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Benjamin L. Walkei
John C. Plemmons


Nicholas Herrera
C. M. Herron
William O'Reilly
Jose G. Romero


Nicholas Galles


Enoch B. George
Wm. E. Van Volken


George W. Rogers


Fred W. Drake
9 James D. Delany
Henry C. Thompson


Charles E. Foster


James M. Holloway
Charles W. Holman
Frank Cox


John S. Williamson
Jose M. Torres


George S. Hood
Wesley G. Beggs
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Book Reviews



An Apache Campaign in the Sierra Madre. An Account of
the Expedition in Pursuit of the Hostile Chiricahua
Apaches in the Spring of 1883. By John G. Bourke, Cap-
tain, Third Cavalry, U. S. Army. Introduction by J. Frank
Dobie. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1958. Pp. 128.
$2.75.

Captain John G. Bourke spent nearly half of his allotted
fifty years fighting, befriending, studying, and writing about
the Apache Indians. As a result he became a foremost author-
ity on the Western Apaches and left important records of his
contact with them. He not merely told of his campaigns
against these people; he contributed immeasurably to our
knowledge of their folklore and customs. The Medicine Man
of the Apache is described by J. Frank Dobie in his introduc-
tion to the present volume as "the meatiest thing that has ap-
peared on medicine men of any American tribe." It is worth
noting that Bourke was president of the American Folklore
Society when he died and was as much at home with anthro-
pologists as he was with his Apaches.

His finest quality, however, was his regard for human
beings of all complexions. The Apaches were not specimens
to him ; they were people whom he respected and sometimes
admired. This warmth of heart, assisted by his sense of
humor and his feeling for landscape, makes his description
of Crook's expedition of 1883 a real classic.

Driven by hunger and the white man's double dealing,
the Chiricahuas had left the San Carlos Reservation 710
of them, men, women and children. The Mexicans attacked
them in Chihuahua and they took refuge in the wilds of the
Sierra Madre far below the International Boundary. General
George Crook with three skeleton companies of cavalry and
200 Apache scouts, went in after them in April, 1883.

Bourke knew those Apache scouts and describes them
from intimate knowledge. Whenever he could, he joined
them in their activities. He even took part in a sweat-lodge

153



154 NEW MEXICO HISTORICAL REVIEW

ceremony, and when he was required to sing, he gave them a
loud rendition of "Our Captain's Name Is Murphy."

After a fearfully hard trip into the high sierra, the ex-
pedition finally caught up with the surprised Chiricahuas,
who had believed their mountain fastness impregnable. They
lost a couple of sharp skirmishes and began to come in, a few
at a time, led by their chiefs Loco, Chihuahua, Geronimo,
Chato, Juh, and Nane. On June 15 Crook crossed the Arizona
line with nearly 400 of them in tow.

Bourke's day-by-day account of the trials and hardships
of that epic journey is still fresh and fascinating. No other
Indian fighter has left us an account of such sympathetic
intimacy, such tolerance and geniality. The original pub-
lishers have done well to reissue it as a reminder of a great
soldier, scholar and gentleman.

Texas Western College C. L. SONNICHSEN

New Mexico's Royal Road: Trade and Travel on the Chi-
huahua Trail. By Max L. Moorhead. Norman : University
of Oklahoma Press, 1958. Pp. xiv, 234. $4.00.

Primarily this study is concerned with the development
of trade and traffic between Mexico and New Mexico in a
period of two and one-half centuries, 1598-1848, a trade that
was extended to the Missouri country in the 19th century. It
began with the founding of New Mexico by Juan de Onate in
1598, when he established a colony, San Juan de los Ca-
balleros, at the pueblo of San Juan, New Mexico's first capi-
tal. Santa Fe, the new capital, founded a dozen years after-
ward, gradually developed into a famous frontier center, and
here traders, once they reached the Southwest, were sure to
gather.

