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magistrate of Glasgow, and identified himself
with the Blind Asylum, of which he became
a director and honorary treasurer. In 18.37
he published specimens of printing for the
blind in raised Roman type, and from that
date he issued a large number of books, chiefly
educational, for use among the blind. His two
works on music in raised type for the blind are
the earliest of the kind known to us. The first
was " Musical catechism, with tunes, for the
blind." Glasgow [18.38] ; and the second "A
selection of Scottish songs, embossed for the
use of the blind." Glasgow (printed in the
Asylum at the Institution Press), 1844. This
work is stated to be " the first book of songs,
set to music, printed in relief for the instruc-
tion of the blind." In 1843 a bust of Alston
from the chisel of James Fillans was unveiled
in the Glasgow Asylum for the blind, the in-
scription on which records the fact that he
printed the first bible " in raised letiers for
the use of the blind." He died at Glasgow,
August 20, 1846, after a career of usefulness
and distinction.

Ambler, Sarah, see, Brereton, Mrs.W. H.

Ames, John Carlowitz, composer and
pianist, born at Westbury-on-Trym, near Bris-
tol, January 8, 1860. His father, Geo. A. Ames
(born May 10, 1827; died in London, January
3, 1893), was a talented amateur violinist, pu-
pil of Molique, and, under an assumed name,
played in the orchestra of the Birmingham
Festival of 1846, when Mendelsson's ' ' Elijah "


was produced. He was the composer of a
string quartet, and other works. J. C. Ames
first studied under Sir Herbert Oakeley, who
persuaded his father to let him take up music
as a profession. He then went to Stuttgart,
1878, remaining there until 1881, studying
the pf. under Lebert and Pruckner, and com-
position under Goetschius and Faisst. After-
wards he became ajjupil of Franz Wiillner at
Dresden. One of the early advocates of the
Janko Keyboard, he exhibited its powers at a
concert at the Burlington Hall, London, in
December, 1888, and has given recitals at the
Conferences of the Incorporated Society of
IMusicians in London, 1893, and Scarborough,
1894, and since in several towns in the pro-

Works. — Psalm 1.30, for soli, chorus, and
orchestra, Dresden, 1877. Consertstiick, Dres-
den, 1888 ; Concerto in C minor. Op. 8, Crystal
Palace (Oscar Beringer), 1889, both forpf. and
orchestra. Concerto in D minor, violin and
orchestra, London, 1892 ; Quartet in E minor,
strings (Dresden); Trio in E, pf. and strings;
Sonata, pf. and violin ; pianoforte pieces, etc.

Marie Mildred Ames, sister of the preced-
ing, was born June 20, 1867. Studied under
her brother for three years, and then at the
R.A.M., instrumentation with F. Corder ; later
at Berlin. Won the Charles Mortimer Prize
for compo,sition at R.A.M., 1894. Has written
an Andante and Rondo for clarionet and pf. ;
Andante in G, Barcarolle, and other pieces
for violin and pf., etc.

Amner, John, composer and organist, was
born about the end of the 16th century. He
was appointed organist and choirmaster of Ely
Cathedral in 1610, and took the degree of Mus.
Bac. Oxford in 1613. He died at Ely in 1641.

Works. — Sacred hymns of 3, 4. 5, and 6
Ijarts for voyces and vyols. London, 1615.
Some of his anthems and other music for the
church service are preserved in nas. at Ely,
Cambridge (Peterhouse and Christ Church),
Oxford, and in the British Museum. According
to Buruey he published some madrigals.

Ralph Amner, a bass singer, probably a
relative of the above, was a lay clerk at Ely
Cathedral in 1604, and gentleman of the
Chapel Royal in 1623. He was a minor canon
of St. George's Chapel, Windsor. He died at
Windsor, March 3, 1664.

Amott, John, composer and organist, born
at Monmouth in 1798, was organist of Abbey
Church, Shrewsbury, from 1822 to 1832; and
organist of Gloucester Cathedral in succession
to Mutlow, 1832-65. He died at Gloucester,
February 9, 1865. He composed services,
anthems, etc., and acted as conductor of the
Gloucester IMusical Festivals. He edited a
second edition of Lysons' work on the Three
choirs festivals, entitled "The Annals of the
Three Choirs, etc." London [1864].




