indigestion.

Born in Socorro on January 21, 1876, Frenger was the
son of a sutler for the U. S. Army during the Civil War,
who followed the troops from frontier post to frontier
post but finally settled in central New Mexico. The father
died when the future judge was only four years old. Reared
by Numa Reymond, of Las Cruces, who accumulated con-
siderable wealth as an early-day trader and stage coach
operator of the line from Trinidad, Colorado, to Franklin,
now El Paso, Texas, Frenger became one of the first stu-
dents of the New Mexico College of Agriculture and
Mechanic Arts, from there volunteering into Roosevelt's
Rough Riders in 1898. Upon return from the Spanish-
American War, he entered the University of Michigan Law
School and was admitted to the New Mexico Bar in 1901,
three years later.

In 1923, Frenger was a member of the New Mexcio



NECROLOGY 271

house of representatives. In 1926, he was appointed judge
of the Third Judicial District by Governor A. T. Hannett
to succeed Judge Edwin Medler, resigned. He served as
judge continuously from then until his death, having been
re-elected for a third elective term of six years in 1942.

Judge Frenger was a member of the Las Cruces city
council, the Las Cruces school board, the state interstate
streams commission, the district irrigation board, a regent
of the New Mexico College of Agriculture and Mechanic
Arts and a commander of the Department of New Mexico
Spanish-American War Veterans. Interested in the progress
of Las Cruces and the Mesilla Valley, he had the satisfac-
tion of seeing the completion of a fine public library, a
modern court house, new buildings at the Agricultural Col-
lege and other far-reaching civic improvements to the
furtherance of which he gave time and effort.

Judge Frenger was married on September 2, 1902,
in Los Angeles, to Clara Jacoby, who survives him, together
with a daughter, Mrs. J. A. Livingston of Arlington, Va.
Judge Frenger was a Presbyterian, a Mason and a Demo-
crat. Funeral services were held in the Presbyterian
Church at Las Cruces, the pastor, Rev. Frank Jones, officiat-
ing, assisted by Rev. Clarence Ridge, pastor of St. Paul's
Methodist Church, and Rev. Hunter Lewis, pioneer Episco-
palian missionary. Ceremonies at the grave were con-
ducted by Aztec Lodge, A. F. & A. M. Among the many
attending were Justice Daniel K. Sadler of the New Mex-
ico Supreme Court, Santa Fe; District Judge A. W.
Marshall of Deming; District Judge Charles H. Fowler of
Socorro, and Judge J. L. Lawson of Alamogordo, who was
appointed to succeed Judge Frenger. P. A. F. W.

Frank Bond. Frank Bond, merchant and wool
grower, who came to New Mexico from Canada in 1882,
died on June 21, in Encinas Sanatarium, Los Angeles, of a
chronic heart ailment, at the age of 82 years.

When his brother George now living at Santa Anna,
Calif., left Quebec province, Canada, 63 years ago, Frank
Bond, then 19 years old, soon followed. The Santa Fe



272 NEW MEXICO HISTORICAL REVIEW

Railway had reached Santa Fe only two years before, when
Frank and his brother set out overland to Chamita (San
Juan Pueblo) in Rio Arriba county, miles from the rail-
road, and entered the employ there of the late Samuel
Eldodt, a pioneer merchant and Indian trader. Less than
a year later, the brothers bought a small mercantile estab-
lishment at Espanola, thirty miles north of Santa Fe, and
there began a career as sheep and cattle growers, merchants,
and gradually acquiring large land interests, including the
famous Baca Location or Valle Grande, in the heart of the
Jemez mountains. George moved to Wagon Mound where
is located one of the various "Bond" mercantile houses.
Frank created a pleasant home with spread lawn and
flower beds in Espanola, which he left in 1925 for Albu-
querque for family health reasons. There he organized
and incorporated the Bond interests as Frank Bond &
Son, Ltd., with his son Franklin, his grandson and adopted
son Captain Gordon Bond at present with the U. S. Army
in Italy, and John Davenport of Espanola, who supervises
the Bond interests in northern New Mexico. The firm's
interests include two large wool warehouses, one at Albu-
querque, and the other, Bond-Baker Co., at Roswell; also
the Bond & Willard Company at Espanola; A. MacArthur
Company at Wagon Mound ; Espanola Mercantile Company
at Espanola; Bond and Wiest, Inc., at Cuervo, and Bond-
Gunderson Co., at Grants. According to the Albuquerque
Morning Journal:

"New Mexico in 1883 seemed to Frank
Bond 'a perfect desert.'

