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He traveled ninety leagues; deducting sixty-five trav-
eled by Corporal Pena there remain 25

The 3rd

I broke camp and prepared to march to the Capitol. I
arrived at the plains of Isleta at noon.

10. The Hot Springs, usually called Warm Springs since the water is merely tepid,
was the site of an Indian agency and proposed reservation until 1878, when it was aban-
doned. A town at the site called Cherryville was a postoffice from 1881-1886. At present,
there are no traces of habitation except a few of the adobe walls of the fort.

11. Salsipuedes Canyon ( Get-out-if-you-can ) was a former name for Alamosa Can-
yon. Narrow between high cliffs, it extends from Warm Springs to the present town of
Monticello which was formerly called Alamosa.


The 4th

I left this place and made camp at Alameda.

The 5th

From Alameda, I made camp at Las Vocas.

The 6th

From Las Vocas, I set out at daybreak and entered the
Villa at ten o'clock.

This is a copy of the original which remains in the archive
of this government, Santa Fe, November 15, 1788. Fernando
de la Concha.

This is a copy of the original which I certify. Valle de San
Bartolome, January 12, 1789.

Notes and Documents


On the afternoon of March 6, 1959, James W. Arrott died
in Tucson, Arizona, in the sixty-third year of his life. He is
survived by his wife Katherine, a daughter Carrol and a son
James Jr. He also is survived by five grandchildren and two
sisters, Mrs. Robert W. McKnight and Mrs. Ledlie W. Young
of Sewickley, Pa. The funeral service was held at his ranch
on the Sapello river near Las Vegas, New Mexico, on the
afternoon of March 10th.

The Rev. George A. Stracke, Rector of St. Paul's Episco-
pal Church, Las Vegas, of which Mr. Arrott was a member,
officiated at the service. The Rev. F. B. Eteson, a former
Rector of St. Paul's Church, assisted in the service.

The following close friends of Mr. Arrott served as active
pallbearers : Col. William Salman, B. A. Graver, Dr. Thomas
C. Donnelly, Louis Schiele, Stephen B. Davis, Tom Trumbull,
E. J. Connor, Jennings McMillan, William S. Wallace, and
Charles Crews.

The following friends and business associates of Mr.
Arrott were named honorary pallbearers : Richard Robbins,
Jose E. Armijo, Dr. H. M. Mortimer, Robert Youree, C. D.
Leon, Ivan Hilton, Ledlie W. Young, Robert W. McKnight,
Samuel Adams, Christopher Emmett, J. E. Modrall, C. Neal
Brown, James E. Brown, Gib Sandifer, Harry Mosimann,
Roy Riner, Thos. A. Johnsen, Leo C. DeBaca and Pino Baca.

Born in Allegheny, Pennsylvania, on September 9, 1895,
he was a resident of Sewickley, a suburb of Pittsburg, for
many years. He was a Director of the Pennsylvania Central
Airlines, Standard Sanitary Manufacturing Company, the
First National Bank of Las Vegas, Ft. Union, Inc., and for
many years a member of the New Mexico Historical Society.

In 1956 Mr. Arrott was awarded the honorary Degree of
Doctor of Letters at the Spring Commencement of Highlands



Dean Quincy Guy Burris presented Mr. Arrott to Presi-
dent Thomas C. Donnelly with the following citation :

"Mr. Arrott received his early education in the schools,
public and private, of Pennsylvania; at the Hotchkiss School
in Connecticut; and at Rennselaer Polytechnic Institute in
New York. He cut short his college studies with the outbreak
of World War One to enlist as an American soldier with
British Army, and served for two years in France.

"Upon his return to the United States, he entered into
business and finance and for thirty years followed this career
with success and distinction.

"He first visited New Mexico in 1904 with his father, who
was interested in New Mexico enterprises. Twenty-four years
later he came here to make his home.

"Through these years in New Mexico his interest in the
history and development of the Southwest has been unflagging.
Since 1948 Mr. Arrott has given much of his attention to the
study of the history of the American West. His interest in this
area grew and branched in many directions over great dis-
tances, and in strange places. The search for primary ma-
terials on the West had taken him or his agents not only to the
West, but also to the eastern seaboard and the national capital.
The aggregation of documents he has, with the vision and care
of a dedicated researcher, put together and ordered as the
Arrott Collection of Western Americana. This collection, not of
a static body of information but a growing one, is in the
process of being transferred, as a gift, to Rodgers Library of
New Mexico Highlands University, where it will be per-
manently housed for the use of scholars.