Amps, William, organist aud composer of
the present time. Was conductor, for some
years, of the Camhridge University IMusical
Society, the concerts of which he distinguished
by the production of choral works — Mendels-
sohn's "EHjeh" (1853); Antigone, aud others.
He was organist of St. Peter's Church, Cam-
bridge. Of his compositions, two pf. sonatas,
and two sonatinas have been published, as
also six vocal quartets (1850), aud six part-
songs (18G5).

Anchors, William, musician of early part
of 18th century, published "A Choice Collec-
tion of Psalm-'Tunes, Hymns, and Anthems."
London [1720].

Anderson, Andrew, compiler of " Sacred
Harmony . . . adapted to the version of the
psalnas, paraphrases, and hymns used in Pres-
byterian cliurches and chapels . . . London

Anderson, George Frederick, violinist,
born Londou, 1793. He married Miss Lucy
Philpot, the pianist, in July, 1820. He held
the appointments of conductor of Roj'al
Private Band, and lion, treasurer of Philhar-
monic Society and Royal Society of Musicians.
He died at London, December 14, 1876. He
published " Statement of Mr. G. F. Anderson,
in reply to calumnious charges against hin^
as Director of Her IMajesty's Private Band."
Norwich [1855]. Privately printed.

Anderson, James Smith, organist and
composer, born at Crail, Fifeshire, June 30,
1853. Musical training, private. F.R.C.O. ;
Mus. Bac, Oxon., 1878. Has held various
organ appointments, including the Parish
Church, Abbey, 1877-9, and St. Andrew's
Parish Church. Edinburgh, from 1881. He
is teacher of pf. at Moray House Training
College and School ; aud lecturer on harmonj'
and counterpoint at St. George's Classes,
Edinburgh ; both positions dating from 1892.
A skilful organist, he has rendered valuable
service at concerts. His compositions com-
prise Psalm 100, for soli, chorus, and orches-
tra ; operettas, " Hearts and homes " and
" Land of romance," which are published ;
as also some songs and pf. pieces. He also
revised the harmonies of the " Blackburn
tune book," and composed hymn tunes.

Anderson, John, violinist and composer,
born 1737 ; died at Inverness, June 5, 1808.
He published " Selection of the most approved
Highland straths]Deys, country dances, Eng-
lish and French dances, with a harpsichord
or violoncello bass." Edinburgh [1790], two
collections. " Budget of strathspeys, reels,
and country dances for the German flute or
violin," Edinburgh, n.d.

Anderson, Josephine, born Bartolozzi,
mezzo-soprano singer, born at London in 1806.
She was a younger sister of Madame Vestris,
and studied under Corri, etc. In 1828 she


made her debut as Rosina in the " Barber of
Seville," at the Haymarket Theatre, London,
and afterwards sang at London and provincial
concerts. She died of consumption, on May
1, 1848, aged 42.

Anderson, Lucy, born Philpot, wife of
G. F. Anderson, was born at Bath, December,
1790. She was instructed in music by her
father and James W. Windsor, and became a
pianist of great promise. She appeared at
the Pnilharmonic Society concert in Londou,
April 29, 1822, being the first lady pianist
who ever did so, and afterwards played at
many of the principal concerts. She was
teacher of Queen Victoria and several other
members of the royal family. Died at Lon-
don, December 24, 1878.

Anderson, Robert, amateur musician,
was born in Fraserburgh, Aberdeenshire,
May 6, 1835, and ^died there on November 22,
1882. He was a solicitor in Fraserburgh and
composed several part-songs of which the
" Herring Song " is best known. He also
composed " Songs of Zion " in 12 numbers,
published by Novello.

Anderson, Rev. William, clergyman and
musician, born at Kilsyth, Stirlingshire, Janu-
ary 6, 1799. He was a popular minister of the
United Presbyterian Church in Glasgow, and
for many years was pastor of John Street
United Presbyterian Church. He died at Ud-
dingston, near Glasgow, September 15, 1872.

