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at Tucson ; microfilm of volume I at Arizona State Department of Library and Archives
in Phoenix ; parts of volume I at Univ. of Arizona library, Bancroft Library at Berkeley,
Library of Congress in Washington, D.C., and American Antiquarian Society at
Worcester, Mass. Volume II at Pioneers Historical Society, Tucson, and Bancroft
Library.



136 NEW MEXICO HISTORICAL REVIEW

for sale in Tubac. Coming only eleven years after the Mexican
War and only six years after the Gadsden Purchase, the first
issue of the Arizonian understandably devoted most of its
front page to news about Mexico. The lead article, captioned
"Mexican Politics," stated :

There are in Mexico three great leading parties, answering
to the type of party wherever that product of imperfect civiliza-
tion exists. The first, because the eldest, is the CONSERVA-
TIVE, with principles cognate with its name; strenuously
adhering to ancient realism. . . . This party was in power,
in the person of Santa Anna, from April 20, 1853, to August 11,
1855. It was again in office only a few months since, in the
person of Felix Zuloaga. . . . The second great division con-
sists of the Radicals. . . . Intermediate between these ex-
tremes is the moderate party the MODERADOS in power
from 1851 to 1853 .... and from December, 1855, to January,
1858 . . . (among) the opposing factions ... we may still
look for a continuance of this strife. . . , 12

This lead story occupied all of the first column adjacent to the
left side of the front page, and one-fourth of the second col-
umn. Each page had four columns.

Directly under the end of the first story, in the second
column from the left, the second story was captioned "Con-
dition of Mexico." Columns three and four were devoted to
news of Arizona under the headlines "Leech's Wagon Road"
and "News from Arizona," with the exception of one-fourth
of column four devoted to General Miramon, the new presi-
dent of Mexico.

Tacked onto the end of the Miramon article was the fol-
lowing paragraph: "It is rumored at Washington that a
proposition for the sale of Sonora and Chihuahua has been
received from President Miramon. The price named is said to
be sixteen millions. We do not credit the rumor."

In addition to foreign, mining, governmental, and trade
news, the Tubac paper soon began carrying crime stories.
The editor, Edward E. Cross, personally called on military

12. From page one, The Weekly Arizonian, March 3, 1869. Several news items
about Mexico were reprinted from The Times of London. News of Arizona mining from
the New York Times was contrasted with first-hand reports from the same mining
sources contacted by the Arizonian editor, Edward Ephram Cross.



THE WEEKLY ARIZONIAN, 1859 137

officials at both Tubac and Tucson to get clearance on trans-
fers of military personnel in and out of Arizona. Finally, in
the paper's fourth month of publication, military news
yielded a crime story, which loomed large not because of the
infraction of the law as much as from the severe terms of
the sentence. A soldier convicted of stealing a horse and at-
tempting to leave his post received fifty lashes with a cowhide
whip on his bare back, was confined at hard labor while
heavily ironed, forfeited all pay due him, had his head shaved
and branded with a red hot iron with the letter "D," and was
given a dishonorable discharge from the army. 13

In July, 1859, the Arizonian began to carry editorials ad-
verse to the creation of a Territory of Arizona. Editor Cross
argued that the Arizona portion of the Territory of New
Mexico contained only a few thousand inhabitants, that the
agitation in Tucson for territorial status was prompted by
Lieutenant Sylvester Howry's ambition to become a terri-
torial delegate to the United States Congress. 14

Lieutenant Mowry had graduated from West Point in
1852, had resigned from the army in 1858 while stationed at
Fort Yuma, moved to Tucson and began advocating terri-
torial status for Arizona and his own candidacy as territorial
delegate to the United States Congress. 15

Mowry may have read with pleasure the editorial in the
second issue of The Weekly Arizonian entitled "What Our
Government Can do for Arizona." Editor Cross seemed to be
pleading for territorial status, or at least the preliminary
step, an Arizona judicial district distinct from that of New
Mexico :

. . . The first great boon we have asked is a territorial
organization; one which gives us a means of making and
enforcing laws to protect life and property, and which will
encourage the enterprising to come and settle within our limits.
If this boon must be denied for a time, till other questions are
settled, the next best thing for us, is the establishment of a
separate Judicial District with a United States Judge and
officers. This can be done without prejudice to the great ques-



13. The Weekly Arizonian, June 30, 1859.

14. "Arizona Correspondence" column in Sam Francisco Herald, July 15, 1859
The Weekly Arizonian, July 7, 1859, and July 14, 1859.

