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OF THE

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HAND-BOOK



OF



UNIVERSAL LITERATURE,



FROM THE BEST AND LATEST AUTHORITIES:



DESIGNED FOK POPULAR HEADING



AND AS A



TEXT-BOOK FOR SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES.



BY



ANNE C. LYNCH \BOTTA



" Partout le vaste champ de lii llUerature ressemble k line immense arene, 06 pcu de valn-
qucurs filevenl leurs tropheos sur les armes brisecs d'une grande masse de vaiucus ; ce n'esx
que lorsque la dtfaite ett devenue mtmorable, que I'hidtolre peut s'en occuper."



NEW YOrwK:
DERBY & JACKSON, 498 BROADWAY

1860.



fl^lilBB.



Knieked, according to Act of Congress, in the yeai 1860, bj

ANNK C. LYNCH BOTTA,

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern Dislitol

of New York.



W. H. TI^so», Stereotyper.



Geo. Russki.l & Co., Printers.



N






PREFACE



-•♦♦-



This work was begun many years ago, as a literary
exercise, to meet the personal requirements of tlie
writer, wliicli were such as most persons experience
on leaving school and ^' completing their education," as
the phrase is. Tlie world of literature lies before
them, but where to begin, what course of study to per-
sue, in order best to comprehend it, are the problems
which present themselves to the bewildered questioner,
who finds himself in a position not unlike that of a
traveller suddenly set down in an unknown country,
without guide-book or map. The most natural course
under such circumstances would be to bescin at the be-
ginning, and take a rapid survey of the entire field of
literature, arriving at its details through this general
view. But as this could be accomplished only by sub-
jecting each individual to a severe and protracted course
of systematic study, the idea was conceived of obviating
this necessity to some extent by embodying the results
of such a course in the form of the following work,
which, after being long laid aside, is now at lengtli com-
pleted.

In conformity with this design, standard books have



m



IV PKEFACE.

been condensed, with no alterations except sucli as were
rerpired to give nnity to the whole work ; and in some
instances a few additions have been made. Wliere stan-
dard works have not been found, the sketches liave been
made from tlie best sources of information, and sub-
mitted to the criticism of able scholars.

Tlie literatures of different nations are so related, and
have so influenced each other, that it is only by a survey
of all, that any single literature, or even any great
literary work, can be fully comprehended, as the various
groups and figures of a historical picture must be
viewed as a whole, before thev can assume their true

place and 2:)roportions.

A. C. L. B.



LIST OF AUTHORITIES.



-•-e 9-



The following worlcs ni'o the sources from whicli this book is
wholly or chiefly derived :

Dwigbt's Pliilologj' ; Herder's Spirit of Hebrew Poetry ; Lowth's Hebrew Toetry ;
Asiatic Researches ; the works of Gesenius, De Wette, Ewald, Colebrooke, Sir William
Jones, Wilson, Ward ; Schlegel's Hindu Language and Literature ; Malcolm's History of
Persia ; Piicbardson on the Language of Eastern Nations ; Adelung's Mithridates ;
Chodzko's Specimens of the Popular Poetry of Persia; Costello's Rose Garden of Persia;
B.em.usa.Vs Memoire sicr VEcriture Chinoise; Davis on the Poetry of the Chinese;
Duholde's Description, de la Chine ; ChampoUion's Letters ; Wilkinson's Extracts from
Hieroglyphical Subjects ; the works of Bunsen, Muller, and Lane ; Muller's History of the
Literature of Ancient Greece, continued by Donaldson ; Browne's Histoiy of Roman Clas-
sical Literature ; Fiske's Manual of Classical Literature ; Sismondi's Literature of the
South of Europe ; Goodrich's Universal History ; Sandford's Rise and Progress of Litera-
ture ; Schlegel's Lectures on the Historj"- of Literature ; Schlegel's History of Dramatic
Art ; Tkaboschi's History of Italian Literature ; Maffei, Corniani, and Ugoni on the same
subject; Chambers' Hand-books of Italian and German Literature; Foster's Hand-
book of French Literature; Nizard's TTlstoire de la Litterature Frangaise ; Demo-
geot's do ; Ticknor's History of Spanish Literature ; Talvi's (Ttlrs. Robinson) Literature of
the Sla^■ic Nations ; Mallet's Northern Antiquities ; Keyson's Religion of the Northmen ;
Pigott's Northern Mythology ; William and Mary Howitt's Literature and Romance of
Northern Europe; De s'Gravenweert /S'm?* la Litterahtre Xeerlandaise ; Siegenbeck's
Hlstoire Litteraire des Pays-JBas ; Da Pontes' Poets and Poetry of Germany ; Menzel's
German Literature ; Spaulding's History of English Literature ; Chambers's Cyclopaedia of
English Literature ; Shaw's English Literature ; Triibner's Guide to American Literature ;
Duyckincks' Cyclopaedia of American Literature ; Griswold's Poets and Prose Writers of
America ; Tuckerman's Sketch of American Literature. In addition to the above works,
French, English, and American Encyclopaedias, Biographies, Dictionaries, and numerous
other works of reference have been extensively consulted.