Early in his career he edited and published
anonymously, "The Sacred Choir: a collection
of music adapted to the psalms, paraphrases
and hymns in general use in Scotland, and
specially to the collection of hymns sanctioned
by the Synod of Relief," Glasgow [1841]. This
contains "Thanksgiving," "Trinity," and the
" Sacred Choir," tures by himself. The har-
monies were revised by Samuel Barr. He also
compiled "A selection of psalm and hymn-
tunes, adapted to various measures." Glasgow
[1844]. For " The Choir: a collection of psalm
and hymn tunes . . . selected and composed
by Alex. Duncan." Glasgow, 1828, he wrote a
preface. Among other literary works he wrote
" Apology for the Organ as an assistance of
congregational psalmody." Glasgow, 1829.

Anderson,William, writer and musician,
born at Aberdeen [1817]. He was a clothier in
Aberdeen and held the appointment of precen-
tor in the South Parish Church from 1835, and
in the Free South Church from 1843 to 1871.
He died at Aberdeen, August 6, 1875.

Author of " Remarks on congregational
Psalmody.'' Aberdeen, 1855. " Precentors
and Musical Professors : being brief sketches
of some of those more worthy of notice who
flourished in Aberdeen in the course of the
last hundred years." Aberdeen, 1876. This
work contains 26 notices and is prefaced by
a memoir of the author.




Anderton, Thomas, composer, organist,
and pianist, born in Birmingham, April 15,
1836. Teaciier of music in that city, and
organist of Parish Church, Solihull. Mus.
Bac, Cambridge, 1865. Conducted the first
singing class established at the Birmingham
and Midland Institute, and for some years
carried on a series of high-class orchestral
concerts at the Exchange Assembl}- Rooms.
Musical critic of the Birmingham Daily
Gazette. Becoming part proprietor and editor
of the Midland Counties' Herald, he retired
from the musical profession in 1874, but con-
tinued to compose and occasionally gave
lectures on musical subjects.

Works. — Cantatas: The song of Deborah
and Barak, Solihull, 1871 ; The wise and
foolish virgins ; The Wreck of the Hesperus ;
John Gilpin ; The three jovial huntsmen,
1881 ; The Norman Baron. 1884 ; Yule Tide,
Birmingham Festival, 1885. An English
requiem, 1890. Prize glee. Mat o' the Mill.
Songs : Come to me, ye children ; The
felling of the trees, and many others. Orches-
tral : Symphony in D ; Overtures ; Marches ;
Allemande in F ; Quartet in F, strings, 1884.
Pianoforte : Allemande ; Play hours, etc.
Literary : Letters from a country house, 1891.

His brother, John Anderton, is a librettist
and dramatic author, and has furnished more
than one " book " for the coinposer.

Andrews, F. H., Canadian (?) musician.
Published " Collection of original sacred mu-
sic, with organ or pianoforte accompani-
ment," Montreal, 1848.

Andrews, John Charles Bond=, pianist
and composer, born at Birkenhead. At eleven
years of age, began his musical career by
giving a series of pf. recitals ; and two years
afterwards was sent to Leipzig, where he
studied under Reinecke and others. He also
had lessons from Sterndale Bennett, at the
R.A.M., and studied at Vienna. In 1876 he
gave recitals at Birkenhead, and has appeared
with success as a pianist in London and other
cities ; he has also officiated as conductor to
touring opera companies. He has composed
several operas — " Heme's Oak," produced at
Liverpool, October, 1887 ; " The Rose of
Windsor " (both books by Walter Parke), Ac-
cringtou, August, 1889 ; and an operetta, "A
Pair of Lunatics " (1892). Quartet in B flat ;
Trio in D minor, pf. and strings ; Sonata in
G minor; "May Pole" suite; and many
other j^ieces for pf., &c.

Andrews, Mrs. John Holman, born
Jenny Constant, a teacher of singing and
composer, born in 1817. She resided in Lon-
don as a teacher, and died there April 29,
1878. She published " Two part exercises "
(for the voice) [1860]. Songs — Adieu ; Au-
tumn's golden leaf ; Go lovelj' rose ; Prince
Charley's farewell to Scotland, etc. Nocturne


for pf., and other instrumental music.

