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Ditto Ditto




350.0.0


Cucurpe Fr. Roque Monares


Ditto


Ditto


309.6.6


Tubutama Fr. Francisco Yturralde


Ditto


Ditto


350.0.0


El Ati Fr. Francisco Moyano


Ditto


Ditto


350.0.0


Cavorca Fr. Antonio Ramos


Ditto


Ditto


350.0.0


S. Ygnacio Fr. Pedro Arriquibar


Ditto


Ditto


350.0.0


El Bac Fr. Juan Baptista Llorens


Ditto


Ditto


350.0.0


Cocospera *Fr. Juan Santistevan


Ditto


Ditto


350.0.0


Tumacacori Fr. Baltasar Carrillo


Ditto


Ditto


350.0.0


Saric Fr. Florencio Ybanez


Cienegilla


Ditto


350.0.0


Taraichi *Fr. Domingo Funcosa


Hostimuri Ditto




309.6.6


Seris Fr. Juan Felipe Martines


de Sonora


Ditto


309.6.6


To the Curate of this Capital, Don Miguel


Eli as Gonzales




200.0.0


TOTAL






8,867.60


Arispe, January 3, 1791








Henrique de Grimarest (rubric)



* Priests not listed by Bancroft : 10 in Sonora and 5 in Hostimuri.



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Book Reviews



Pathfinders in the North Pacific. By Marius Barbeau. Cald-
well, Idaho : The Caxton Printers, Ltd. and The Ryerson
Press, 1958. Pp. viii, 235. Bibliography and index. $5.00.

The "Pathfinders" alluded to in the title of this book are,
for the most part, the early-day fur traders the Russians,
English, Spanish, and Americans. The first 100 pages discuss,
principally, the beginnings and the character of the sea otter
trade. The pages are interesting but undistinguished from
many other published accounts, at least so far as sources are
concerned. This record of pathfinding activities in Pacific
Northwest waters is, and necessarily so, pieced together from
the published accounts on the voyages of Bering, Coxe, Cook,
Marchand, La Perouse, Meares, and others. These chapters
add little that is new except that excerpts quoted from the
original narratives are more numerous and longer than those
found in most comparable accounts.

The new and fresh portion of this book begins with Chap-
ter V, "Sea Otter Chase/' and an examination of the notes
at the end of the book explains the reason for this sudden
shift from something old to something new and delightfully
fresh. In place of bibliographical notes appears this sentence :
"Traditional recollections of the North Pacific Coast Indians,
collected at first hand by the author." Mr. Barbeau points out
that stories and recollections of the fur trade still persist
among Indian elders, and these have been gleaned for the
purpose of describing incidents in the sea otter trade never
before revealed. Chapter VI, "All Hands Scrimshawing," is,
as the author points out, a reduced version of an article pub-
lished in The American Neptune, also by Mr. Barbeau. Even
though the transition from the sea otter chase to scrimshaw-
ing is abrupt, this account of whalers' sentimental carvings
a unique form of folk art is enlightening.

In the final chapters of his book Mr. Barbeau returns to
the fur trade, especially the land trade in what is today Brit-

70



BOOK REVIEWS 71

ish Columbia and Alaska. While not based exclusively upon
anthropological sources, there is throughout the last half of
the book a refreshing mixture of Indian lore and narrative
history based on the more prosaic records of such Hudson's
Bay men as Dr. John McLoughlin and Sir George Simpson.

Indiana University OSCAR OSBURN WINTHER



Florentine Codex: General History of the Things of New
Spain. By Fray Bernardino de Sahagiin. Translated from
the Aztec into English, with notes by Arthur J. 0. Ander-
son and Charles E. Dibble. Santa Fe : The School of Ameri-
can Research and the University of Utah, 1957. Books 4
and 5, in one volume.

In recent months there has been a notable sharpening of
our picture of the Aztecs, along with indications that the near
future will bring further significant improvements. 1 Unfor-
tunately, the image we have of the Mesoamerican civilized
tradition as a whole is not very much clarified by new work
on the Aztecs, for they were sharply atypical in important
ways. But this same powerful individuality makes them
worthy of study for their own sake, no matter how little they
may be representative of the larger tradition which came to
an end with them.

No other source equals the great History of Fray Ber-
nardino de Sahagun as a firsthand account of a functioning
Mesoamerican society. In quantity and in quality, its data
far surpass those of the other chronicles. It is our great mis-
fortune that all the Mesoamerican peoples did not have
chroniclers like Sahagun : our pictures of them will have to be

1. Caso, Alfonso. "Los barrios antiguos de Tenochtitlan y Tlatelolco." Memorias de
la Academia Mexicana de la Historia, Tomo XV, No. 1. Mexico, 1956.