CONTENTS.



-♦-•-•-



Preface ...........m

List of Acthorities ......... v

Classification of Languages . . . . . . • . xv

HEBREW LITERATURE.

1. Hebrew Literature ; its Divisions. — 2. The Language ; its Alphabet ; its Struc-
ture ; Peculiarities, Formation, and Phases. — 3. The Old Testament. — 4. Hebrew Edu-
cation.— 5. Fundamental Idea of Hebrew Literature. — 6. Hebrew Poetry. — 7. Lyric
Poetry; Songs; the Psalms; the Prophets. — 8. Pastoral Poetry.— 9. Didactic Poetry ;
the Proverbs and Ecclesiastes. — 10. Epic and Dramatic Poetry; the Book of Job. —
11. Hebrew History ; the Pentateuch and other Historical Books. — 12. Hebrew Philoso-
phy. — 13. Restoration of the Sacred Books.— 14. Manuscripts and TranslaUons. —
15. Rabbinical Literature. ........ 9

SYRIAC,.CHALDAIC AND PH(EXICIAN LITERATURES.

J.. The Languages. — 2. Syriac Language and Literature.— 3. Chaldaic Language and
Literature. — 4. Phoenician Literature. . . . . . . .21

niXDU, OR SANSCRIT LITERATURE.

1. Sanscrit Literature and its Divisions. — 2. The Sanscrit Language and its Antiquity ;
its Structure and Dialects. — 3. Social Constitution of India.— 4. Brahmanism.— 5. The
Vedas and the other Sacred Books. — 6. Sanscrit Poetry.— 7. Epic Poetry ; the Rama-
yana ; the Mahabharata.— 8. Lyric Poetry. — 9. Didactic Poetry ; the Hitopadesa. —
10. Dramatic Poetry. — ^11. History and Science. — 12. Philosophy.— 13. Buddhism. —
14. Moral Philosophy ; the Code of Manu.— 15. Modern Literatures of India. — 16. Edu-
cation in India. .......... 23

PERSIAN LITERATURE.

I. The Persian Language and its Divisions. — 2. Zendic Literature ; The Zendavesta. — 8.
Pehlvi and Parsee Literatures.— 4. The Cuneiform Inscriptions. — 5. The Ancient
Religion of Persia ; Zoroaster. — 6. Modern Literature. — 7. The Sufis. — 8. Persian
Poetry. — 9. Persian Poets; Ferdusi ; Essedi of Tus ; Togray, etc. — 10. History and
Philosophy. — 11. Education in Persia. . . . . . .33

vU



VI 11 CONTENTS.



CIIIXESE LITERATURE.

1. Chinese Literature and its Divisions. — 2. The Language, — 3. The Writing —4. Canoni-
cal and Classic Writings. — The 'U-King; Ta-hio.— 5. Chinese Religion and Philosophy ;
Lao-tse ; Confucius ; Meng-ts6 ; the Iluligion of Fo. — 6. Social Constitution of China. — •
?. History. — S, Science. — 0. Poetry and Fiction ; Lyric Poetry ; The Drama ; PiO-

mances — 10. Education in China. ....... 49



EGYPTIAX LITERATURE.

1. Egyptian Literature. — 5. The Language. — 3. The Writing. — 4. The Discovery of
Champollion, — 5. Egyptian Monuments. — G. History; Manetho. — 7. The Religion of
Egypt. — S. Science. — 9. Literary Condition of modern Egypt. . . .07

GREEK LITERATURE.