Andrews, Richard Hoffmann, writer
and composer, born in London, November 22,
1803. Appeared as a child actor on the stage
at the Theatre Royal, Birmingham, and in
1809 played the part of Pistol's boy in Henry
v., at Liverpool. At the age of nine he was
apprenticed to the leader of the Manchester
Theatre band, and continueti to reside in that
city as teacher, and later as music publisher.
He gave a concert so late as February 23,
1885, when he played a violin solo. He
edited and arranged a vast number of works
for the pianoforte, and wrote several glees
which enjoyed great popularity — " Hail fair
peace " being one of the earliest. He was
author of " Music as a Science," 1885 ; " Sa-
cred music, adapted for public and private
devotion ;" and edited "The Family Vocalist,"
" Songs of the Hearth," " Handel's Songs,"
" The German Choral Harmonist," etc. He
died at Longsight, Manchester, June 8, 1891.
His sons, Richard Hoffmann (_born at Man-
chester, May 24, 1831), and Edward Hoff-
mann (born at Manchester, February 7, 1836),
are settled in the United States as pianists
and composers.

Angel, Alfred, organist and composer,
was born in 1816. Held appointment of
organist of Exeter Cathedral 1842-1876. He
died at Exeter, May 24, 1876. Composer of
" Arise my fair and come away," part song,
songs, and other vocal music. A son of his
was drowned in the wreck of the " London,"
in 1865.

Anger, Joseph Humfrey, organist and
composer. Musical training private ; gradu-
ated Mus. Bac, Oxford, 1889. Organist at
Bristol and, in 1891, of Ludlow parish church,
and music master in King Edward VI. school
there. Appointed, 1893, principal in tlieory
department of Toronto Conservatoire of Music
and organist and CM. of the Church of the
Ascension. His setting of Psalm 96, for soli,
chorus, and orchestra, gained the gold medal
of the Bath Philharmonic Society, and was
performed by that Society, April 11, 1888.
Other compositions are "Bonnie Belle," mad-
rigal for six voices, London Madrigal Society
prize, 1890 ; madrigal, " All on a summer's
morning;" Pianoforte pieces, &c.

Anseli,J. K., musician. Published " Col-
lection of sacred music for the service of the
Catholic Church . > . ." London [1818].
" Ave Regina, for four voices and chorus."
Songs, Cavalry march, &c.

Anstey, Thomas, musician. Issued a col-
lection of " Sacred music ... in solo, duet,
trio, and quartett." London [1830], 2 vols.

Aptommas, Thomas Thomas, harpist
(brother of John Thomas), born at Bridgend,
Glamorgan, 1829. Has made tours through-
out the United Kingdom, and played at many




musical centres on the continent, appearing
at tlie celebrated Gewandliaus Concerts, Leip-
zig, January 18, 1872. Has a wide reputation
as a brilliant performer on the harp. Author
of a " History of the Harp," 1859, and many
Fantasias and other pieces for ihat instru-

Aquiia, pseudonym, of Edwin Ransford.

Archer, Frederic, composer and organist,
born at Oxford, June 16, 1838. Chorister at
All Saints', ]\largaret Street, London, and
afterwards studied at Leipzig. He succeeded
Dr. Cliipp as organist at the Panopticon, and
held similar positions at Meroon College, Ox-
ford, and the Alexandra Palace, Muswell Hill,
following Mr. Weist Hill as conductor at the
latter, a post he held until 1880. Conductor,
1878-80, of the Glasgow Select Choir, for which
he arranged several Scotch airs as part-songs.
About the same time he was also conductor of
the Blanche Cole Opera Company on its pro-
vincial tours. In 1881 he was appointed or-
ganist of the Rev. H. Ward Beecher's Church,
Brooklyn, U.S.A., but left the next year for
the Episcopal Church of ihe Incarnation.
Since then he has been organist of several
different churches, his latest post being at
Pittsburg, with an annual stipend of £800. He
was organist at IMapleson's New York season
of Italian Opera, 1882, and at the Toronto
Festival, June, 188G. For some years he was
editor of the New York INIusical paper, the
Keynote, and contributed many articles to the
earlier volumes of Mtosical Opinion, London,
and other papers.

Works. — The Organ : a theoretical and prac-
tical treatise (Novello & Co.) ; The college or-
ganist ( Weekes) ; Grand fantasia in F ; Concert
variations ; March triomphale ; and many
pieces for the organ. Duo concertante, flute
and pf . ; Three impromptus ; Two gavottes ;
and other pieces for pf , Songs, part-songs, etc.

