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Observations on the so-called poem of Meysun, and on Meysun's claim to the authorship of the poem, with an appendix on Arabic transliteration and pronounciation online

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OBSERVATIONS



ON THE SO-CALLED



POEM OF MEYSUN,



AND ON MEYStJN'S CLAIM TO THE AUTHORSHIP
OF THE POEM.



WITH AN APPENDIX

ON ARABIC TRANSLITEKATION AND PRONUNCIATION.



J. W. HEDHOUSE, LL.D., C.M.G, M.RA.S., etc.



LOAN STACK



HERTFORD :

PRINTED BY STEPHEN AUSTIN AND SONS.



3G6H



PREFACE



As my paper in the Journal of tlie Royal Asiatic Society
refers its readers to a former page of the volume for Mr.
Freeland's text and translation of Meysun's poem, it is
necessary to give them here for the benefit of readers
who may not have access to the pages of the Journal.
They are as follows :

c-j^i ^_» ^.^ j^i 4^1 ^^i ^i;;^v\ ^: 4J^j

^t^^jT jrt ^. ';}\ d^\ ^^44^ ^^^ i>^ J^'i

531



IV PREFACE.

I give thee all the treacherous brightness
Of glittering robes which grace the fair,

Then give me back my young heart's lightness
And simple vest of CameFs hair.

The tent on which free winds are beating
Is dearer to the Desert's child

Than Palaces and kingly greeting —

bear me to my desert wild !

More dear than swift mule softly treading,
While gentlest hands his speed control.

Are camels rough their lone way threading
Where caravans through deserts roll.

On couch of silken ease reclining

1 watch the kitten's sportive play,

But feel the while my young heart pining

For desert guests and watch -dog's bay.
The frugal desert's banquet slender.

The simple crust which tents afford.
Are dearer than the courtly splendour

And sweets which grace a monarch's board.
And dearer far the voices pealing

From winds which sweep the desert round
Than Pomp and Power their pride revealing

In noisy timbrel's measur'd sound.
Then bear me far from kingly dwelling.

From Luxury's cold and pamper'd child,
To seek a heart with freedom swelling,

A kindred heart in deserts wild.



OBSEEYATIONS ON THE VAEIOUS TEXTS
AND TEANSLATIONS OF THE SO-CALLED
^/SONGOF MEYStJN"; AN INQUIEY INTO
MEYStJN'S CLAIM TO ITS AUTHOESHIP;
AND AN APPENDIX ON AEABIC TEANS-
LITEEATION AND PEONUNCIATION.^

By J. W. Redhouse, M.R.A.S., Litt.D., C.M.G., etc., etc.



Dr. Carlyle's book, "Specimens of Arabic Poetry," may
be somewhat scarce, and Cantain. now Sir "R,.. Rnrtnn's



CORRIGENDA.

P. 16, 2nd par., 9th line. Eor " a.h. 35 (a.d. 655) '* read :
*'A.n. 40 (a.d. 660)."

P. 20, 1. 2. For "the direct line of the great Mu'awiya thus
becoming extinct " read : " the remaining branches of the direct
line of the great Mu'awiya being then infants, the sovereignty
passed to collaterals."

P. 23, first line. For " first and only son " read " only son
that left male issue."

P. 23, 11. 4 and 3 from bottom. For " only son " read
as above " only son that left male issue."



Society, Mr. E. J. W. Gibb, has kindly put my prose trans-

^ As this paper may be considered illustrative of its author's method of Arabic
transliteration, the native names are left precisely as spelt in the MS. ; not
modified to be in accordance with the orthography usually adopted in the Journal.
The author, however, prefers a straight stroke under the letters h t s, instead
of the dot {h t s) as used throughout this article ; see his reasons on p. 41. — Ed.



IV PREFACE.

I give thee all the treacherous brightness
Of glittering robes which grace the fair,

Then give me back my young hearths lightness
And simple vest of Camel* s hair.

The tent on which free winds are beating
Is dearer to the Desert's child

Than Palaces and kingly greeting —

bear me to my desert wild !