Introduction. — 1. Greek Literature and its Divisions.— 2. The Language. — 3. The
Religion.

Pehiod First.— 1. Ante-Homeric Songs and Bards. — 2. Poems of Homer ; the Iliad ;
the Odyssey.— 3. The Cyclic Poets and the Homeric Hymns.— 4. Poems of Ilesiod ;
the AVorks and Days ; the TheojOny.— 5. Elegy and Epigram ; Tyrtreus ; Arcliilochus ;
Simonides.— 6. Iambic Poetry, the Fable and Parody ; ^sop. — 7. Greek JNIusic and
LjTic Poetry ; Terpander. — 8. jEolic Lyric Poets ; Alcaeus ; Sappho ; Anacreon. —
9. Doric, or Choral Lyric Poets; Alcman ; Stesichorus ; Pindar. — 10. The Orphic
Doctrines and Poems.— 11. Pre-Socratic philosophy; Ionian, Eleatic, Pythagorean
Schools. — 12. History ; Herodotus.

Pkriod Second. — 1. Literary predominance of Athens.— 2. Greek Drama. — 3. Trage-
dy — 4. The Tragic Poets ; iEschykis ; Sophocles ; Euripides. — 5. Comedy' ; Aristo-
phanes ; Menander. — 6. Oratory, Rhetoric and History ; Pericles ; the Sophists ;
Lysias ; Isocrates ; Demosthenes ; Thucydides ; Xenophon. — 7. Socrates and the So-
cratic Schools ; Plato ; Aristotle.

Pdkiod Third.— 1. Origin of the Alexandrian Li'erature.— 2. The Alexandrian
Poets ; Philetas ; Callimachus ; Theocritus ; Dion ; Moschus. — .3. The Prose Writers
of .\lexandna; Zenodotus ; Aristophanes; Aristarchus ; Eratosthenes ; Euclid; Archi-
medes. — 4. Philosophy of Ale.xandria ; Neo-Platonism. — 5. Anti-Xeo-Platonic Tenden-
cies ; Epictetus ; Lucian ; Longinus — G. Greek Literature in Rome ; Dionysius of Ilali-
carnassus ; Flavius Josephus ; Polybius ; Diodorus ; Strabo ; riutarch.— 7, Continued
decline of Greek Literature. S. Last echoes of the Old Literature ; Hypatia ; Nonnus ;
Musaius; Byzantine Litcrature.~9. The New Testament and the Greek Fathers. . 6G

ROMAN LITERATURE.

Introduction.— 1. Roman Literature and its Divisions. — 2. The Language ; Ethno-
graphical elements of the Latin Language ; the Umbrian ; Oscan ; Etruscan ; the old
Roman tongue ; Salurnian verse ; peculiarities of the Latin language. — 3. The Roman
Religion.

Period First. — 1. Early Literature of the Romans ; the Fescennine Songs ; the Fabulae
Atellana;. — 2. Early Latin Poets ; Livius Andronicus, Naivlus and Ennius. — 3. Roman
Comedy. — 4. Comic Poets ; Plautus, Terence and Statius. — 5. Roman Tragedy.— 6.
Tragic Poets ; Pacuvius and Attius. — 7. Satire ; Lucilius. — 8. History and Oratory ;
Fabius Pictor; O-'ncius Alimentus ; Cato ; Varro ; ^L Antonius ; Crassus ; Ilortensius.—
\). Roman .Juri^prudonce.— 10. Grammarians.



COXTEXTS. IX

Period Second.— 1. Development of the Roman Literature.— 2. Mimes, Miraogi-a-
phers, Pantomime ; Laberius and P. Syrus.— 3. Epic Poetry ; Virgil; The.T:neid.-4. Di-
dactic Poetry; the Bucolics; the Georgics ; Lucretius.— o. Lyric Poetry; Catullus;
Uorace.— 6. Elegy ; Tibullus ; Propertius ; Ovid.— 7. Oratory and Philosophy; Cicero.—
8. History ; J. C«sar ; Sallust ; Livy.— 9. Other Prose Writers.