"Grain was transported in tanned buffalo
sacks on burros, four-horse stages ran from
Santa Fe to Espanola.

"These and other colorful descriptive
passages were included in a handwritten man-
uscript by Mr. Bond which he wrote in 1929.

"The youth who was to establish a mer-
cantile and sheep company that would spread
over the state visited Santa Fe in the fall of
1883.

" The plaza had board walks and bal-



NECROLOGY 273

conies overhead, full of saloons and a wide-
open town. Motley's dance hall was going
full blast, he wrote. I felt I was in a for-
eign town.

"Frank Bond was president of Frank
Bond and Son, Inc., until he left for Cali-
fornia. He was spoken of as a possible guber-
natorial candidate in 1924 and again in 1928,
but preferred the more reserved work of
building the state's economic enterprises
than serving in politics.

"In 1930 the Bond enterprises put on 11
eastern markets 30,000 heads of lamb in one
day, establishing a record for the country.
That year, 140,000 heads of lamb were fed by
them.

"Of the 13 million pounds of wool raised
one year in New Mexico, four and a half mil-
lion pounds were handled by the Wool Ware-
house in Albuquerque and another four mil-
lion pounds by the Bond-Baker Co. at Roswell.

"For the past 30 years the annual stock-
holders meeting of the Bond companies held
in Albuquerque, have brought together com-
pany members and their families from all
parts of the state.

"The Frank Bonds built the residence at
201 North Twelfth now owned by Dr. W. R.
Lovelace."

The latter years of Frank Bond were saddened by the
death at Albuquerque in 1923 of his mother ; in 1926 of his
father; then in 1927 of his daughter Mrs. Amy Corlett,
wife of General C. H. Corlett; in 1929 of his daughter,
Mrs. Hazel McClain; and in 1935 of his wife, Mrs. Frank
Bond, all of whom are buried in Fairview Cemetery, Albu-
querque. This is also the last resting place of Frank Bond.
The funeral services took place in St. John's Cathedral of
the Protestant Episcopal Church, Albuquerque, Dean
Lloyd W. Clark officiating. The pall bearers were: Otto
Hake, manager of the Albuquerque Bond Company office,
Stuart MacArthur of Wagon Mound, Frank Willard, W.
P. Cook, C. C. Titus and John Davenport, associates of the
deceased in his business enterprises. P. A. F. W.



REVIEWS AND NOTES

The Wild Horse of the West. By Walker D. Wyman. (The
Caxton Printers. Caldwell, Idaho, 1945. Pp. 348. Bibli-
ography, index, illustrations by Harold Bryant.)

What has happened to the mustang and to the wild or
feral horse, whether of Spanish or American ancestry, in
the West, is exhaustively and interestingly set forth by
Walker D. Wyman. His is, perhaps, the final word on the
history of the horse on the western range, for it includes
a compilation of most of what has been written and said
on the subject, in addition to the author 's own observations
and conclusions. He begins his treatise with an account of
the eohippus, the prehistoric horse of millions of years ago,
but which had vanished from the American scene before
the advent of man, and ends with the tragic tale of the
extermination of the mustang, converted into dog food by
horse-meat canning plants.

Wyman draws a definite distinction between the mus-
tang and the feral horse and declares : "the true wild horse
exists in only one place, Mongolia." To Columbus is given
the credit for introducing the horse to America, so that by
1500 "a fair beginning had been made in ranching." "After
1510 prices began to increase. A horse that could have
been purchased for four or five pesos in that year, sold for
200 in 1530 and for 500 in 1538. It was soon thereafter,
in 1540, when escapes from the Coronado expedition, and
in 1543, when six horses liberated by De Soto, according
to legend, became the ancestors of the wild horses of the
West. Wyman, however, scouts this idea and asserts that
"it is probable that the wild horse herds emerged from the
ranches or mission ranches of the Spanish in the Americas,
not from some tired horses of the conquistadores."