Argent, William Ignatius, organist,
composer, and conductor, born at Colchester,
August 26, 184:4. Organist of Little Oratory,
Brompton, 1859-60. Since 1868 resident in
Liverpool arid Birkenhead. Organist succes-
sively at St. Lawrence, Birkenhead, and St.
Anne's TR.C.), Edge Hill. Conductor at dif-
ferent periods of musical societies at Widnes,
Frodsham, Garston, and of the St. Cecilia
Society, Liverpool. Musical critic of the
Liverpool Albion, 1873-80, and Mercury, 1886-
90. Contributor to ihe- Musical Times and
other papers. One of the founders of the
Liverpool Sunday Society, in connection with
which he has not only delivered lectures, but
organised an orchestra of seventy performers,
and for years given series of Sunday Concerts
in St. George's Hall.

Works.— Mass in A (1875) ; Mass in B flat
(1887) ; Tantum ergo and O Salutaris hostia,
for chorus and orchestra; Motets, anthems.


etc. An opera di camera (1863), and other
works in ms. Author of "Half-a-century of
music in Liverpool," 1889.

Arkwright, Mrs. Robert, was a daughter
of Stephen Kemble, the actor (1758-1822).
She appeared as an actress at Newcastle and
Edinburgh, and was married to a Captain

Works. — Set of six ancient Spanish ballads
. . . London [1832], 2nd set [1885]. Set of
six songs, the words from Mrs. Hemans, Mrs.
Opie, Sir Walter Scott, etc., with pf. accompani-
ment by '!'. Cooke [1835] . Three other similar
sets. Six sacred songs [1866]. Ballads —
Beloved one, Beth Gelert, Repentence, Sab-
bath bell at sea, Sailor's grave. Pirate's fare-
well, Zara's ear-rings, etc.

Armes, Philip, composer and organist,
born at Norwich, March 29, 1836. Chorister
at Norwich Cathedral, 1846-48, and at Roches-
ter Cathedral, 1848-50. Was articled to Dr.
J. L. Hopkins in 1850, and was assistant or-
ganist at the Cathedral up to 1856. In 1855
he was appointed organist at Trinity Church,
Milton, Gravesend, and two years later went
to St. Andrew's, Wells Street, London. Here
he remained till 1861, when he was appointed
organist of Chichester Cathedral, a post he
left a year later for Durham Cathedral, which
position he still holds. He graduated Mus.
Bac. Oxon., 1858, and Mus. Doc. 1864. In
addition he has received the degrees of Mus.
Bac. ad eundein, Durham, 1863 ; Mus. Doc,
1874; M.A. Honoris causa, 1891; and was
elected Fellow of the (Royal) College of Or-
ganists in 1892. Resident Examiner in Music
to University of Durham, 1890; Examiner in
Music to University of Oxford, 1894.

Works. — Hezekiah,an oratorio, produced at
Newcastle-on-Tyne, 1877, and revised and en-
larged at the Worcester Festival, 1878. Church
oratorios : St. John the Evangelist, produced
at St. Peter's Church, Bramley, Leeds, July
5, 1881, and at the Choir Festival, York Min-
ster, July 7 ; St Barnabas, produced at Dur-
ham Cathedral, July 30, 1891. Communion
services, in A and B flat Anthems : The Lord
preserveth (Harvest) ; Rejoice in the Lord, etc.
Cantata and Dens for Festival in Durham
Cathedral, July, 1894. Paper on English
church music of Purcell's period, read at the
Church Congress, Norwich, October 10, 1895.

Armitt, Mary Louisa, writer on music,
born at Salford, September 24, 1851. Her
father, of a musical family, was assistant
overseer of Salford. Her own tastes being of
an antiquarian turn in connection with music,
she has spent much time in exploring the
Bodleian, Cambridge University, and other
libraries in England and on the continent ;
and her contributions to the press have real
historical value. She wrote the musical
sketches, "The Choirman of Grayford " and