Period TuiuD.—l. Decline of Roman Literature.— 2. Fable ; Phtedrus.— 3. Satire and
Epigram ; Persius, Juvenal, Martial. — i. Dramatic Literature ; the Tragedies of Seneca.
—5. Epic Poetry; Lucan ; Slius Italicus; Valerius Flaccus ; P. Statins— 6. History
Paterculus ; Tacitus : Suetonius ; Q. Curtius ; Valerius MaxLmus.— 7. Rhetoiic and
Eloquence; Quintilian ; Pliny the Younger.— 8. Philosopiiy and Science; Seneca;
Pliny the Elder ; Celsus ; P.Mela; Columella; Frontinus.— 9. Roman Literature from
Hadrian to Theodoric ; Claudian ; Eutropius ; A. Marcellinus ; S. Sulpicius ; Gellius ;
Macrobius ; L Apulelus; Doethius-, the Latin Fathei-s.— 10. Roman Jurisprudence. 122



ARABIAN LITERATURE.

1. European Literature in the Dark Ages.— 2. The Arabian Language.— 3 Ara-
bian Mythology and the Koran. — i. Historical Development of Arabian Lite-
rature.— 5. Grammar and Rhetoric— 6. Poetry.— 7. The Arabian Tales.— S. History
and Science .,.-. - .•• ISl



ITALIAX LITERATURE.

IsTRODUCTios.— 1. Italian Literature and its Divisions, — 2. The Language.

Period First. — 1. Early Poetry and Prose.— 2. Dante; the Divine Comedy.— 3. Pe-
trarch. — 4. Boccaccio and other prose writers ; Villani, Sacchetti. — 5. The first decline
of Italian Literature ; the fifteenth Century.

Period Second.- 1. The close of the fifteenth Century ; L^jrenzo de' Medici.— 2. The
origin of the Drama and Romantic Epic ; Poliziano, Pulci, Boiardo. — 3. Romantic Epic
Poetry; Ariosto.— 4. Heroic Epic Poetry; Tasso.— 5. Lyric Poetry; Bembo, Molza,
Tarsia, V. Colonna.— 6. Dramatic Poetry; Trissino, Rucellai; the -writers of Comedy.
—7. Pastoral Drama and Didactic Poetry; Beceari, Sannazzaro, Tasso, Guarini,
Rucellai, Alamanni.— S. Satiricai Poetry, Novels and Tales ; Bernl, Graezini, Firenzu-
ola, Bandello, and others.— 9. History; Machiavelli, Guicciardini, Nardi, and others.
—10. Grammar and Rhetoric ; the Academy detla Criisca, Delia Casa, Speroni, and
others.— IL Science, Philosophy and Politics; the Academy del C'im^nio, Galileo,
Torricelli, Borelli, Patrizi, Telesio, Campanella, Bruno, Castiglione, Machiavelli, and
others.- 12. Decline of the Literature in the seventeenth Century. — 13. Epic and Lyric
Poetry; Marini, Fllicaja.— 14. Mock Heroic Poetry, the Drama and Satire ; Tassoni,
Bracciolini, Andreini, and others. — 15. History and epistolary writings ; Davila, Benti-
voglio, Sarpi, Redi.

Period Third.— 1. Historical Development of the Third Period.— 2. The Melodrama;
Rinuccini, Zeno, Metastasio.— 3. Comedy; Goldoni, C. Gozzi, and others. — i. Tragedy ;
Mafl'ei, Alfieri, Monti, Manzoni, Nicolini, and others.— 5. Lyric, Epic, and Didactic
Poetry ; Parini, ?.Ionti, XJgo Foscolo, Leopardi, Gross!, Lorenzi, and others. — 6. Heroic-
Comic Poetry, Satire, and Fable ; Fortiguerri, Passeroni, G. Gozzi, Parini, Giusti,
and others. — 7. Romances ; Verri, Manzoni, D'Azeglio, Cantu, GuerrazzL, and others, —

8. History; Muratori, Vico, Giannone, Botta, Colletta, Tiraboschi, and others. —

9. Esthetics, Criticism, Philology, and Philosophy; Baretti, I'arini, Giordani, Gioja,
Comagnosi, Galluppi, Rosmioi, Gioberti ...... 198

1-



CONTEXTS.



FREXCH LITERATURE.

IxTRODCCTiON. — 1. French Literature and its Divisions. — 2. The Language.