. El pueblo del sol. Mexico : Fondo de Cultura Economica, 1953.

Garibay K., Angel Maria. Historia de la literatura nahuaiL 2 vols. Mexico: Editorial

Porrua, 1953-1954.
Leon-Portilla, Miguel. La filosofia n&huatl estudiada en &us fuentes. Mexico : Institute

Indigenista Interamericano, 1956.
Paddock, John. "Notes on Vaillant's Aztecs of Mexico." Antologia MCC 1956. Mexico:

Mexico City College, 1956.

Soustelle, Jacques. La vie quotidienne des aztdques. Paris : Librairie Hachette, 1955.
. La vida cotidiana de los aztecas. Traduccion de Carlos Villegas. Mexico : Fondo

de Cultura Economica, 1956.



72 NEW MEXICO HISTORICAL REVIEW

assembled laboriously from the prehispanic documents, from
the relatively scanty Spanish chronicles, from the as yet al-
most untouched archives, and from archaeology.

There is a certain pleasing element of gentle competition
between two important series of publications now becoming
available in installments. Anderson and Dibble point out, with
complete justification, that the Florentine Codex is the final
and complete version of Sahagun's work; the members of
the Mexican Seminario de Cultura Nahuatl, who have begun
publication of Sahagun's earlier versions, claim with equal
reason that their material is closer to the source. Fortunately
we do not have to choose between the two series, for there is
considerable material which appears in only one version or
the other.

Sahagun gathered groups of elder Indian informants and
guided his Indian secretaries in writing down what the elders
had to say about many aspects of pre-Conquest life, especially
in Aztec Tenochtitlan-Tlatelolco and in the nearby and closely
related area of Tetzcoco. The scribes, who were younger In-
dians trained in church schools to write in Spanish and Latin
as well as in Nahuatl, wrote this material down as it was
given, in Nahuatl. Sahagun reworked it over a period of
many years. In his final text, finished when he was a very old
man, he added a parallel Spanish version which is usually
slightly more concise than the Nahuatl, but which occasion-
ally includes additional materials. This Spanish version has
been published several times, the most important edition
being the latest one; 2 but the original notes in Nahuatl and
the reworkings of them in the same language have been pub-
lished only in fragments, translated into various European
languages.

The School of American Research has now issued eight
of the twelve Books into which Sahagun divided the final
text of his History. These handsome volumes have the
Nahuatl version in parallel columns with a scrupulous Eng-
lish translation of it. And in Mexico, the Seminario de Cul-
tura Nahuatl has published two of a promised long series

2. Sahagun, Fray Bernardino de. Historic general de las cosas de la, Nueva Espafia.
Garibay K., Angel Maria, editor. Mexico : Editorial Porrua, 1956. 4 vols.



BOOK REVIEWS 73

of works of quite similar kind. 3 In these, the earlier versions
of Sahagun's materials are appearing with the original
Nahuatl and an authoritative Spanish translation of it on
opposing pages. The first in the new Mexican series, by Mi-
guel Leon-Portilla, includes a comment on

". . . the most recent enterprise of publishing the
Nahuatl text of the Florentine Codex, with a translation into
English by Arthur J. O. Anderson and Charles E. Dibble, who
work under the sponsorship of the School of American Re-
search, of Santa Fe, New Mexico, and the University of Utah.
Dedicated ardently to this task since nearly ten years ago,
they have published now the Nahuatl text of Books 1, 2, 3, 4,
5, 7, 8, and 12. The correct reading of the Nahuatl text, to-
gether with the care taken to offer the reader the most faith-
ful English version which is possible, makes of this still in-
complete edition a valuable instrument. . . ." *

The most recent issue in the Florentine Codex series places
Books 4 and 5 together in a single volume. Book 4 is titled
The Soothsayers, and Book Five deals with The Omens. In
Book 4, Sahagun records the destiny which the soothsayers
predicted for those born on each of the 260 days of the ritual
calendar.

There are revealing sketches of what the character of a
successful Aztec man was, and of an admirable woman ; the
unlucky days produce for us terrible portraits of those who
were never socialized, and lived only to serve as horrible
examples. The day of the god who ruled over the merchants
brings us a speech that the older members of the family make
to a young man about to face the imposing rigors of his first
trading expedition. There is a striking note of masochism and
somatotonia in their advice to "Give thyself completely to the
torment ; enter into it ; deliver thyself to it with all thy force.
. . . " (Probably travel was less difficult for people on friend-
lier missions than those of the Aztec merchants.)

