University of St. Andrews.

The matriculation roll of the University of St. Andrews, 1747-1897; online

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Online LibraryUniversity of St. AndrewsThe matriculation roll of the University of St. Andrews, 1747-1897; → online text (page 1 of 34)
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THE present publication is one of a series of volumes in
which it is proposed to publish the Matriculation and
Graduation Rolls, as well as other historical records, of
the University of St Andrews, from its foundation to within
three years of the close of the nineteenth century. The
scheme has been in contemplation for more than twenty
years, and nearly all the necessary lists and documents
have been transcribed; but pressure of official work and
other considerations have prevented a start being made with
the editing and printing until recently. For various reasons
it has been found expedient to begin with one of the latest
volumes. It will be followed by one of the earliest ; and
thereafter the remaining volumes will be issued as nearly
as possible in chronological order. But as the Rolls are
in places both confused and defective, and require to be
supplemented from other sources, they must be taken up
in the order which seems likely to ensure the greatest ac-
curacy and completeness. Each volume will be complete
in itself, with introduction, text, and index ; but the unity
of the series as a whole will be maintained. When finished,
it is confidently believed that the series will not only pro-
vide materials for an exhaustive history of the University
of St Andrews, but will form a valuable contribution to
academical history generally, besides yielding helpful in-
formation to workers in all departments of Scottish his-



tory. As the University is now within a few years of
celebrating the five-hundredth anniversary of its founda-
tion, the time appears to be opportune for placing its more
important records before the public; and it is to be hoped
that the scheme, now somewhat tardily inaugurated, will
receive such encouragement as will secure its being carried
out in its entirety with the least possible delay.

In the preparation of this volume I have received much
useful assistance from my two daughters. The elder of
them wrote out, or typed, nearly the whole matter for the
printer, while the younger helped with the checking of the
index, and in other ways. I am also very much indebted
to Mr John Johnstone Smith, sub-librarian to the Univer-
sity, whose painstaking and skilful reading of the proofs
and comparison of them with the original manuscript
have saved the volume from many misreadings and typo-
graphical errors. So far only three slight mistakes have
been discovered that remain uncorrected in the text, and
two of them have already been corrected in the index.
They were all the result of relying too implicitly on official
printed class-lists. Finally, it would be ungrateful not to
acknowledge here the constant interest which Principal
Donaldson has taken in the progress of this volume
through the press, as well as his kindness in reading the
proof-sheets of the Introduction.


2.2nd June 1905.



Constitution ..... xii

Comitia . . . . . .xii

Senatus Academicus ..... xii

Faculties of Arts and Divinity .... xiii

University Court ...... xiii

General Council ..... xiv

Faculties of Medicine and Science . xv

Chancellor ... xv

Vice-Chancellor . . . xvi

Rector ... ... xvii

Matriculation ...... xxii

Curriculum of Study ..... xxiv


Proposals for Union ..... xxvi

Reasons for Union ..... xxvii

Act of Union ...... xxviii

Professorships ...... xxix

Lectureships ...... xxxiv

Assistantships ...... xxxvii

Bursaries ....... xxxviii

Scholarships ...... xxxix

Prizes ....... xl

College Buildings ...... xl

College Hall xlvi

Hall of Residence for Women .... xlvii

Laboratories ...... xlvii

College Church ...... xlviii



Foundation and Re-Foundation . li

Professorships ... Hi

College Buildings . . liii

Prayer Hall ...... Hv

Bursaries ....... lv

Students' Rooms . Ivi

Prizes and Scholarships . Ivi

Class Fees ... . Ivii

Divinity Session . . Ivii

Irregular Students . Ivii

Church Attendance . Iviii

Foundation .... lix

Incorporation with the University . . . Hx

Matriculation of Science Students lx







CHANCELLORS, 1747-1897 . Ixix

VICE-CHANCELLORS, 1859-1897 . . Ixix

RECTORS, 1747-1897 . . . Ixx


UNIVERSITY LECTURERS, 1892-1897 . . . Ixxxiv

GIFFORD LECTURERS, 1888-1897 . Ixxxv

UNIVERSITY ASSISTANTS, 1892-1897 . . Ixxxv

MATRICULATION STATISTICS, 1747-1897 . . . Ixxxvii





From a Photograph by A. Downie, St Andrews.