Period First.— 1. The Troubadours.— 2. The Trouveres. — 3. French Literature in the
Fifteenth Century, Charles of Orleans, Villon, Ville-Hardouin, Joinville, Froissart
Philippe de Commines.

Period Second. — 1. The Renaissance and the Reformation; Marguerite de Valois,
Marot, Rabelais, Calvin, Montaigne, Charron, and others.— 2. Light Literature; Ronsard,
Jodelle, Hardy, Malherbe, Scarron, Madame de Rambouillet, and others. — 3. The
French Academy. — 4. The Drama; Corneille. — 5. Philosophy; Descartes, Pascal; Port
Royal.— 6. The rise of the Golden Age of French Literature ; Louis XIV.— 7. Tragedy ;
Racine.— 8. Comedy ; Moliere.— 9. Fables, Satires, Mock-IIeroic, and other Poetry ;
La Fontaine, Boileau.— 10. Eloquence of the Pulpit and of the Bar ; Bourdaloue, Bos-
suet, Massillon, Flechier, Le Maitre, D'Aguesseau, and others. — 11. Moral Philosophy ;
Rochefoucauld, La Bruycre, Nicole.— 12. History and Memoirs ; Mtfzeray, Fleury^
RoUin, Brantome, the Duke of Sully, Cardinal de Retz.— 13. Romance and Lette-
"Writing; Fenelon, Madame de Sevigne.

Period Third.- 1. The Dawn of Skepticism ; Bayle, J. B. Rousseau, Fontenelle,
Lamotte. — 2. Progress of Skepticism ; Montesquieu, Voltaire. — 3. French Literature
during the Revolution ; D'Holbach, D'Alembert, Diderot, J. J. Rousseau, BufiFon, Beau-
marchais, St. Pierre, and others. — i. French Literature under the Empire ; Madame
de Stael, Chateaubriand, Royer-Collard, Bonald, De Maistre.— 5. French Literature
from the age of the Restoration to the present time ; Barante, Guizot, Thierry, Miche-
let, Thiers, Cousin, Lamennais, Comte ; the Romantic School ; Beranger, Delavigne,
Lamartine, Victor Uusjo, Sand, Sue, Scribe, and others. . . . 249

SPANISH LITERATURE.

iNTRODUcnos.— 1. Spanish Literature and its divisions. — 2. The Language.

Period First.— 1. Early National Literature; the Poem of the Cid; Berceo, Alfonso
the Wise, Segura ; Don Juan Manuel, the Archpriest of Hita, Santob, Ayala.— 2. Old
Ballads.— 3. The Chronicles.— 4. Romances of Chivalry. — 5. The Drama.— 6. Provencal
Literature in Spain.— 7. The influence of Italian Literature in Spain.— 8. The Canci-
oneros and Prose writing. — 9. The Inquisition.

Period Second. — The efifect of Intolerance on Letters— 2. Influence of Italy on
Spanish Literature; Boscan, Garcilasso de la Vega, Diego de Mendoza.— 3. History;
Cortez, Gomara, Oviedo, Las Casas. — 4. The Drama, Rueda, Lope de Vega, Cal-
deron de la Barca.— 5. Romances and Tales ; Cervantes, and other writers of
fiction.— 6. Historical Narrative Poems; Ercilla.— 7. Lyric Poetry; the Argenso-
las ; Luis de Leon, Quevedo, Ilerrera, Gongora, and others.— S. Satirical and other
Poetry.— 9. History and other prose writing; Zurita, JIariana, Sandoval, and
others.

Period Third.— 1. French Influence on the Literature of Spain —2. The dawn of
Spanish Literature in the ISth century; Feyjoo, Isla, Moratin the elder, Yriarte, Me-
lendez, Gonzalez, Quintana, Moratin the younger.— 3. Spanish Literature in the 19th
Century. .......•••• '^^^

PORTUGUESE LITERATURE.

1. The Portuguese Language.— 2. Early Literature of Portugal.— 3. Poets of tlie
Fifteenth Century ; Macias, Ribeyro.— 4. Introduction of the ltali:'.n style ; Saa de



CONTENTS. XI

Miranda, Montemayor, Fcrreira.— 5. Epic Poetry ; Camoens ; the Lusiad. — 6. Dramatic
Poetry' ; Gil Vicente. — 7. Prose Writing; Rodriguez Lobo, Barros, Brito, Veira. —
8. Portuguese Literature in the Seventeenth, Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries ;
Antonio Jose, Manuel do Nascimento, Manuel de Bocage .... &43

FIXNISn, HUNGARIAN, TURKISH AND ARMENIAN

LITERATURES.