The day of the god Two Rabbit, who reigned over alco-

3. Leon-Portilla, Miguel. Ritos, sacerdotes y atavios de los diosea. Mexico: Uni-
versidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Institute de Historia: Seminario de Cultura
Nahuatl, 1958.
Garibay K., Angel Maria. Veinte himnos sacros nahuas. Ibid,, 1958.

* Reviewer's translation.



74 NEW MEXICO HISTORICAL REVIEW

holic drink, was of course one which brought a drunkard's
destiny to those born on it. All sorts of drunkards are de-
scribed for us, and their behavior is notably modern.

Between the lines, we can read of the gulf between Aztec
ideal culture and the real thing. To be sacrificed was to become
a god ; it was a great honor granted through a very holy rite.
But we find that those born on certain unlucky days would be
captured, or sold into slavery, and then sacrificed. One of a
number of ghastly ends would be theirs. (A rich man might
send out to the market and buy a slave to be sacrificed just
as he would buy a quail for the same purpose.) Execution was
a prescribed punishment for several crimes, and it is clear
that the distinction between sacrifice and execution was get-
ting very blurred for the Aztecs, in spite of all their prating
about the honor of dying on the altar.

As always and everywhere, there was hope for those born
on the many unlucky days. First of all, their baptism was
customarily delayed until the next good day (according to
the seer's advice). Moreover, the faithful carrying out of
many penances and a good life often prevented the fulfillment
of the baleful forecasts. The soothsayers themselves, of
course, were the beneficiaries of the system, since they had to
be consulted at every turn for the determination of calendrical
causes of ill fortune and the prescription of remedial meas-
ures the measures recommended, strangely enough, usually
involved still another service for which the seer would have
to be paid.

So emphatic are the predictions of the character of those
born on most days that one wonders if the predictions them-
selves may not have been a significant factor in forming that
character in many cases. There are quotations such as one
referring to "the fearful ones . . . who were not of rugged
day signs . . ." in which this unpleasant possibility is quite
apparent.

Like the previous issues, Books 4 and 5 are a rich source of
the most unexpected nuggets for all sorts of students of man
and society.

Mexico City College JOHN PADDOCK



BOOK REVIEWS 75

The Texas-Santa Fe Pioneers. By Noel M. Loomis. Norman :
University of Oklahoma Press, [c. 1958]. Pp. xviii, 329.

$5.

This volume, number twenty-five in the American Explo-
ration and Travel Series, is the first attempt by Mr. Loomis,
who specializes in Western fiction, to try his hand at fact.
Dealing- with the Texas-Santa Fe Expedition of 1841, the
author poses two rhetorical questions : Was the expedition a
"wild-goose affair" or an attempt to solve Texan financial
problems, and, was a military conquest of Mexican territory
intended ?

After seven unexplained weeks of preparation, the ex-
pedition of about 320 men got under way, with William G.
Cooke as chief civilian commissioner to the New Mexicans,
and General Hugh McLeod as military commander. Some
eight or twelve merchants, together with their employees
and fourteen wagons of merchandise, constituted the trading
element.

The "Pioneers," as they styled themselves, marched
northward and westward through buffalo country toward
the Llano Estacado. Feasting royally on beef (brought along
on the hoof) , the party threw away the coarser portions of
their meat, ignored the buffalo, and sent an officer back for
more cattle. They would soon wish for something as edible
as a prairie dog. In a march punctuated by stampedes and
prairie fires, false trails and famine, the group, now divided
into two parties, one led by Cooke and John S. Sutton, the
other by McLeod, crossed the Llano. Weak with hunger and
the rigors of their march, Cooke sent Captain William P.
Lewis ahead to negotiate with the Mexican officials for food
and supplies. Arriving at Anton Chico, New Mexico, the
Sutton-Cooke Party was surrounded and forced to surrender.
The Texans did this willingly, on the word of Captain Lewis
that they would be allowed to trade with the Santa Feans if
they would give up their arms. Instead, the Texans were
imprisoned and hustled off in the direction of Mexico City.

Meanwhile, General McLeod, advancing across the Llano
by a slightly different route, received word through several



76 NEW MEXICO HISTORICAL REVIEW

guides that Cooke was sending provisions. McLeod ordered
his men to destroy all baggage and wagons not necessary to



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