From Onate's time, the lifeline to Mother Mexico had to
be maintained and the colony supplied with the needs of
civilized society all sorts of manufactured articles and the
more refined products of consumer goods as well. All ap-
pointments, too, came from Mexico the governor, his staff,
soldiers, colonists from a thousand or more miles away;



BOOK REVIEWS 155

likewise, missionaries and everything they needed had to be
brought from the older establishments far to the south.

The trade and traffic by which New Mexico was supplied
flowed over the trail originally pioneered by Juan de Onate
and his soldier-colonists in 1598, the story of which consti-
tutes the first chapter of this volume. The author gives not
only a general historical background, but identifies the chief
stopping points along the trail, important since this was to
be the route followed with almost no deviation for the next
two hundred years.

Throughout this time, except for what came over this
route New Mexico had almost no contact with the outside
world. Occasional visits by foreigners at Santa Fe were so
infrequent as to be insignificant. Shortly after 1800, how-
ever, the westward sweep of settlement in the United States
crossed the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers. At the same
time, the outbreak of Mexico's struggle for independence
ushered in a new era, marked by a weakening of old frontier
restrictions. Traders from Missouri soon made their way to
Santa Fe, bringing in goods more cheaply than they could
be had in Mexico; this commerce was shortly extended to
Chihuahua, Durango, and elsewhere. The author tells the
story of the beginning of this international trade, estimates
its extent and volume, methods of freighting and payment
of bills, problems of international exchange, the support
given to American merchants by their own government,
Mexico's reaction to this commerce, the ever-increasing vol-
ume and its capitalization.

The author's major contribution in this work rests on
this broad concept of the extent and significance of this trade.
Writers in the past have dealt largely with its origin and be-
ginnings, the activity of William Becknell and other pioneers
of the 1820's. But the traffic from the United States, begun
on a small scale, expanded rapidly, nor did it stop in Santa
Fe, which was a small community, able to absorb only a part
of the vast amount of goods it carried. The major portion
was sent on to Chihuahua and points farther south, where
it competed profitably with local trade.



156 NEW MEXICO HISTORICAL REVIEW

The author continues the study to the Mexican War,
when Mexico lost her northern outposts and they became a
part of the United States. It is the story of the origin and
development of trade and traffic on the oldest international
route touching the United States. The book, well written and
carefully documented, is a fine contribution to the literature
of the Southwest.

Bancroft Library

University of California GEORGE P. HAMMOND

George Curry: 1861-1947: An Autobiography. Edited by H.
B. Hening. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico
Press, 1959. Pp. xv, 336. $6.50.

George Curry, one time governor of the Territory, fifty
years and more prominent in New Mexico's history, died in
Albuquerque on Nov. 24, 1947. He left behind him little of
this world's goods, a monument to his honesty and integrity,
because Curry held many positions in public life in an era in
which officials were not too squeamish about means and
methods of becoming wealthy. Governor Curry did leave to
posterity, however, a manuscript telling in outline the story
of his life, which was bequeathed to Horace Brand Hening,
a long time personal friend, with the request that it be com-
pleted and published.

Governor Curry made a happy choice in selecting Mr.
Hening as his literary executor. No one else, in this re-
viewer's opinion, could have achieved such a happy and
scholarly result. Containing 336 pages, nine photographs,
five drawings by Sam Smith, noted artist, and an adequate
index, the book is a most valuable bit of New Mexicana. The
book tells the colorful and interesting story of a man, born
in Louisiana, the son of an officer in the Confederate Army,
deprived of any formal education whatsoever, caught up in
the backwash of the Civil War, a resident of Dodge City,
Kansas, in the days of Bat Masterson and Wild Bill Hickok ;
the story of an apprenticeship in sutler's stores in the buffalo
country in Texas ; of leadership and participation in the stir-
ring early day events in Colfax and Lincoln counties, New



BOOK REVIEWS 157

Mexico ; the story of service in the Spanish- American War,
of friendship with Col. Theodore Roosevelt ; of soldiering in
the Philippine Islands after 1898; of service as Chief of
Police of Manila and Governor of Samar Province under Gov-
ernor-General William Howard Taft; the story of Curry's
appointment as Governor of New Mexico; of his political
battles in the closing months of the Territory ; of his election
to Congress after statehood ; the recital of a host of exciting
events in political life in New Mexico before statehood.