Chapters III and IV Wyman devotes to the place that
the horse has played in the history and economy of the
Indian. The period from 1680 to 1750 saw the conquest of
the horse by the Indians north of Mexico. "The horse
changed the whole life of the aborigine. It was as import-
ant to him as the coming of steam to the white man." And

274



REVIEWS AND NOTES 275

further: "With them he bought his wives and paid his
debts. 'It was the greatest ambition of an Indian to be
the owner of a band of horses ; his chances of success were
nil without them; his wealth and social position was de-
termined by the number he possessed/ " * * * "One old
chief told Captain Marcy that his four sons were a com-
fort to him because they could steal more horses than any
other members of the tribe."

Important as was the horse to the Indian, he was essen-
tial to the rancher, to whom however, the wild horse be-
came a nuisance and even a menace. "To most cattlemen
a wild horse was something to shoot, not to capture." After
referring to the establishment of horse ranches in the
West and the origin of the western pony and the palomino,
the author devotes a chapter to "The Army and the Mus-
tang" and the traffic in horses, augmented by the demand
created by the Boer War and the first World War. He
concludes : "In 1940 there were no longer any horses avail-
able, other than strictly supervised range horses. * * *
"The wild horse made his contribution to the army in the
period after the Mexican War when he was worth some-
thing. After 1900 he no longer deserved the reputation
his mustang ancestors made for him. Today he is headed
for the cauldron."

It is after these 126 pages of preliminary history of
the horse in the West that the book turns to its main theme :
"The disappearance of the mustang and the extermination
of the wild horse from the western range." The mustang,
true descendant of the Spanish horse in America, was
deemed a pest by the first cattlemen in New Mexico in the
1870's and 80's. Nevertheless "the disappearance of a
great proportion of the mustangs is a mystery." The
author quotes a contemporary "that many thousands of
these ponies were surreptitiously converted into canned
beef and are even now being served over Eastern tables
and army messes as a select product of the cattle range."
It was the enactment of the Taylor Grazing Act in 1934,
together with the government range control of Indian
reservations, which spelled the final chapter in the history



276 NEW MEXICO HISTORICAL REVIEW

of the wild horse. The methods of control and extermina-
tion are described in detail under such chapter headings
as "From Cow Pony to Cauldron/' "Methods of the Mus-
tangers," "The Herd and the Horse/' "From Mustang to
Broomtail," "The Stallion in Fact and Fancy." The efforts
to "Save the Wild Horse" by a few romanticists are termed
futile. "Rather than preserve degenerate strays, it is
better to look backward to that which once was, and cease
thinking of perpetuating that which does not exist/' is
the final advice of the author.

This is a book which holds the interest not only of
students of western history and of the range, but also of
the general reader. There are a few palpable contradic-
tions, several slight errors of historical fact and some
looseness in continuity and construction, due no doubt to
haste in writing under pressure of other tasks and the great
variety of opinions encountered in the authorities searched
and quoted. The bibliography and index show painstaking
labor. The numerous citations, both poetic and prose, are
enlightening and occasionally amusing, testifying to the
author's wide reading. The typography, illustrations and
attractive binding of the volume are a credit to the Caxton
Printers of Caldwell, Idaho, who have published several
scores of excellent volumes appertaining to western his-
tory and literature. P. A. F. W.

A Du Val Map of 1670. Recently the University of
New Mexico Library acquired a number of maps, one of
which (reproduced in actual size) we are using as the
frontispiece of this issue. The dealer was doubtless cor-
rect in attributing the map to the French map-maker,
Pierre Du Val; but he is believed to have been wrong in
assigning it the date of 1682, and also in stating that the
map was unknown to Phillips.