From a Drawing by John Oliphant, St A ndrews.


Front a Photograph by J. Valentine, Dundee.


From a Drawing by John Oliphant, St A ndrews.


Front a Photograph by J. Fair-weather, St Andrews.

Between pp.
xxvi, xxvii


THE portion of the Matriculation Roll contained in the
present volume covers the last of three well-defined periods
into which the history of the University of St Andrews
may conveniently be divided. The first extends from the
foundation of the University in 1411 l to the completion of
its reformation by the restriction of St Mary's College to
the teaching of Divinity in 1579 ; the second extends from
that fundamental change to the union of the Colleges of St
Salvator and St Leonard in 1747 ; while the third extends
from the amalgamation of those two ancient Colleges to
the final incorporation of an entirely new one in 1897. The
last was perhaps not the most stirring and eventful of these
three periods, but it was a time of much activity, of many
vicissitudes, and latterly of renewed vigour and expansion.
In the limited space allotted to this Introduction only the
merest outline of the story of this century and a half can
be told, and much that would be worth recording must
be passed over altogether. Thus, the personal element of
the story must be wholly omitted. Biographical sketches
of the more distinguished Principals and Professors would
doubtless have been acceptable to many readers, but room
can only be found for a bare list of names and % dates. Nor
can matters relating to graduation in the different Faculties
be touched upon. The various alterations that have taken
place in the manner of conferring degrees and in the courses
of study required for them must be left over until the

1 The foundation charter is dated 28th February 1411-12, but the University
had been in active existence for some months previously.



Graduation Roll for the period comes to be printed. In
like manner questions relating to administration and to
the complicated financial arrangements of the University
and its Colleges cannot be referred to, while those affecting
constitution and government can only be dealt with sum-
marily. Such topics in any case did not much concern
the students who matriculated during these years. They
were more interested in the subjects taught within the
College class-rooms, in the order of the curriculum, in
Bursaries, Scholarships, and Prizes, in their rights and
privileges as cives of a university, in the academical and
social life of the place, and in their own special organisa-
tions for intellectual and physical culture. And it is there-
fore to such points as these that the following observations
are in the main confined.


As an academical body, the University, in 1747, consisted
of the Chancellor, Rector, Principals of Colleges, Professors,
and matriculated Students. In 1897 its composition was
the same, with the addition of registered Graduates and
Alumni. But its organisation had undergone a complete
change notwithstanding this apparently slight accession to
its component parts. In 1747 the bodies entitled to meet
and transact business were the Comitia, the Senatus
Academicus, the two Colleges, the Faculty of Arts, and
such committees as might from time to time be appointed.
The Comitia consisted of the Rector, Principals, Professors,
and Students. A meeting of the Comitia was thus a
general assembly of the resident members of the University
for the time being, and its special function was the election
of the Rector. The Senatus Academicus consisted of the
Principals and Professors of both Colleges, and had the
general management of all academical affairs, besides ad-
ministering the property and funds of the University as
a corporation distinct from the Colleges. The Senatus


also acted as a Rectorial Court in matters of University
discipline ; but it did so not of its own right but because
it had become customary for the Rector, at his election,
to nominate all its other members as his assessors. The
University derived no revenue directly from the Colleges,
but the Senatus had the power of assessing them for what
were deemed general University purposes, such as the
upkeep of the Library and the payment of University
officers. The Colleges were corporations distinct from,
and independent of, the University in all that pertained to
matters of business. Each held its own meetings, managed
its own property, appointed its own officials, and exercised
discipline over its members subject to an appeal to the
Rectorial Court. The Faculty of Arts was composed of
the Principal and Professors of the United College, and
was presided over by a Dean elected annually from within
the Faculty. It administered its own revenues and re-
tained to some extent its ancient power of granting
degrees in Arts independently of the Senatus Academicus.
The Faculty of Divinity had long been merged in St Mary's
College, the Principal thereof being regarded as permanent