1. The Finnish Language and Literature: Poetry; thelvalevala; Kovonen. — 2. The
Hungarian Language and Literature : the Age of Stephen I. ; Influence of the House of
Anjou; of the Reformation; of the House of Austria; Kossuth; Josika ; EiJluos ;
Kuthy ; Szigligeti ; Petcifi.— 3. The Turkish Language and Literature : two dialects ;
Turkish Poetry and History : Mohammed Mir-Ali-Schir ; Mohammed Tschelebi ; Lami ;
Baki ; Fasli ; Saad-Ed-Din ; Education. — 4. Armenian Language and Literature : Cha-
racter of Armenian Literature ; its Golden Age, and its present condition. . 35S

SLAVIC LITERATURES.

1. The Slavic Race and Language ; the Eastern and Western Stems ; the Alphabets ;
the Old or Church Slavic Language ; St. Cyril's Bible ; the Pravda Russkaya ; the
Annals of Nestor. — 2. The Russian Language and Literature ; from the earliest times
to Peter the Great; from Peter the Great to Lomonosof; Kirsha Danilof, Kanteniir ;
from Lomonosof to Karamsin ; Lomonosof, Sumarokof, Von Wisin, Dershavin ; from
Karamsin to Nicholas I.; Karamsin, Dmitrief, Shukofsky, Koslof; from Nicholas I.
to the present time ; Polevoi, Skromenko, Oustralof, Bestushef, Pushkin ; Popular
Songs.— 3. The Servian Language and Literature; Popular Poetry ; the Female Songs ;
the Heroic Poems. — 4. The Bohemian Language and Literature; from the earliest time
to John Huss : Early Poetry ; John Huss, Jerome of Prague; Golden Age of the Bohe-
mian Literature, its Decline and Revival ; Comenius, Kramerius, Dobrovsky, Kollar,
Schaffarik. — 5. Tiie Polish Language and Literature ; from the Introduction of Christ-
ianity to Casimir the Great ; from Casimir the Great to the beginning of the Seven-
teenth Century ; Rey of Naglowic, John Kochanowskl, Rybinski, Copernicus ; Decline
of the Polish Literature, and its revival ; Konarskl, Zaluski, Czartoryski, Naruszewicz,
Krasicki, Niemcewicz ; from the Revolution of 1330 to the present time ; Mochnacki,
Lelewel, Mickiewicz ; Popular Songs. ....... 365

SCANDINAVIAN LITERATURE.

1. Introduction. The Ancient Scandinavians ; their influence on the English race.—
2. The Mythology. — 3. The Scandinavian Languages. — 1. Icelandic, or old Norse Litfr
rature : the Poetic Edda, the Prose Edda, the Scalds, the Sagas, the Heimskringla.
The Folks-sagas and Ballads of the Middle Ages.— 5. Danish Literature : Saxo Gramma
ticus and Theodoric. Arreboe, Kingo, Tycho Brahe, Holberg, Evald, Baggesen, Rah-
bek, Oehlenschlager, Grundtvig, Blicher, Ingemann, Heiberg, Hans Christian Andersen
and others. Malte Brun, Rask, Rafn, Magnusen, the brothers Oersted.— 6. Swedish
Literature: Messenius, Stjernhjelm, Lucidor and others. The Gallic period; Dalin,
Nordenflycht, Crutz and Gyllenborg, Gustavus III., Kellgren, Leopold, Oxenstjerna.
The new Era ; Bellman, Hallman, Kexel, Wallenberg, Lidner, Thorild, Lengien, Fran»
zen, Wallin. The Phosphorists ; Atterbora, Hammarskold and Palmblad. The Gothic
School ; Geijer, Tegner, Stagnelius, Almquist, Vitalis, Runeberg and others. The Ro-
mance writers ; Cederborg, Bremer, Carlen, Knorrinp:. Science ; Swedenborg, Liuna-ua
and others 380



XU COXTEXTS.



GERMAN LITERATURE.