"George Curry, an Autobiography," is a remarkable
book. All those interested in life in New Mexico about the
turn of the century are greatly in Mr. Hening's debt. The
book is an outstanding contribution to New Mexico history.
"George Curry" deserves a place on the top shelf in any
southwestern library. >

Albuquerque W. A. KELEHER

The Letters of Antonio Martinez Last Spanish Governor of
Texas 1817-1822. Translated and edited by Virginia H.
Taylor, assisted by Mrs. Juanita Hammons. Austin:
Texas State Library, 1957. Pp. vi, 354, index.

Antonio Martinez, the last governor of Spanish Texas
and first of the Mexican province, held a position of unusual
interest and importance, yet he remains one of the least
known public men of his times. As governor he dealt with
Stephen and Moses Austin, and aided the American coloniza-
tion of Texas ; but source material for studying his person-
ality and administration has remained rather inaccessible.
That obstacle is now happily removed by the publication in
translation of 807 letters he sent between May, 1817, and
July, 1820, to Joaquin de Arredondo, Commandant General
of the Eastern Provinces of the Viceroyalty of New Spain.

Martinez served the Spanish government from his ap-
pointment in 1817 until he took the oath of independence in
1820, and it is that service that is reported in these letters.
His responsibilities included the protection of the eastern
frontier of Texas and the Gulf Coast against threats of for-
eign aggression, destruction of smuggling and intrigue in the



158 NEW MEXICO HISTORICAL REVIEW

same areas, protection against Indian attacks, suppression
of internal disorder and revolution, and development of a
productive economy, especially in agriculture, to avert star-
vation. The occurrence of those problems and the actions
Martinez took to meet them are vividly recounted in one
letter after another. The governor was constantly handi-
capped by his lack of money, food, clothing, paper, medicine,
seed, horses, soldiers, arms, ammunition, iron, and other
essentials. Having little to work with, and failing to get ade-
quate cooperation and support from the Viceroy and the
commandant general, Martinez seemed constantly standing
at the edge of disaster.

Many of the letters are routine requests and reports, dole-
ful and often pathetic in tone. But their style, combining a
high degree of formality, and appropriate deference to au-
thority (carefully retained in the translations) sets off
sharply the details of a harsh, rude existence in a poverty-
stricken province. Monotonous routine is frequently broken
by incidents of dramatic adventure, raids, escapes, pursuits,
a disastrous flood (No. 532) and other events that provide
an account of Spanish days in Texas unsurpassed by later
writers.

The translator, Virginia H. Taylor, State Archivist of
Texas, offers an exceptionally worth while volume prepared
with great care. The helpful Preface and Introduction and
an excellent index contribute to the value of the work. Pre-
sumably demands of economy account for the absence of all
documentation.

Perhaps few but professional students of history will
make use of The Letters of Antonio Martinez. The enjoyment
of historical sources is no doubt an acquired taste. But any
one who will take the trouble to read these letters will find in
them a narrative full of adventurous detail and local color
that will amply repay the effort; even the writers of "west-
erns" and television serials might improve their episodes by
reading this collection.

Ohio University HARRY R. STEVENS



BOOK REVIEWS 159

The Humor of the American Cowboy. By Stan Hoig. Cald-
well, Idaho: The Caxton Printers, Ltd., 1958. Pp. 193.
$5.00.

Anyone who is even vaguely familiar with the literature
of the American cowboy is aware that it is laced and enliv-
ened with numerous spirited stories, ludicrous incidents, and
practical jokes the cowboy was notorious as a prankster
and as a droll- and tall-story teller. Under the most dire cir-
cumstances he was able to laugh and cuss laugh and cuss
at himself, his horse, and any other "critter" who crossed
his path. In the past this ability charmed and convulsed his
companions and contemporaries. The volumes of Ramon
Adams, Edward E. Dale, J. Frank Dobie, Frank King, Emer-
son Hough, Philip A. Rollins, and R. M. Wright (to mention
a few) prove this contention as they stand ; it is further veri-
fied only in part, however, by the contents of The Humor of
the American Cowboy. In fact this recent addition to "cow-
boyana" is a much-revised compilation of material from the
above authors and others. Unfortunately, en masse, the al-
tered humor fails to amuse and grows wearisome and naive
as one diluted story, incident, and prank follows another, and
particularly when removed from the original text the
smooth running prose of the authors.