"One focus of Mr. Arrott's interest in the West is his
methodical and persistent search for information about old
Fort Union. His collection on this venerable sentinel of the
Santa Fe Trail is a part, of course, of the entire collection
which bears his name.

"His interest in making the Fort a national monument,
and the fund of knowledge he has gathered together about it
have been instrumental in its current restoration.

"In turning from business to history, Mr. Arrott has not
only manifested the versatility of his interests, but he has
added considerably to the body of historical source information
on the West and, in so doing, has given distinction both to
himself and to this University.

"I am, therefore, pleased to welcome Mr. Arrott, as a good
citizen and as a contributor to learning, to the company of

James W. Arrott


scholars, and to present him, on recommendation of the
faculty, for the Degree of Doctor of Letters."

The history and historians of the Southwest have been
made richer for having had such a man in the service of Clio.



Transcribed below are the governing rules of the community ditch
system of Guadalupe and nearby farm lands of the middle Rio Puerco
valley. These rules, from a ledger used by the ditch commission from
1916 to 1936, were re-stated each year in almost identical form. While
not entirely self-explanatory, the regulations pertain to the labor that
each member of the ditch system was required to give in maintaining
the irrigation works. Other community ditch systems throughout the
Puerco valley were probably governed by similar rules. The following
was translated and edited from the Spanish by Jerold Gwayn Widdison.

Rules of the Commission Commonly Known as that
of the Acequia de la Abra de los Cerros.

It is hereby understood that each one of the workers of the afore-
mentioned irrigation ditch is under obligation to bring with him the
necessary tools as specified by the major-domo. It is understood that if
a worker fails to appear, he has to pay $1.00 if he was supposed to
appear alone and $2.00 a day if he was supposed to come with a wagon
and team of horses and fails to do so. It is understood that anyone not
arriving at the time specified by the ditch major-domo or anyone not
able to do the job may be dismissed by said major-domo and be subject
to a fine as specified above.

It is further understood that if the dam or ditch should suffer any
damage all workers are under obligation to offer their services and to
give all necessary help toward restoring the said ditch or dam. This is
written up and approved by the commission of the above named ditch,
and for the record we hereby sign our names.

Teodoro Garcia, President
Manuel Jaramillo, Treasurer
Modesto Gallegos, Secretary

We were elected December 5, 1921.


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Book Reviews

Twenty-Four Years a Cowboy & Ranchman. By Will Hale.
With an introduction by A. M. Gibson. Norman : Univer-
sity of Oklahoma Press, 1959. Pp. xii, 183. Illustrations.

I suspect that the editor of the NEW MEXICO HISTORICAL
REVIEW asked me, a f olklorist, to review Will Hale's book be-
cause he did not know whether the book is history, folklore,
or literature and because he wanted me to wrestle with the
problem. I have no answer for the problem either.

In his introduction, the editor of the text, first published
in 1905, pursues the baffling problem of authorship and spec-
ulates about the fact that only three copies of the original
publication are known to exist. The book purports to be the
autobiography of Will Hale, who indicates that he was born
just before the war with Mexico. However, the holder of the
copyright is Will Hale Stone, who was born in 1875. About
the only readily identifiable historical fact in the book seems
to be an account of the posse trailing Billy the Kid at Coyote
Springs in the late seventies. Sheriff Pat Garrett mentions
that a William Stone was a member of that posse.

Fantastic as the experiences of "Will Hale" are, they could
possibly be true. Some of the events indicate why the real
author whoever he was did not publish the book himself
and why he may have changed most of the names. For ex-
ample, just after the Civil War, "Will Hale" was a member
of a gang (four to six members called the Smith Gang) that
killed a prodigious number of men 100 to 150 Mexicans and
Indians and one Pinkerton detective on both sides of the
Rio Grande in the course of hijacking mule trains of Mexican
treasure, robbing gambling dens in Matamoros, and estab-
lishing themselves as cattle ranchers by hijacking herds of
Texas cattle being trailed into Mexico by Mexicans who were
presumed to have stolen them. Perhaps the most amazing
aspect of the outlaw episode was that it was really unneces-
sary. The principals were already off to a good start in cattle



ranching. However, when the gang broke up after two years
of operations, they were all wealthy, for a time at least.

The teller of the story was the son of a cattleman in Texas,
near the Rio Grande, not far from Fort Brown (later
Brownsville). He attended grade school in New York and
high school in St. Louis, boarding with residents of those
places during the school years. He fought on the side of the
North in the Civil War (three chapters of the book are de-
voted to the Civil War not to his part in it, but to a general,
and not very good history of the Civil War) . After the war
he became a rancher in a small way ; then he became an out-
law whose callousness and violence would win the admiration
of today's most amoral juvenile delinquent. But after that,
he became almost completely law-abiding for the remainder
of the account. He aided in tracking down Billy the Kid,
worked for a Fort Sumner rancher, married a New York girl,
and again became a rancher, this time in Northern Texas.
He was about forty years old at the end of the book.