15. Jo Ann Schmitt, Fighting Editors (San Antonio, 1958), 2-3.



138 NEW MEXICO HISTORICAL REVIEW

tion of a Territorial organization, and will give a semblance of
a disposition on the part of the government to extend to this
distant region the first dawn of favor. 16

Two months before launching the Arizonian, Cross sent a
dispatch to the St. Louis Republican:

The President in his late message to Congress, says, re-
ferring to Arizona : "The population of that Territory, number-
ing as is alleged, more than ten thousand souls," etc. Now,
whoever alleges this, alleges what is not true. Raking and
scraping together every human being within the proposed
limits of Arizona Americans, Mexicans, and Indians, white,
black, yellow, and red you cannot make a total of eight thous-
and inhabitants. The Indian population cannot be estimated
with much certainty, but every tribe is greatly over-estimated,
as is usual in such cases. The Mexican population at this end
of the Territory is very small, not over one hundred and forty
men, women, and children at Tubac, and perhaps twice that
number at San Zavier (sic) and Tucson.

. . . There has been an enormous amount of falsehood
uttered and published concerning this country and its
resources. . . , 17

That St. Louis Republican dispatch was published Janu-
ary 30, 1859, and reprinted in Washington, D. C., on February
26 in the Washington States. Now both Cross and Mowry
wanted to see Arizona's resources developed. But Cross was
a stockholder of the St. Louis and Arizona Mining Company,
whereas Howry's holdings were in rival mining operations.
The two men lived less than fifty miles apart, but instead of
disputing Arizona population figures in person, debated long-
range in the columns of the Washington States.

Mowry consummated the formal challenge on population
figures by writing a letter to the Washington States admitting
that he was the source for the estimated 10,000 population in
Arizona. He then asserted that Cross

. . . has stated what is absolutely untrue. Mr. Otero, the
delegate from New Mexico, has certified in writing, that of his
own knowledge, there were more than eight thousand people
in the Rio Grande valley alone two years ago, and that the



16. The Weekly Arizonian, March 10, 1859.

17. Washington States, February 26, 1859.



THE WEEKLY ARIZONIAN, 1859 139

present population of the territory is at least ten or eleven
thousands. If it is necessary I can call witnesses, now in
Washington certainly ten whose respectability and position
cannot be questioned, who will testify, at the bar of the Senate
or House, to this same fact. . . , 18

By the time Cross read Howry's reply, the editor perhaps
was too engrossed in the newly-founded Arizonian, too busy
engaging in journalism first-hand in Tubac, to pause to en-
gage in a journalistic duel long-range in Washington.
Howry's letter appeared in print two days before the first
edition of the Arizonian appeared, but reached Cross's atten-
tion sometime after that. Finally, late in April, Cross chose
to continue the debate in the Washington newspaper :

I came to Arizona in November 1858, and my business was
partially to correspond with several leading journals in the
United States, to give, as far as possible, a true statement of
the condition, resources, and prospects of Arizona. I had been
a careful reader of Mr. Howry's voluminous (and, as I now
find, fabulous) productions regarding this country, and sup-
posed them correct. I found, however, that many of his asser-
tions were not true, and that all were exaggerated . . . that
in representing Arizona to be a good agricultural country, he
was absolutely injuring the Territory, and deluding people
into a long and dangerous journey to a country whose agri-
cultural resources, in all, are not equal to one first-class corn-
growing county in Ohio.