In addition, the humor of the cowboy proves not so hu-
morous when an individual as virile, manly, crude, and vulgar
as he was does not produce a single earthy yarn or lusty
story. For compiler Hoig, who admittedly has "read scores
of books by cowboys," (italics by reviewer) the opportunity
to collect robust material was not lacking in his search ; how-
ever, under his editorial pen much of its vigor is destroyed.
The "classics" Hough's The Story of the Cowboy, and Rol-
lins', The Cowboy suffer artistically, but, when Dale's Cow
Country, King's Wranglin' the Past, and Price's Trails I
Rode get the treatment, it is pitiful. All the Anglo-Saxonisms
become "doggone," "dern," "gosh," "heck," etc. This is no
plea for the vulgar and obscene, and admittedly humor need
not be offensive, yet in a specific study such as this, when



FRANK D. REEVE

PERCY M. BALDWIN
FRANCE V. SCHOLES



Editors
Associates

BRUCE T. ELLIS



PAUL A. F. WALTER

GEORGE P. HAMMOND
ELEANOR B. ADAMS



VOL. XXXIV



JULY, 1959



No. 3



CONTENTS



Pioneer Woman

Dan McAllister



Page
161



New Mexico Viewed by Americans 1846-1849
John P. Bloom



165



Notes and Documents 199



Book Reviews



227



THE NEW MEXICO HISTORICAL REVIEW is published jointly by the Historical Society
of New Mexico and the University of New Mexico. Subscription to the quarterly is
$3.00 a year in advance ; single numbers, except those which have become scarce, are
$1.00 each.

Business communications should be addressed to Mr. P. A. F. Walter, State
Museum, Santa Fe, N. M. ; manuscripts and editorial correspondence should be
addressed to Prof. Frank D. Reeve, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, N. M.



Entered as second-class matter at Santa Fe, New Mexico
UNIVERSITY PRESS, ALBUQUERQUE, N. M.



NEW MEXICO HISTORICAL
REVIEW

VOL. XXXIV JULY, 1959 No. 3

PIONEER WOMAN
By DAN MCALLISTER

A LTHOUGH she didn't realize it and didn't so style herself,
2\ my Grandma Findley was the ruggedest individualist I
have ever known. Individualism heightened the stature of any
man or woman on New Mexico Territory's fabulous six-
shooter frontier, around the turn of the century ; and in that
sense Grandma was plenty tall, I tell you.

In those early days, very few doctors had as yet chosen
that frontier to practice medicine in. It was still the West,
wild, primitive. People for miles around called upon Grandma
for help in time of sickness. Anybody living within twenty-
thirty miles of you was your neighbor. Twenty-thirty miles
by horseback or in a buckboard, that was.

Grandma always responded promptly, whatever the
weather. She would apply her doctoring know-how acquired
from years of frontier life, plus considerable knowledge she
had gleaned from her OLD RELIABLE FAMILY PHYSICIAN or

WHAT TO DO UNTIL THE DOCTOR COMES.

On her plains errands of mercy my indefatigable and most
versatile Grandma drove two fast mules hitched to a buck-
board. In cold weather she would heat a large flat rock in
the fireplace and lay it wrapped in gunny sacking in the buck-
board to keep her feet warm. When she went up into the
Sacramento Mountains to nurse somebody, she rode horse-
back, astride, which was something for a woman to do then,
even in New Mexico.