These constitutional arrangements underwent very little
change until 1858, when the University Court and the
General Council were instituted. The University Court
at first consisted of six members viz., the Rector, the
senior Principal, and four Assessors one nominated by
the Chancellor and another by the Rector, one elected by
the General Council and another by the Senatus Academicus.
It was empowered to review all decisions of the Senatus
Academicus, and to be a Court of appeal from the Senatus ;
to effect improvements in the internal arrangements of
the University, with the sanction of the Chancellor, and
after due communication with the Senatus and the General
Council ; to require due attention on the part of the Pro-
fessors to the duties imposed upon them ; to fix and regulate
class-fees; to censure or suspend a Principal or Professor,
or, if necessary, deprive him of his office, subject to the


approval of the Queen in Council ; and to inquire into and
control the administration by the Senatus and Colleges
of all their pecuniary concerns, including funds mortified
for bursaries and other purposes. 1 The membership of the
Court was largely increased and its powers were greatly
extended by the Universities (Scotland) Act of 1889. The
Court was then made a body corporate with perpetual
succession and a common seal, and in it was vested all
the property, heritable and movable, formerly belonging
to the University and Colleges. 2 The Court thus became
the supreme governing body in the University, and to it
much of the business formerly transacted by the Senatus
was transferred, while the Colleges were deprived of nearly
all their administrative powers, and became little more than
committees of the Court and of the Senatus.

The General Council instituted by the Act of 1858 re-
ceived no executive powers. It could only take into con-
sideration questions affecting the wellbeing and prosperity
of the University and make representations on them to
the University Court. 3 Although its functions were not
enlarged by the Act of 1889, the Council obtained increased
representation in the University Court and greater freedom
of action in dealing with questions of academical policy as
they arose. 4 The Council was at first a purely academical
body, and was composed of the Chancellor, the members
of the University Court, the Professors, and such Graduates
and Alumni as were entitled by the Act to membership. In
1868 the Council became a political constituency, having
secured the right of electing a member of Parliament con-
jointly with the General Council of the University of
Edinburgh. At the same time its membership was thrown
open to all classes of non-honorary graduates, who on pay-
ment of a registration fee of one pound became entitled
to life membership. 5 In 1881 the payment of this registra-
tion fee was made compulsory, so that the General Council
was thenceforth intended to consist of the entire body of
living graduates, both male and female, whose degrees were

1 Universities (Scotland) Act, 1858, sects. 8, 12. 2 Ibid., 1889, sects. 5, 6.
3 Ibid., 1858, sect. 6. 4 Ibid., 1889, sect. 8. 6 31 & 32 Viet. cap. 48.


gained by examination, in addition to the Chancellor, the
members of the University Court and Senatus Academicus,
and a few Alumni who were admitted under the original
constitution of the Council. 1

A Faculty of Medicine came into existence in i862, 2 and
a Faculty of Science in 1897, in which year the composition
of the three other Faculties underwent revision. 3 The
Senatus Academicus had for a long time assumed entire
control of the conferring of degrees, so that the powers of
the Faculties (including the Faculty of Arts) were confined
to recommending to the Senatus such candidates as they
deemed qualified for graduation.

From the earliest times the official head of the University
had been the Chancellor occasionally designated the Lord
Chancellor. Previous to the Reformation the Bishops and
Archbishops of St Andrews were, in accordance with the
usual practice among Universities confirmed by Papal Bull,
recognised as Chancellors ex officio. This practice was also
kept up when Episcopacy happened to be in the ascendant
in Scotland between the Reformation and the Revolution.
It is not quite clear how the lay Chancellors who alternated
with the later Archbishops were elected, but at least one
of them the Earl of Montrose appears to have been
appointed by the King, at the time of a visitation of the
University on I5th July I-599- 4 For some years after the
Revolution the office remained vacant ; but from 1697 to
1858 Chancellors were regularly elected by the Senatus
Academicus, which in no single instance chose a Church-
man for that exalted office. The Universities (Scotland)
Act of 1858 transferred the election from the Senatus
Academicus to the newly constituted General Council of
the University, of which body the Chancellor was made
president. The Chancellorship of the University has long
been a life appointment. 5

Under the original constitution of the University the

1 44 & 45 Viet. cap. 40. 2 Ordinance No. 19, sect. 25.