Small as it is, the map shows a vertical fold, and along
the fold are remains of a paper tab by which it had been
bound into some atlas, this fact explains why the author's
name does not appear on the map itself. P. L. Phillips,
A list of geographical atlases in the Library of Congress



REVIEWS AND NOTES 277

(Washington 1909) shows as title no. 481: "Du Val, P.,
Le monde ov la geographic vniverselle, contenant les de-
scriptions, les cartes, & le blafon des principaux pais du
monde ... 2 v. 24. Paris, Pauteur, N. Pepingue, 1670."
Elsewhere (title no. 3434) Phillips gives the size as 16;
in either case, the atlas was small enough to slip into the
side-pocket of a modern coat. Map No. 9 in Du VaPs first
volume is of "Novveav Mexiqve," and this we believe to be
the one which we are here discussing.

Woodbury Lowery (A descriptive list of maps of the
Spanish possessions within the present limits of the United
States, 1502-1820, Library of Congress 1912), lists and
describes a similar map of Florida from the same atlas
(LC 153) , and in an accompanying note quotes a French au-
thority to show that Pierre du Val d' Abbeville lived from
1619 to 1684 ; that he was a counselor of the king and also
"geographer of the king." "His works are still esteemed
(1872), being considerable in number and importance."
And this authority adds the interesting fact that "he was
related to the Sansons, celebrated geographers." Lowery,
under his title no. 136, lists the Sansons as the father
Nicolas (1600-1667), a son of the same name (d. 1649),
sons Guillaume (d. 1703) and Adrien (d. 1718) ; and a
grandson Pierre Moullart-Sanson who died in 1730. Per-
haps we should note also another Frenchman who had an
active part in the map-making of that period: Hubert
Jaillot (c. 1640-1712). He came to Paris in 1657 and some
years later became interested in geography. In 1668-69,
he published "the four parts of the world" according to
Bleau, and then acquired from the Sansons the designs of
many new maps which he engraved with remarkable neat-
ness. In 1675, he obtained the title of "geographer ordinary
to the king," and worked without relaxation to increase his
collection of maps. (Lowery, op. cit., title no. 168)

The earliest Sanson map portraying New Mexico was
of 1657 and has been reproduced (from an original copy
owned by our Society at Santa Fe) in our issue of April
1936 (Vol. XI, no. 2). A comparison of that map with
the one of 1670 here discussed is instructive in many ways.



278 NEW MEXICO HISTORICAL REVIEW

The two most glaring errors of the map-makers were the
showing of California as an island (an error which was
to persist until 1746) and of the Rio del Norte as emptying
into the Gulf of California. This latter error was to be cor-
rected, together with a pretty thorough straightening out
of place names, by the arrival in Paris in 1673 of Don Diego
de Peiialosa. (Compare the Penalosa map reproduced in
our issue of April 1934, Vol. IX, no. 2; and the Coronelli
map in our issue of October 1927, Vol. II, no. 4.)

Attention is called to the boundaries of New Mexico
with other jurisdictions, shown by Du Val by dotted lines.
Canada was contiguous to the northeast; Florida to the
east (Du Val shows this boundary close to the right edge of
his map; the name is supplied by the Sanson map). In
other words, Florida, New Mexico, and California spanned
the continent for Spain in the seventeenth century.

Numerous other details might be noted, but we shall
remark on only two which show how many mistakes
doubtless originated by the careless reading of an engraver.
On the outer coast of upper California the "Puerto de Fran-
cisco Draco" (Sanson) became the "Port du St. Francisqe
Drac" (Du Val) ; and the "Punta de Monte Key" became
the "Port de Monterey." True, Drake had been on the
California coast nearly a century earlier and named his
"New Albion," but he was no saint; and even the discovery
of the true San Francisco Bay was not to be made until a
full century after the drawing of this map by Du Val.
L. B. B.