Grandma assisted many a baby through the gates of the
morning of life. She set broken bones, and upon a few occa-
sions dug lead out of men that had been shot. When a small-

161



162 NEW MEXICO HISTORICAL REVIEW

pox epidemic raged in and around the sleepy village of La
Luz and some houses had to be quarantined and used as "pest-
houses," Grandma vaccinated dozens of people. She used a
vaccine 1 that she personally extracted from calves she had
inoculated with virus of the disease. Grandma's vaccinations
nearly always "took" beautifully.

On that frontier you didn't just run down to the corner
drugstore for a bottle of hoarhound cough drops or a mustard
plaster. Even after 1900 our nearest drugstore was Frank
Holland's in the new town of Alamogordo, six miles away by
horseback. So Grandma kept a medicine chest that supplied
many remedies for her patients. Some remedies that she used
effectively were those old frontier standbys, quinine, turpen-
tine, coal oil, and whiskey. (Except for medicinal purposes,
Grandma abominated whiskey.)

Grandma used also some old Indian remedies an Apache
squaw had taught her how to prepare. Probably those reme-
dies had been in use in that country for hundreds of years.
Certainly long before the white man came.

One such Indian remedy was an efficacious febrifuge
brewed from pine needles and yerba buena or good herb that
grows here and there on the plains. And green cactus meat
beaten to a pulp made poultices that drew inflammation from
and even abated infection in knife cuts, barbed wire rips,
severe bruises from horsekicks, and even gunshot wounds.
Perhaps it was the original chlorophyl. iQuien sabe?

Modern medical practice might be horrified by some of
the treatments "Doctor" Findley used to give her patients



1. I know that in 1898 or 1899, during the smallpox epidemic in La Luz, people
whom Grandma vaccinated did not come down with smallpox, while many who refused
vaccination did. And I know that a couple of doctors finally arrived and took charge of
things, after they commended Grandma, for her good work.

And I know that in El Paso where I later went to school eight or nine years, every
school child was required to be either vaccinated or issued a written excuse from such
by a doctor, every year. Examining doctors would simply look at the great scar on my
arm where Grandma had vaccinated me, and then give me an O. K.

Sometimes a doctor would ask, "Who vaccinated you? A scar like that "

When I had told him how Grandma had scraped then slashed criss-cross with a
sharp knife an area on my left arm at least an inch and a quarter in diameter, and had
rubbed her lymph-like vaccine into the bleeding wound, the doctor or doctors would
usually mutter "Good Gawd I" or something equally expressive.

Old Doc Stevenson, pioneer doctor in El Paso, once told me: "Son, you never need
to be vaccinated against smallpox again."



PIONEER WOMAN 163

down Otero County way better than half a century ago, but
Grandma did the best she could with what she had to do with.
It was that or do nothing. And I know that among the many
sick and injured persons she treated and comforted through
the years, she undoubtedly saved a goodly number of lives.
She didn't ask and never accepted pay for her services. The
happiness Grandma gained from helping sick and suffering
people was plenty pay for her.

Grandma was a frontier preacher, too. She felt she had
the "call." She substituted sometimes for circuit-riding
preachers when really rough weather delayed them in their
rounds. She sat up with the dead and she conducted funerals.

When she prayed, Grandma talked personally with her
God with Whom she was on pretty good terms. Always she
asked His blessing upon everybody from President McKinley
on down to those present, individually and collectively.

Her preaching was vigorous, to put it mildly, because
Grandma was steeped in old-time religion. She really got
down to fundamentals : Heaven beckoned to the good, Hell
yawned wide to claim all unrepentant sinners. God was merci-
ful and all-forgiving. And to Grandma, the Devil was a very
real and active character indeed.

In her sermons, if "Reverend" Findley didn't

"Chase the Devil around the stump,
And give him a kick at every jump,"

then no frontier preacher ever did.

A duty my versatile Grandma voluntarily laid upon her-
self was to send lengthy weather reports in longhand to
Washington. A government clerk named Cortelyou used to
acknowledge her reports and commend her for covering the
area, weatherwise. Grandma greatly prized his letters.
George B. Cortelyou afterward held two Cabinet posts under
President Theodore Roosevelt.

And Grandma was a newspaper correspondent, in a way.
When the E P & N E bisected the fabulous frontier and a new


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