3 Ordinance No. 48. 4 Evidence, vol. iii., 1837, p. 199.

5 In one case the Chancellor was held to have vacated the office by leaving the
country. See list of Chancellors, p. Ixix.


primary function of the Chancellor was to confer degrees
upon persons found qualified for them in any of the
Faculties. But over and above this statutory duty many
of the resident Chancellors took part in the actual manage-
ment of the University. They were constantly consulted
in matters of doubt and difficulty, and they even at times
took the initiative in regulating both University and
College affairs. Latterly, although the Chancellor retained
his position as head of the University, and was still con-
sidered its fountain of honour, it was not required that he
should reside within its precincts or even in its vicinity,
or that he should take any active share in its government
or discipline. He continued, however, to be consulted on
all matters bearing upon the welfare of the University, and
was also looked upon as conservator of its privileges, an
office held at one time by the Archdeacon of St Andrews. 1
By the Act of 1858 the Chancellor's authority was further
extended by the provision that all improvements effected in
the internal arrangements of the University must receive
his sanction.

It very seldom happened that the Chancellor found it
convenient to confer degrees in person. This part of
his duty was almost invariably performed by his deputy,
the Vice-Chancellor, when there was one, or by a Promotor
appointed by the University when there was no Vice-
Chancellor. At the union of the Colleges in 1747 the
office of Vice-Chancellor was vacant. The Duke of Cum-
berland, who had been elected Chancellor in the previous
year, was informed that it would be universally acceptable
to the University if His Royal Highness would be pleased
to re-appoint Provost Young, the previous Vice-Chancellor,
to the office. But the Duke was apparently too busy with
his military campaign to attend to so small a matter, and
no appointment was made during his tenure of office. Some
time after the Earl of KinnoulPs election to the Chancellor-
ship he was requested to nominate a Vice-Chancellor, but
he declined to do so, preferring that " things should go on

1 Evidence, p. 258.


in the same manner as formerly." And so they did go on
until 23rd December 1859 when, in conformity with the
Universities (Scotland) Act of 1858, the Duke of Argyll
appointed Principal Tulloch Vice-Chancellor. With the
exception of a few weeks in 1862, when Principal Forbes
was Vice-Chancellor, Principal Tulloch held the office till
his death in 1886. He was succeeded in the same year by
Principal Donaldson, the only other Vice-Chancellor during
the period under consideration. So completely did the
office of Vice-Chancellor disappear from the University
that for more than a hundred years no allusion was made
to it in the preamble of diplomas issued to graduates.
During all that time degrees were conferred by the Rector,
acting in the capacity of Promoter. If the Rector happened
to be absent, or indisposed, when a degree fell to be con-
ferred, the Dean of the Faculty of Arts, or some other
member of the University, was chosen Promoter for the
particular occasion. In 1860 the Vice-Chancellor resumed
his ancient function of conferring degrees, and the term
Promotor very soon passed out of use except as a con-
venient (and quite legitimate 1 ) designation of the Dean,
or other Professor, who presents the graduands of his
Faculty to the Vice-Chancellor for their degrees.

From 1747 to 1859 the resident head of the University
and president of the Senatus Academicus was the Rector
frequently, but seldom officially, called the Lord Rector. __,
From 1859 to T ^9 these offices devolved, ex officio, upon
the senior Principal in the University, and from 1890 on-
wards upon the Principal of the United College who, under
the Universities (Scotland) Act of 1889, became also Princi-
pal of the University. From 1747 to 1859 tne Rector held
office for one year only ; from 1859 onwards he was elected
for a period of three years.