Legislative Appropriations. Biennial appropriations
to historical societies by several western states : State His-
torical Society of Missouri, $67,000; Illinois Historical So-
ciety and Library $105,000 ; Iowa State Historical Society,
Archives and State Department of History $158,256 ; Min-
nesota Historical Society $95,840; Wisconsin Historical
Society $140,000. The Missouri Historical Society employs
thirteen persons and pays its secretary and librarian, Floyd
C. Shoemaker, an annual salary of $5800 and traveling ex-
penses. The Society has a membership of 5000.



REVIEWS AND NOTES 279

Life Memberships. Recent life memberships granted
by the Historical Society of New Mexico went to Lt. D. E.
Worcester, U. S. Navy, author of "The Spread of Spanish
Horses in the Southwest" published in the July issue of
1944, of the NEW MEXICO HISTORICAL REVIEW, and to David
M. Warren of Panhandle, Texas, vice-chairman of the
board of regents of the University of Texas and publisher
and editor of the Panhandle Herald.

Folk Arts Conference. "Folklore has become a fad
and has attracted to itself a large dilettante following, us-
ually because of the 'quaintness' of old customs and the sim-
plicity or lack of sophistication of the tales or songs of the
forefathers or of belated communities today. The study has
also drawn to it somewhat more than its share of eccen-
trics and 'nut' !" Thus writes Sith Thompson in the latest
issue of Minnesota History. The comment appears in his
review of the Folk Arts Conference held at the University
of Minnesota. He continues "But in spite of the evil name
that these well-meaning but ineffective folk have acquired
in serious academic circles, there has been a considerable
group of scholars whose handling of folklore has been as
intelligent, as well-disciplined, and as definitely directed
as the investigations of the best of their fellows in adjacent
scholarly fields." The writer insists that the folk-lorists
should have academic training and acquire specific and
specialized knowledge.

Even here in New Mexico one runs across so-called
folklore or even so-called Indian mythology which can be
traced back to the Biblical and other religious tales used
by the Franciscan missionaries to instruct their simple-
minded charges who put their own construction upon what
they thought they heard, and which by retelling strayed far
from their original context. -P. A. F. W.



tAL





Historical "Review




PALACE OF THE GOVERNORS, SANTA



October, 1945



LANSING B. BLOOM



Editors
Associates



PAUL A. F. WALTER



PERCY M. BALDWIN GEORGE P. HAMMOND

FRANK T. CHEETHAM THEODOSIUS MEYER, O.F.M.

FRANCE V. SCHOLES



VOL. XX



OCTOBER, 1945



No. 4



CONTENTS



Shalam: Facts vs. Fiction



Page
Jone Howlind 281



History of the Albuquerque Indian School (to 1934), concl.

Lillie G. McKinney 310

From Lewisburg to California in 1849, concl. (ed.) L. B. Bloom 336

Necrology: Nathan Jaffa Albuquerque Tribune, Sept. 13, 1945 358



Notes and Comments :



359-366



The Atomic Bomb ; The VT Fuse ; Los Alamos Ranch School ;
Raynolds Library; Morley Ecclesiastical Art Gift; Mexico
Field School Session

Errata and Index



The NEW MEXICO HISTORICAL REVIEW is published jointly by the Historical
Society of New Mexico and the University of New Mexico. Subscription to the
quarterly is $3.00 a year in advance; single numbers, except those which have
become scarce, are $1.00 each.

Business communications should be addressed to Mr. P. A. F. Walter, State
Museum, Santa Fe, N. M. ; manuscripts and editorial correspondence should be
addressed to Prof. L. B. Bloom, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, N. M.



Entered as second-class matter at Santa Fe, New Mexico
UNIVERSITY PRESS, ALBUQUERQUE, N. M.



NEW MEXICO HISTORICAL
REVIEW

VOL. XX OCTOBER, 1945 No. 4

SHALAM: FACTS VERSUS FICTION

By JONE HOWLIND

(As the editor responsible for the acceptance of articles for publica-
tion, we have been mortified to learn that last year an article which
was in considerable part fiction or shall we say "creative writing"
was accepted by us in the guise of bona fide history. We are glad,
therefore, to be able to give our readers a second article on Shalam,
sent us by one who was so intimately identified with the founders of
that little colony. "Jone Howlind" is a penname, we are informed,



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