I therefore, in writing to the East, endeavored to correct
some of the false ideas prevalent concerning Arizona, but
never, except once, mentioned Mr. Mowry's name. . . , 19

Howry felt obliged to challenge Cross to a duel, and the
editor accepted. On July 7, The Weekly Arizonian editorial-
ized that the population of Arizona did not yet justify terri-
torial status. 20 The next day, the duel over population figures
shifted from journalistic to physical combat. The duel was
described in the Arizonian:

The parties met near Tubac, weapons, Burnside rifles, dis-
tance, forty paces. Four shots were exchanged without effect;



18. Washington States, March 1, 1859.

19. Washington States, May 24, 1859. Cross wrote the letter on April 24.

20. The Weekly Arizonian, July 7, 1859 ; San Francisco Herald, July 15, 1859 ; San
Francisco Bulletin, July 22, 1859.



140 NEW MEXICO HISTORICAL REVIEW

at the last fire Mr. Howry's rifle did not discharge. It was
decided that he was entitled to his shot and Mr. Cross stood
without arms to receive it. Mr. Mowry, refusing to fire at an
unarmed man discharged his rifle in the air and declared him-
self satisfied. 21

In another part of the paper of that same issue, the editor
commented that a high wind was blowing across the line of
fire, thus preventing accurate aim. The two men shook hands,
drew up a statement, which was carried in the following issue
of the Tubac paper :

Mr. Edw. E. Cross withdraws the offensive language used
by him, and disclaims any intention to reflect upon Mr. Mowry's
veracity, or upon his character as a gentleman, in any publica-
tion he has made in reference to Arizona. Mr. Mowry with-
draws any statement that he has made in his letters to the
press, which in any degree reflects upon Mr. Cross' character
as a man and a gentleman.

Any diif erence of opinion which may exist between them in
reference to Arizona is an honest one, to be decided by weight
of authority.

Tubac, Arizona, (signed) SYLVESTER MOWRY

July 8, 1859 EDWARD E. CROSS 22

The July 14 issue carried the statement of truce between
Mowry and Cross, signed July 8, the day after the Arizonian's
weekly publication date. Cross edited only one more issue,
that of July 21. Arizona's first newspaper editor had served
less than five months, from March 3 to July 21, editing the
first twenty-two numbers of volume one. 23 The Santa Rita
Silver Mining Company then sold the paper to the S. J. Jones
and Company. 24 Speaking for the Santa Rita officials, William
Wrightson had chosen Cross as editor. But the new owner-
ship favored the political views of one of its stockholders,
Mowry, and favored Tucson as publishing site. 25

21. The Weekly Arizonian, July 14, 1859. To contrast Cross's version of the duel see
Descendants of Nathaniel Mowry of Rhode Island (Providence, 1878), 292-296; Mowry,
op. cit., 52, 61.

22. The Weekly Arizonian, July 14, 1859 ; Schmitt, op. cit., 19.

23. Lutrell, University of Arizona Bulletin (July 1949), 65.

24. Ibid., 65-66 ; Lutrell, Arizona Historical Review (January 1935), 18.

25. Sylvester Mowry, Mines of the West (New York, 1864), 1-14.



THE WEEKLY ARIZONIAN, 1859 141

Issue 23 of the Arizonian appeared August 4, 1859, carry-
ing a Tucson dateline, with J. Howard Wells listed as editor.
A Justice of the Peace during 1859-1860, Wells edited the
paper until its suspension on June 14, I860. 26

On February 9, 1861, the Arizonian reappeared, with
Charles L. Strong, a printer from New York, listed on the
masthead as publisher, and T. M. Turner, a lawyer from
Ohio, listed as editor. This issue of the paper contained a
notice signed by Mowry advising the subscribers and general
reading public that Strong had leased the printing press and
other facilities of the plant, was now publisher though Mowry
retained title to the physical properties of the newspaper.
Six months later, Editor Turner was killed.