More dear than swift mule softly treading,
While gentlest hands his speed control,

Are camels rough their lone way threading
Where caravans through deserts roll.

On couch of silken ease reclining

1 watch the kitten's sT^oyfiv^^ r^^oxr _



OBSEEYATIONS ON THE VAEIOUS TEXTS
AND TEANSLATIONS OF THE SO-CALLED
^^SONGOFMEYStJN"; AN INQUIRY INTO
MEYStJN'S CLAIM TO ITS AUTHOESHIP;
AND AN APPENDIX ON AEABIC TEANS-
LITERATION AND PEONUNCIATION.^

By J. W. Redhouse, M.R.A.S., Litt.D., C.M.G., etc., etc.



Dr. Carlyle's book, " Specimens of Arabic Poetry," may
be somewhat scarce, and Captain, now Sir R., Burton's
** Pilgrimage to El-Medinah and Meccah " gives only an
English version, without the Arabic text, of the little piece
of poetry attributed to Meysun, the mother of the second
Damascus Caliph of the house of 'TJmeyya, Yezld son of
Mu'awiya son of *Ebu-Sufyan Sakhr son of Harb, etc.

Mr. Freeland has, therefore, rendered a real service to the
many lovers of old Arabian literature by printing in the
Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, New Series, Yol,
XVIII. p. 90, a complete and fully-vowelled text of the
ditty, as this allows them to compare it with the very free
rhymed and metrical versions made by himself, by Sir R.
Burton, and by Dr. Carlyle. Their talented, but somewhat
florid productions disguise altogether the real form and the
simplicity of the little poem. I have imagined, therefore,
that a closer verbal prose translation of its distichs would not
be a disservice to the cause of Arabic studies in England.

A valued and talented friend, one of the Members of our
Society, Mr. E. J. W. Gibb, has kindly put my prose trans-

^ As this paper may be considered illustrative of its author's method of Arabic
transliteration, the native names are left precisely as spelt in the MS. ; not
modified to be in accordance with the orthography usually adopted in the Journal.
The author, however, prefers a straight stroke under the letters h t s, instead
of the dot {h t s) as used throughout this article ; see his reasons on p. 41. — Ed.



2 THE SONG OF MEYSUN.

lation into a metrical form, with the same kind of monotone
rhyme that is used in the Arabic original, — a system of
versification for which he expresses a great attachment, and
in which he has had much experience.

To enable the readers of our Journal to compare these five
versions with one another, I here copy those of Dr. Carlyle
and Sir R. Burton, while Mr. Freeland's rendering, with his
recension of the Arabic text, can be studied at p. 90-91 of
the present volume.

Dr. Carlyle says (according to Mr. Clouston's "Arabic
Poetry for English Readers ") :

" The Soi^g of Maisuna.

'' The russet suit of camel's hair,

With spirits light and eye serene,
Is dearer to my bosom far,

Than all the trappings of a queen.

" The humble tent, and murmuring breeze,
That whistles through its fluttering walls,
My unaspiring fancy please,

Better than towers and splendid halls.

"Th' attendant colts, that bounding fly,
And frolic by the litter's side.
Are dearer in Maisuna's eye,

Than gorgeous mules in all their pride.

** The watch-dog's voice, that bays whene'er
A stranger seeks his master's cot.
Sounds sweeter in Maisuna's ear.

Than yonder trumpet's long-drawn note.

" The rustic youth, unspoiled by art,
Son of my kindred, poor but free,
Will ever to Maisuna's heart.

Be dearer, pampered fool, than thee."

Sir R. Burton's " Pilgrimage," vol. iii. p. 262, has :

** take these purple robes away,

Give back my cloak of camel's hair,
And bear me from this tow 'ring pile

To where the Black Tents flap i' the air.



THE SONG OF MEYSUN. 3

The camel's colt with falt'ring tread,

The dog that bays at all but me,
Delight me more than ambling mules —

Than every art of minstrelsy.
And any cousin, poor but free.

Might take me, fatted ass ! from thee."