The style is flat, sometimes terse. The language is a mix-
ture of the ungrammatical and the elegant. There is little
sustained development of the activities chronicled, except
for the outlaw years which are fairly satisfactory. All in all,
it is an interesting and puzzling book. One has the feeling
that the puzzles could be solved and the material authenti-
cated as personal history. The attempt would probably re-
quire years of research, and the results probably would not
justify the effort. It is just not that important a book; but it
is interesting and puzzling.

The University of New Mexico ERNEST W. BAUGHMAN

A History of the Circus in America. By George L. Chindahl.
Caldwell, Idaho : The Caxton Printers, Ltd., 1959. Pp. xvi,
279. Appendix, bibliography, plates.

Before his death in 1957, the late George Leonard Chin-
dahl during the eighty rewarding years of his life was able to
combine a love for the circus with a successful career as a


patent attorney. His birthplace, Rockford, Illinois, is only
about a hundred miles from the Ringling family home at
Baraboo, Wisconsin ; in the years of his youth it was a region
in which middle-sized cities surrounded by prosperous rural
communities were able to attract the circuses often enough
that the circus lithographs, either gaudy-new or faded, were
almost always to be seen on barns or store buildings. As a
practitioner of patent-law in Chicago, Chindahl often per-
mitted his eye to fall upon patent descriptions of circus in-
ventions, such as power driven spool loaders, seat-wagons,
and the "human cannon" device. His love for the circus
brought him into the Circus Fans Association of America, of
which he became Historian. The Association's periodical,
White Tops, printed some of these chapters as articles.

Most of this history of the circus in America (there are
references to the circus in Mexico and Canada as well as the
United States) is a careful account of itineraries, programs,
performers, and owners, from the eighteenth century me-
nageries and troupes of wandering clowns and actors to the
indoor and motorized circuses of the present day. This is a
painstaking effort to trace the rise and fall of the specific
circus ventures that at times becomes a repetitious although
encyclopedic catalogue of the meandering course of one circus
after another from coast to coast. By way of summary, an
appendix running to over thirty pages provides a "partial
list" of circuses and menageries from c.1771 through 1956.
It is a meticulous compilation of circus names and gives the
inclusive dates of their runs. Chapter VII, the most interest-
ing in the volume, takes up various aspects of circus life. In
brief sections such topics are considered as the types of enter-
tainment, the circus performer, horsemanship, clowning,
trained wild animal acts, circus music, seating, side-shows,
advertising, labor relations, financial returns to the propri-
etors (few of them became wealthy from the circus business
and many of them lost fortunes in it) , attitudes of the public
toward the circus, the influence of the circus upon physical
education, and the future of the circus. On the last-mentioned
subject, Chindahl had few doubts. "In some form," he wrote


at the end of his book, "and probably in numerous forms, the
circus will live." Chindahl offered several explanations for
the decline of the railroad circuses which exhibited under
canvas. These included high transportation costs, labor dis-
putes, the consolidation of the big shows (the movement to-
ward combination in the circuses paralleled that of big
business generally) , influence of the great economic depres-
sion, natural disasters such as the Ringling fire in Hartford,
restrictions during World War II, erratic if not unimagina-
tive management, and the competition of other forms of in-
door entertainment.

Like the traveller to the Indies he who would bring away
knowledge from this volume must carry into it his own wealth
of memories. The author only occasionally loses himself in it
enough to really bring the story to life. But any reader who
can remember rising in the chill pre-dawn of circus days to
watch the big show "unload" from the railroad flat cars, and
the nomadic life which grew before his eyes like an abnormal
swelling at the edge of some green-lawned town, can read
again with a touch of nostalgia and even excitement the well-
remembered names of Al G. Barnes, Sells-Floto, Clyde Beatty
and above all, Ringling Brothers and Barnum & Bailey. To
give a jog to memory, there are included forty-four excellent
plates: photo-engravings of circus posters, big tops, band
wagons, and many more facets of the circus. In the footnotes
and selected bibliography, there are indications that in addi-
tion to memoirs, travel books and other printed materials,
the author used contemporary newspapers, route books and
other primary sources.

University of New Mexico GEORGE WINSTON SMITH

Santa Fe: The Autobiography of a Southwestern Town. By
Oliver La Farge. Norman : University of Oklahoma Press,
1959. Pp. xviii, 436. Index. $5.95.