A military express arrived in Santa Fe on the night of
July 14 bringing the information that T. M. Turner, late of
Arizona, was found brutally murdered near Las Vegas, New
Mexico. It is thought the man who committed the crime was
one Watrous, who was his traveling companion. Turner had
been a resident of Arizona for some three years. He resided
some time in Tubac, but more recently in Tucson where he
edited the Arizonian newspaper. He was the Arizona corre-
spondent of the St. Louis Republican. He was an occasional
correspondent of several other prominent newspapers. He for-
merly edited a paper at Terre Haute, Indiana, and a magazine
at Cincinnati, Ohio. . . , 27

From February to September, 1861, the Arizonian was
quoted in various California newspapers. None of the Ari-
zona, California, Washington, D. C., nor Worcester, Mass.,
archives yield any copies of the pioneer paper from the au-
tumn of 1861 to the summer of 1867. The September 2, 1861,
issue apparently was the last edition until 1867. 28

The Arizonian was reorganized as a newspaper on June
15, 1867, 29 changed in name to the Southern Arizonian in Au-

26. The Weekly Arizonian, August 4, 1859, and June 14, 1860 ; Lutrell, Arizona
Historical Review, 18 ; Lutrell, University of Arizona Bulletin, 64, 66.

27. Sacramento (California) Union, September 9, 1861.

28. Lutrell, University of Arizona Bulletin, 64 ; Arizona Miner, July 13, 1867 ; D. C.
Poston in Arizona Weekly Star of Tucson, March 11, 1880 ; Daily Alta Californian,
September 2, 1861.

29. "Autobiography," The Weekly Arizonian, April 24, 1869.



142 NEW MEXICO HISTORICAL REVIEW

gust, 30 then by 1868 again called by its original name. 31 The
pioneer paper continued to publish during 1869 and 1870, and
ceased publication on April 29, 1871. 32

Thus, the publication life of the first newspaper in Ari-
zona chronologically was: from March 3, 1859, to July 21,
1859, in Tubac, then in Tucson from August 4, 1859, to June
14, 1860, and from February 9, 1861, to September 2, 1861,
and finally from June 15, 1867, to April 29, 1871. The Weekkj
Arizonian antedated Arizona's territorial status, became in-
volved in the debate over it, remained suspended during most
of the Civil War, then chronicled a postwar growth of the
mining industry. 33

When Confederate Colonel John R. Baylor seized Mesilla
in August, 1861, he issued a proclamation that all of New
Mexico south of the thirty-fourth parallel was to be Arizona
Territory. 34 The consequences of this act were set forth in
the Arizonian of August 10, 1861 :

The only reason under Heaven that can be assigned for
the injustice and bad treatment we have undergone is that the
people of Arizona are southern in feeling and have dared to
own it. The eleven starred banner that floats over Tucson
shows that her citizens acknowledge no allegiance to abolition
rule. 35



30. Southern Arizonian, November 17, 1867, is in the archives of the Arizona
Pioneers Historical Society in Tucson. Issues not preserved in either Tucson or Phoenix
are traced through California newspapers. The Southern Arizonian for August 18 was
quoted in Daily Alta Califomian of September 18, 1867 ; issue of September 5 quoted in
Daily Alta Californian of October 21, 1867 ; issue of Southern Arizonian of September
29 quoted in San Francisco Times of October 16, 1867.

31. Quotations from California newspapers for 1868 show that the Tucson news-
paper had by then resumed its original title of Weekly Arizonian. See quotes from the
issue of November 28, 1868, in the Los Angeles Weekly News for January 2, 1869.

32. The last issue can be found at the Arizona Pioneers Historical Society in Tucson,
and at the Bancroft Library of the University of California at Berkeley. The printing
press of the Arizonian was moved from Tucson to Tombstone by A. E. Fay and Carlos
Tully, and later became the property of William Hattich, who presented it to the Arizona
Pioneers Historical Association, which group has preserved it. See Arizona Citizen,
October 15, 1870, and October 22, 1870 ; Arizona Miner, October 3, 1868 ; Luttrell, Uni-
versity of Arizona Bulletin (July 1949), 66-67 ; G. W. Barter, Tucson Directory (Tucson,
1881), 1; Rowell's American Newspaper Directory for the years 1870, 1871, 1872.