The right to take part in the election of the Rector
appears to have been enjoyed by all the students under the

1 At Bologna "the candidate was then introduced to the Archdeacon and
Doctors by the presenting Doctor or Promotor as he was styled." Rashdall :
* Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages,' vol. i. p. 227.


original constitution of the University. In 1475 this right
was withdrawn altogether and the election confined to
Doctors, Masters, and Graduates. It was restored, however,
in 1625, by an act of a Royal visitation ; 1 but in course of
time the statute of 1475 was reverted to. From 1747 to
1825 the right of election was confined to the Principals and
Professors, the students of St Mary's College, and the third
and fourth year students of the United College. 2 In 1826
the Act of 1625 was rediscovered, and, having never actually
been repealed, was once more put in force, so that from
that date all matriculated students again had a voice in
the election of the Rector. 3

Down to 1859 tne rectorial election was conducted by
Nations. Each of the four Nations elected an Intrant,
and these four Intrants met and elected the Rector. In the
event of an equality of votes among the Intrants, the re-
tiring Rector had a casting vote. A majority of votes in
each of the four Nations does not appear to have been
necessary to secure election. The Nations had never been
very clearly defined in the older statutes, and so differences
of opinion prevailed as to their respective boundaries. The
matter was taken up and dealt with by the Senatus in 1826,
when the following classification by shires and stewartries
was adopted :

FIFANI. Natives of Fife, Kinross, Clackmannan, and

Perthshire south of the Tay.
ANGUSIANI. Natives of Forfar, Perth north of the Tay,

Kincardine, Aberdeen, Banff, Moray, Nairn, Inverness

exclusive of the Isles, Ross, Sutherland, Cromarty,

Caithness, and Orkney.
LOTHIANI. Natives of Linlithgow, Edinburgh, Hadding-

ton, Peebles, Selkirk, Berwick, and Roxburgh.
ALBANI. Natives of Dumfries, Kirkcudbright, Wigtown,

Ayr, Renfrew, Bute, Lanark, Dumbarton, Stirling,

Argyle, the Western Isles, and all who were not

natives of Scotland.
Voting by Nations ceased in 1859, when the Scottish

1 Evidence, p. 203. 2 Ibid., p. 9. 3 Ibid., p. 238.


University Commissioners ordained that the election of
the Rector should in future be determined by a general
poll of the matriculated students. 1 At the same time the
Professors lost the privilege of taking part in the election,
which they had enjoyed from the earliest times.

After the union of the Colleges only four persons were
eligible for the office of Rector viz., the Principal of
the United College, the Principal of St Mary's College, the
Professor of Divinity, and the Professor of Church History.
These were known as the "viri rectorales," of one or the
other of whom the electors were bound to make choice. ,
It had been enacted by a Royal visitation in 1597 " that na
Rector salbe reiterat in tyme cuming, bot efter thrie yeiris
space." 2 If this enactment had remained operative the
"viri rectorales" would simply have held office in rotation
and the election would have been reduced to a mere form.
As it was, the election lost much of its interest by the very
limited choice open to the electors, and by the fact that
the issue was almost in every case a foregone conclusion.
In 1825 a strong feeling prevailed among the students that
the restriction was unnecessary and detrimental to the
interests of the University, while many of them doubted if
it rested on anything more substantial than use and wont.
They accordingly took the bold step of electing an " ex-
trinsic " Rector in the person of Sir Walter Scott, who was ^ :
speedily declared to be ineligible. The matter being now
brought to a point, the whole question of the Rectorship
was carefully investigated by a committee of the Senatus,
with the result that the restriction was proved to be in
exact accordance with the " fundamental statutes and im-j
memorial practice of the University." The students there-
upon petitioned the Senatus to remove the limitation, but
the Senatus silenced them for a time by informing them
that there was " no individual of that body who would
agree to the extension sought, without such a restriction
of the right of voting as would effectually prevent cabals
among the students . . . and would in fact render it a

1 Ordinance No. 4. 2 Evidence, p. 197.


matter of little importance to the students on what re-
spectable person the choice might fall." l

In 1843, when the events just narrated had been for-
gotten, the Intrants, with the concurrence of their con-

Online LibraryUniversity of St. AndrewsThe matriculation roll of the University of St. Andrews, 1747-1897; → online text (page 1 of 34)