Introdcction. — 1. German Literature and its Divisions. — 2. The Mythology.— S. Th«
Language.

Period First. — 1. Early Literature; Translation of the Bible by Ulphilas ; the
Hildebrand Lied. — 2. The Age of Charlemagne ; his Successors ; the Ludwigs Lied ;
Roswitlia ; the Lombard Cycle. — 3. The Suabian Age ; the Crusades ; the Minne-
singers ; the Romances of Chivalry ; the Heldenbuch ; the Xibelungen Lied. — 4. The
Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries; the Master Singers; Satires and Fables; Mys-
teries and Dramatic Representations ; the Mystics ; the Universities ; the invention of
Printing.

PtKioD Second — From 1517 to 1700. — 1. The Lutheran Period ; Luther, Melanchthon. —
2. Manuel, Zwingle, Fischart, Franck, Arnd, Boehm. — 3. Poetry, Satire and Demono-
logy ; Paracelsus and Agrippa ; the Thirty Years' War. — 4. The Seventeenth Century;
Opitz, Leibnitz, Pufendorf, Kepler, AVolf, Thomasius, Gerhard; Silesian Schools ; Uolf-
manswaldau, Lohenstein.

Pkriod Third.— 1. The Swiss and Saxon Schools ; Gottsched, Bodmer, Rabener,
Gellert, Kastner, and others. — 2, Klopstock, Lessing, "Wieland and Herder.— 3.
Goethe and Schiller.— 4 The GiJttingen School; Voss, Stolberg, Claudius, Burger and
others. — ^. The Romantic School ; the Schlegels, Novalis ; Tieck, Korner, Arndt,
Uhland, and otliers. — C. The Drama; Goethe and Schiller ; the Power Men ; Milliner,
Werner, Ilowald and Grillparzer. — 7. Novels, Romances and Legends ; Goethe,
Richter, Tieck, Novalis, and others.— S. Literary History and Criticism ; Winckel-
niann; the Schlegels, Grimm, and others. — 9. History and Theology.— 10. Philosophy;
Kant, Fichte, Schelling and Hegel. — 11. Miscellaneous Writings. . , . 404

DUTCH LITERATURE.

1. The Language.— 2. Dntth Literature to tlie IGth Century ; Maeilant ; Kiel's Stoke;
DeWeert; The Chambers of Rlietoric; The Flemish Chronicle.s; The Rise of the Dutch
Republic— 3. The Latin Writers ; Erasmus ; G.-otius ; Arminius ; Lipsius ; The Scali-
gers, and others; Salmasius ; Spinoza; Boerhaave; Johannes Secundus. — 4. Dutch
Writers of the 16th Century; Anna Byns; Coornhert ; Marnix de St. Aldegonde ;
Bor, Vissclier and Spieghel. — 5. Writers of the 17th Century ; Hooft ; Vondel ; Cats ;
Antonides; Brandt, and others; Decline in Dutch Literature.— 6. The ISth Century;
Poot ; Langendijk ; Hoogvliet ; De Marre ; Feitama ; Huydecoper; The Van Harens ;
Smits ; Ten Kate ; Vifti Winter ; Van Merken ; De Lannoy ; Van Alphen ; Bellamy ;
Nieuwland, StyL and others.- 7. The 19th Century; Feith ; Helmers ; Bilderdyk ;
Van der Palm ; Loosjes ; Loots, Tollens, Van Kampen, De s'Gravenweert, Van Hoevell,
others. ........... 447

EXGLISH LITERATURE.

I.VTHODUCTiON.— 1. Engliftli Literature.— l\s Divisions. 2. Tlie language.

Period First.— 1. Celtic Literature.— Irish, Scotch, and Cymric Celts ; the Chroni-
cles of Ireland ; Ossian's Poems ; Traditions of Arthur ; the Triads ; Tales. 2. Latin,
Literature.— hede \ Alcuin ; Erigena. 3. Anglo-Saxon Literature.— Poetry ; Prose;
Versions of Scripture ; the Saxon Chronicle ; Alfred.

Pkriod Skco.nd.— The Norman Age and the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries.—
1. Literature in the Latin Tongue. 2. Literature in Norman-French.— Voeiry ;
Jlomances of Chivalry. 3. S<txon-EngU.^h.—'SleU-\ci\\ remains. 4. Literature in tJiM



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