83. Richard J. Hinton, The Hand-Book to Arizona (San Francisco, 1878), 186,
197-198.

84. Donald Robinson Van Petten, The Constitution and Government of Arizona
(Phoenix. 1956), 10.

35. Quoted in the Daily Alta Californian, September 2, 1861.



THE WEEKLY ARIZONIAN, 1859 143

By the time the Union troops 36 entered Tucson on May 22,
1862, to replace the Stars and Bars with the Stars and Stripes,
the pioneer newspaper had been dormant almost nine months.
By the time the Arizonian was revived in June, 1867, the new
Territory was more than four years old. Though Arizona's
first newspaper chronicled various events of historical inter-
est during its publication life, it missed the chance to record
the ousting of Confederate troops by Union forces, and the
establishment of the first territorial government. The Citizen
was founded in Tucson on October 15, 1870, 37 by Richard C.
McCormick, 38 thereby assuring the continuance of newspaper
publishing in Tucson when the Arizonian ceased publication
permanently 39 in 1871. A perusal of its pages indicates that
whatever occasional shortcomings in accuracy and precision
of expression it may have had, The Weekly Arizonian left a
legacy of outspoken courage to Arizona newspapers which
were to follow.



36. The "California Column" that chased the Confederate forces from Tucson
consisted of the First and Fifth Infantry regiments, five troops of the First California
Cavalry, and two artillery batteries. See Arizona Daily Star, May 23, 1891 ; Hinton,
037. tit., 187; Rodney Glisan, A Journal of Army Life (San Francisco, 1874), 114;
Lurton J. Ingersoll, A History of the War Department of the United States (Wash-
ington, 1879), 113, 193.

37. Hinton, op. cit., appendix II, 12.

38. Lutrell, University of Arizona Bulletin (July 1949), 56. According to Lutrell,
during the territorial period, sixty towns in Arizona published more than two hundred
newspapers, of which twenty-nine were still being published in 1949. The Citizen still
appears, now as a daily.

39. Frank Griffin in 1957 printed an issue of The Weekly Arizonian on a press in
Tucson, then mailed the "revived" paper from the Tubac post office. He issued his
revived paper irregularly, four issues during a one-year period. See Hanson Ray Sisk,
"Views," Nogales Herald, December 7, 1957. The Arizonian, published weekly at Scotts-
dale, Arizona, just east of Phoenix, claims a link with the first Arizona newspaper by
virtue of its name. This Scottsdale weekly was founded in 1953. See Arizona Newspapers
Association, Directory of Newspapers and Other Publications (Phoenix, 1957), 54.



Notes and Documents

Federal Judge William Denman left a major part of his estate to
finance university education for members of the Indian tribes of the
Southwest, it was disclosed yesterday.

The 86-year-old jurist, retired Chief Judge of the Ninth U. S.
Circuit Court of Appeals, committed suicide in his Pacific Heights
apartment on March 9.

His will, filed for probate in Superior Court, made specific educa-
tional provisions for two members of the Hopi Tribe, Hattie and Mi-
chael Kagotie of Oraibi, Arizona, and one member of the Zuni Tribe,
William D. Ondelacy of Zuni, N. M.

Each of them will receive $1200 a year while attending university
classes.

Eventually, one third of the residue of the Judge's estate will go
to the University of New Mexico to pay the expenses of students from
the Hopi, Zuni and Navajo tribes.

Two thirds of the residue will ultimately go to the University of
California to provide scholarships for students of philosophy, com-
parative religion and international relations, without any restriction
as to race.

The San Francisco Chronicle
March 17, 1959



ROGERS LIBRARY

New Mexico Highlands University
Las Vegas, New Mexico

Tentative Rules and Regulations Governing the Use of Materials
in the Western History Collection

All users are urged to write well in advance of their visit so that a
definite appointment can be made.

Materials from the Collection are never available in the evening.

A shortage of staff makes it rarely possible to serve laymen who have

only a casual interest in what is being searched for.

Materials used must be acknowledged in any publication.

The Arrott Collection, generally speaking, will not be available for gen-
eral reference use for two or more years.

No item in the Western History Collection may be taken from the
library.

Address all inquiries concerning the Collection to :

1/23/59 Librarian & Archivist

144



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