From a comparison of these two versions, it is evident that
Dr. Carlyle and Sir E,. Burton have used the same Arabic
recension, in five distichs, for their renderings, however
widely these two diiFer in form and in words. Sir R.
Burton's is less diffuse than that of Dr. Carlyle. The latter
uses the expression * pampered fool ' where Sir R. Burton
has * fatted ass.' I had imagined, with only Mr. Freeland's
Arabic text to judge from, that these two offensive variants
were perhaps either poetic licences, or that the text or texts
they had used had the word J^ * a calfy^ in the last

hemistich, where Mr. Freeland gives the anagram ^1^^. In

that case, ,_aJ^ 1^5 would have meant, correctly rendered,

* foddered calf,' easily turned by poetic licence into both
^ pampered fool ' and * fatted ass.'

My friend Mr. Gibb has, however, latterly favoured me
with a copy of Dr. Carlyle's Arabic original, from the second
edition of his '* Specimens," London, 1810 ; and this has the
same word, i^, given by Mr. Freeland. Neither of their

translations has, unfortunately, a trace of either of the two
real meanings of the term ^X^, viz. 1st, *an ass, wild or do-

mestic, strong and fat ; ' 2nd, *a man, foreign and non-Muslim'
(i.e. an outlandish barbarian). But, as its accompanying ad-
jective, ^^\ r, means, * home-fed, foddered, not pastured or
pasturing,' the two words combined can only indicate * a
fodder-fed domestic ass,' the alternative signification, * an
outlandish barbarian,' being, consequently, out of the ques-
tion. Neither Dr. Carlyle nor Sir F. Burton is quite right,
therefore, in this respect, as Dr. Carlyle's 'pampered fool'
and Sir E,. Burton's ' fatted ass ' are somewhat wide of the
original expression, ' a fodder-fed ass.'




4 THE SONG OF MEYSUN.

I subjoin here Dr. Carlyle's Arabic text for comparison.
It gives no vowel-points, and it contains some variants from
Mr. Freeland's recension. Omitting the fifth and sixth
distichs of the latter for the present, the two texts follow the
same order of the verses.

(1) uJjLJil\ ^^J ^^ ^]\ i^^^^\ * ^^y^CjJJ ^ L-wi: jj^-J-1

(5, 6)

(7) (.-a.:r-i-^ ^^ ,^ J^\ <^:^\ * ^ ^c-^ ^:? eT* J^^ ^

In 1873, Mr. Gibb has again informed me, Messrs. Henry
S. King and Co. published some part of an Arabic work,
printed in Egypt, but translated and annotated by a lady,
Mrs. Godfrey Clerk, in which the song of Meysiin is given
in seven distichs, like that of Mr. Freeland ; evidently the
same in words, but arranged in a different order. Her
translation runs thus :

1 (2). A hut that the winds make tremble

Is dearer to me than a noble palace ;

2 (5). And a dish of crumbs on the floor of my home

Is dearer to me than a varied feast ;

3 (6). And the soughing of the breeze through every crevice

Is dearer to me than the beating of drums ;

4 (1). And a camel's wool abah which gladdens my eye

Is dearer to me than filmy robes ;

5 (4). And a dog barking around my path

Is dearer to me than a coaxing cat ;

6 (3). And a restive young camel, following the litter,

Is dearer to me than a pacing mule ;

7 (7). And a feeble boor from midst my cousinhood,

Is dearer to me than a rampant ass.



THE SONG OF MEYSUN. 5

The numbers in parentheses show Mr. Freeland's order of
the distichs, for the sake of comparison. The words of each
distich are mainly, essentially, the same in the two versions.
Mrs. Clerk's translation is much, closer to the Arabic text
than either Dr. Carlyle's, or Sir E,. Burton's, as a whole ;
though several words are incorrectly rendered, and many of
the ideas incorporated in the lady's imagery are taken from
Western life, not redolent of the Desert.