The Santa Fe New Mexican was first published in 1849,
but the files only date from 1863. Mr. La Farge with the
assistance of Arthur N. Morgan has culled excerpts from the


paper down to the year 1953 that portray not only the chang-
ing way of life in the capital city, but deviate to items of
statewide interest. The compilation, therefore, is not strictly
the autobiography of a city, but has wider interest. This does
not detract from its usefulness, nor mar the work of the
author, although it might be said that Santa Fe does not really
emerge from the book as apparently was planned the wider
scene clouds the local picture.

The author finds certain breaking points which mark a
change in the overall nature of the news. The first period
from the Civil War to 1870 is weighted toward Indian activi-
ties. The next period to 1890 is the heyday of the outlaw ; then
follows the modernization of the city with changes in archi-
ture and material comforts. The fourth period beginning
with statehood in 1912 presents competition between cultural
and political interests for the attention of the reader. The
balance of the book from 1940 on is Santa Fe of the tourist
age upset by the discovery of atomic power. Progress has
entered with a vengeance, but the book closes before the park-
ing meter arrives.

Editorial comments introduce the several sections and are
interspersed throughout the book. They reveal Mr. La
Farge's intimate knowledge of the inside story of New Mex-
ican politics, his sympathy for the Indians and an overall
grasp of the historical background. However, this is not a
book to be written about, but one to be read. It should prove
interesting to a variety of reading tastes and can serve the
useful purpose of a source book for the historical investigator.

Three of the editorial comments should receive correction.
Kit Carson was not the first of the military to enter the Can-
yon de Chelly. Army men had learned its secrets several times
before his visit in pursuit of the Navahos (p. 18) . Chimayo
was not settled by transplanted weavers from Mexico. New
Mexicans had taken up the land long before their arrival
which was in 1807, which might be acceptable as being the
"end" of the eighteenth century (p. 125). And the reference
to the "university" opening in 1890 (p. 130) at Santa Fe
meant a privately incorporated school under the name of the


University of New Mexico which functioned in the capital
city during the decade of the 1880's ; it closed about 1891 and
the school building was sold in 1893. The university chartered
by the legislature in 1889 was located at Albuquerque and
opened in 1892.

The author's comment on page 22 about the route of the
Santa Fe trail is not clear. The newspaper report is correct
except that an alternate route did lie over the mountains.

F. D. R.


Alamogordo (town), 163

Alamosa, Canada de los, 36

Albuquerque (1880's), 106 ; Italian residents,

Alegria, 192

Alisky, Marvin, "Arizona's First Newspa-
per, The Weekly Arizonian, 1859," 134-143

Allegros Peak, 288

Alvarez, Bernardo de, Cistercian poet, 84

Americans in New Mexico 1846, 165-198

"An American Surveyor in Mexico, 1827-
1860," by Macmillan and Plomley, 1-8

An Apache Campaign in the Sierra Madre
.... by Bourke, revd., 153

Andrews, W. H., 243ff

Antonio el Pinto, Navaho leader (1780's),
290 note

Apaches, 285 ; medicine, 162

Arizona population (1850's), 138

Arrott, James W., biography, 305

Arroyo Salado, 37

Atole, preparation, 181

Baca, Antonio, Alcalde (1750's). 30; land
grant (1759), 30

Baca, Baltazar, land grant (1768), 38

Baker, Sheriff Riley, 164

Baughman, Ernest W., rev., Hale, Twenty-
four Years a Cowboy & Ranchman, 310

Barbeau, Marius, Pathfinders in the North
Pacific, rev'd., 70

Barcelo, Dona Gertrudes de (Las Tules), 49

Barreiro, Antonio, 83

Bent, Mrs. Charles, 50

Berthrong, Donald J., rev., Sonnichsen, The
Mescalero Apaches, 227

Beveridge Committee on statehood, 241

Birkbeck, Samuel Bradford, Papers, 1

Blankenship, Mary A., reminiscences, 232

Bloom, John P., "New Mexico viewed by
Anglo-Americans," 165-198

Bohme, Frederick G., "The Italians in New
Mexico," 98-116 ; rev., Loomis, The Texan-
Santa Fe Expedition, 75

Bourke, John G., An Apache Campaign in
the Sierra Madre . . ., rev'd., 153

Brilliant (town), 111

Bursum, Holm O., 243ff.