" A Stranger's visit " for the Quarterly Musical
Review (edited by Dr. Hi les), and also papers on
Anthony a' Wood, and Old English Viol Music.
In the Musical Times (November, 1891), " A
Richmond Idjdl" reveals facts not generally
known concerning Charles Coleman's domestic
life; a paper on "Old English Fingering"
(March, 18'J5), in the same journal, should be
also mentioned. Miss Armitt has also contri-
buted to TJie Queen, Musical Standard, Musi-
cal World, Musical News, and acted as musical
critic for some time for the Manchester City
Netvs. She is nowr resident at Ambleside,

Armstrong, Helen Porter, born Mit-
chell, known professionally as Madame
Melba, soprano vocalist, born at Melbourne,
Australia, 1859. Daughter of David Mitchell,
contractor. Sang in the choir of St. Francis'
Roman Catholic Church, IMelbourne, and
appeared at the Melbourne Liedertafel con-
certs. 1884. I\Iade her first appearance in
Europe at Emil Bach's concert. Prince's Hall,
London, June 1, 1886. A pupil of Madame
Marchesi, her operatic d6but took place at the
Theatre de lalMonnaie, Brussels, as "Gilda," in
" Rigoletto," October 12, 1887. She appeared
at the Royal Opera, Covent Garden, May 24,
1888, as " Lucia," in the " Bride of Lammer-
moor," and has in subsequent seasons been
heard in a variety of parts. She sang at La
Scala, Milan, in 1893; at the Handel Festival,
Crystal Palace, June 27, 1894 (Selection Day) ;
in opera, New York, and elsewhere, and has
established herself as a prima do7ina of the
first rank. In 1882 she married Mr. Charles
Armstrong, of Queensland.

Her sister, Frederica Mitchell, is con-
sidered one of the most accomplished vocalists
in Melbourne. In 1891 she was principal
soprano in the Roman Catholic Church
(St. George's) Carlton, Melbourne. She sang,
November 24, 1883, in Dublin, at a concert
of the University Choral Society.

Arne, Michael, composer, natural son of
Thomas A. Arne, born London, 1741. He
was educated for the stage by his aunt, Mrs.
Gibber. In 1751 he first appeared as a
vocalist. He married Elizabeth Wright, the
soprano singer, in November, 1766, and in
1779 became director of music at a theatre in
Dublin. He returned to London and was
director of oratorios in 1784. He devoted
himself latterly to the stud\^ of alchemy and
lost his fortune in the pursuit. Died at
Lambeth, London, January 14, 1786.

Works. — Musical dramas : The fairy tale,
1768 ; Almena (with Battishill) 1764 ; Positive
man, 1764; Hymen, 1764; Cymon, 1767; The
Father, 1778 ; The Belle's stratagem, 1780 ;
Choice of Harlequin, 1781 ; Tristram Shandy,
1783. The flow'ret, a new collection of English
songs. Glees, many single songs, etc.


His wife Elizabeth Wright (born about
1743, died?) soprano singer, sang at the prin-
ciiml concerts of her day.

Anne, Susanna Maria, see Cibbeb

(Susanna ]\L)

Arne, Thomas Augustine, composer,
born in King Street, Covent Garden, London,
May 28, 1710, son of an upholsterer. He was
educated at Eton College, being intended for
the legal profession, but his natural aptitude
for music led him to study privately, and he
had lessons on the spinnet, and private lessons
on the violin, from Festing. In 1736 he
married Cecilia Young, daughter of Charles
Young, an organist, and in 1738 became com-
poser to Drury Lane Theatre. From 1742 to
1744 he resided in Dublin, and on his return
to London in 1745 he became composer to
Vauxhall Gardens, Covent Garden Theatre,
and the principal London theatres. Doc.
Mus., Oxford, 1759. He died, London,
March 5, 1778, and is buried in St. Paul's,
Covent Garden.

Works. — Operas and Musical Dramas :
Rosamond (Addison), Lincoln's Inn Field's
Theatre, March 7, 1733; Opera of operas, or
Tom Thumb, 1733 ; Dido and yEneas, 1734 ;
Comus. a masque, London, 1738; Judgment of
Paris, a masque, 1740; Alfred, a masque, Lon-
don, 1740 [by Thomson and Mallet, in which
is the celebrated national song " Rule,
Britannia," written by Thomson] ; Britannia,
a masque, Dublin, 1743; Eliza, opera, Dublin,
1743 ; Artaxerxes, opera, London, 17G2 [the
well-known psalm-tune " Artaxerxes " i&

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