Bustamente y Tagle, Don Bernardo Antonio
de, 16

Cabezon village, 260
Canada Alamosa (Salsipuede

Captive, Spanish, 10

Canyon), 303

Carrion, Fray Agustin de, 84

Carson, Mrs. Kit, 51

Casa Salazar village, 260

Catron, Thomas B., 245ff

Cebolla Spring, 288

Cebolleta, Navaho Mission, 25

Chauvet, Fr. Fidel, 91

Chaves, Diego Antonio (1760's), 33

Chaves, Ignacio, land grant (1768), 32

Chaves, Pedro (1760's), 33

Chavez, Fray Angelico, "Nuestra Senora de

la Macana," 81-97
Cherryville, 303 note
Chindahl, George L., A History of the Circus

in America, rev'd., 311
Church development, 1870's, 98ff ; 163 ; state,

Cieneguilla, San Ildefonso de la, placer mine

(Sonora), 286
Cimarron Hermit, 104
Citizen, 143

Coal industry, La Ventana, 283
Comer, Lucretia Garfield, Strands From the

Weaving, rev'd., 229
Community ditch system, 275, 307
Concha, Colonel Don Fernando de la, Diary,

edited by Feather, 285-301
Connor, Seymour V., ed., The West Is For

Us . . ., rev'd., 232

Contreras, Fray Buenaventura de, procura-
tor of missions 1680, 96 note 23
Crespo, Bishop Benito, quoted (1730), 10
Cross, Edward E., editor, 136
Cuba, settlement, 260
Customs and manners, New Mexico (1846),

d'Agostino, Giovanni Maria, hermit, 104

Dawson (town), 111

Delgado, Fray Carlos, missionary to Navaho,


Delgado, Lieut. Don Manuel, 291
Denman, Judge William, 144 death
Dios Pena, Corporal Juan de, 299
Dobyns, Henry F. and Paul H. Ezell, "So-

noran Missionaries in 1790," 52-54
Duel, Arizona (1859), 139
Duran village, 260
Duran y Chavez, Santiago, land grant

(1768), 35

Earle, Frank, healthseeker, 164
Education, 1870's, 98ff
Educator, 1870's, 98ff
Elephant Butte Dam, silt, 252




El Presidio (Tres Lagunas), 288
Encinal, Navaho Mission, 24
Erosion, 252

Fandangos (1846), 188

Farming (1846), 176

Fauna, 164

Farm Security Administration grants, 281

Feather, Adlai, "Colonel Don Fernando de la

Concha Diary, 1788," 285-301
Fernandez, Bartolome (1750's), 33
Flora, Puerco Valley, 248ff
Florentine Codex . . ., by Fray Bernardino

de Sahagun, rev'd., 71
Fogueras, Fray Juan (1740), 16
Folklore, definition, 88
Foods, New Mexico (1846), 167
Frost, Max, 243ff
Funeral (1846), 184

Gallup, developments, 112

Gambling (1846), 190

Garcia, Francisco, Navaho interpreter, 293

Garcia, Fray Juan, Missionary to Navaho,

Gardiner (town), 111

Geiger, Louis G., University of the North
Plains . . ., rev'd., 235

Geography, Rio Puerco Valley, 254f

George Curry: 1861-1947 . . ., ed. by Hen-
ing, rev'd., 156

Gibson, A. M., Twenty-Four Years a Cow-
boy & Ranchman, by Hale, rev'd., 310

Gordon, William, in Taos (1825), 199

Grandma Findley, 161

Grimarest, Henrique de, Sonora, 52

Gringo, definition, 165 note

Guadalupe village, 260

Guerrero, Ensign Don Antonio, 291

Gueyo, Canon del, 30

Gutierres, Don Clemen te (1770's), 36

Hagerman, Governor H. J., 245ff

Hale, Will, Twenty-Four Years a Cowboy &

Ranchman, rev'd., 310
Hamilton Joint Statehood Bill, 242
Hammond, George P., rev., Moorehead, New

Mexico's Royal Road . . ., 156
Heller, Richard, 266
Henry, H. B., ed., George Curry: 1861-1947

. . ., rev'd., 156
"Historical Geography of the Middle Rio

Puerco . . .," by Widdison, 248-81
History of the Circus in America, by Chin-

dahl, rev'd., 311
Hoig, Stan, The Humor of the American

Cowboy, rev'd., 159

Homes, description (1846), 178
Hospitality, New Mexican (1846), 180
Huntington, Collis P., and RRs., 117-133

Indian scholarships, 144
Irrigation, Rio Puerco Valley, 261f
Italians in New Mexico, 116

Jaramillo, Luis, land grant (1769), 36
Jaramillo, Salvador, land grant ( 1769 ) , 36

Keleher, W. A., rev., George Curry: 1861-
1947 . . ., 156

Kerby, Robert Lee, The Confederate Inva-

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