Mrs. Clerk's notice of Meysun is to the following effect :
" Misun, the daughter of Bahdal, was married to Miiawiyah,
and he brought her from amongst the wandering Arabs into
Damascus. But she sorrowed exceedingly for her people
at the remembrance of her home ; and one day, whilst he
was listening to her, he heard her reciting and saying " the
verses given above. " Upon hearing these lines, Miiawiyah.
exclaimed, ^ The daughter of Bahdal was not satisfied until
she had likened me to a rampant ass ! ' And he ordered her
to be packed off again to her family in the desert."

In a note, Mrs. Clerk says further : '^ She had an excellent
genius for poetry ; and at Miiawiyah's command, took her
son Yezid (Miiawiyah's successor) with her into the desert
among her own relations, in order to inspire him with poetic
sentiments."

A foot-note in Sir R. Burton's " Pilgrimage " informs us
as follows : " The British, reader will be shocked to hear that
by the term * fatted ass,' the intellectual lady alluded to her
husband. The story is, that Muawiyah, overhearing the
song, sent back the singer to her cousins and beloved
wilds. Maysunah departed, with her son Yezid, and did
not return to Damascus till the ^ fatted ass ' had joined his
forefathers."

Dr. Carlyle (in Mr. Clouston's book) gives the same story,
but in more reserved terms, ending thus : " As a punishment
for her fault, he ordered her to retire from court. Maisuna
immediately obeyed, and, taking her infant son Yezid with
her, returned to Yemen ; nor did she revisit Damascus till
after the death of Mowiah, when Yezid ascended the
throne."



6 THE SONG OF MEYSUN.

Mrs. Clerk writes " Misun " instead of Meysun. But,
with Dr. Carlyle's j^^^^, thougli he transliterates * Maisuna/
we can see that Mr. Freeland's ^^J^, transliterated by him
* Maisun/ is the true name, as is confirmed in the Qamus
lexicon under the root ij*^, where it is said : iiT ^j»^lii^ j
JjJt^ ,^ Sj'j 1\ jii^ Lii-Jo "and Meysun is the name of the

daughter of Bahdel, the mother of Yezid son of Mu'awiya/
Sir E,. Burton's * Maysunah ' is, therefore, quadruply
erroneous, the first vowel being, correctly, the soft e, not
the hard a ; while the second vowel is long, u ; and the
final * ah ' a double interpolation.

Eeferring now to Mr. Freeland's text, p. 90, any one may
observe, even if entirely uninstructed in Arabic, that it
presents on the right-hand side of the left-hand column of
hemistichs, as he looks at the page, a perpendicular row
of the words <- ^ ^j\ ^^xl| seven times repeated, once in
each distich. These words simply mean : (were) lovelier
to me than .... This one reiterated expression, then,
heads the second clause, the second hemistich, of each verse
or distich, without the alteration of a single letter or vowel -
point, and indelibly stamps the type of the whole poem in a
most determinate, remarkable manner.

But let the reader next examine the versions of Dr.
Carlyle, Sir R. Burton, and Mr. Freeland, comparing them
with Mrs. Clerk's rendering. He will perceive that they
have all three systematically shunned this sevenfold, charac-
teristic series of words ; they have striven to give a variety
to what requires uniformity, — they have attempted " to gild
refined gold, to paint the lily," and they have merely over-
laid naive Eastern simplicity with a series of Western em-
bellishments.

The somewhat metrical prose translation offered below for
further elucidation gives as close an approximation to the
sense of the original as I have been able to compass, in about
the same number of syllables ; and my friend Mr. Gibb's
versification which follows it, without losing sight of the
Arabic text, wdll be found, I trust, by our readers, to exhalo,



THE SONG OF MEYSUN. 7

like the sweet wood- violet, an aroma as delicately poetic as
the very simple ideas, clothed in the artless words of the
poem, can well be made to furnish.

Meysun's Ditty.

To dress in camlet smock, with tearless, cheerful eye.

Were lovelier to me than gauzy webs to wear.
A tent through which the winds should waft their fluttering breeze,

"Were lovelier to me than sumptuous princely bower.
A wayward camel-colt, behind the litter-train,

Were lovelier to me than nimbly-pacing mule.
A dog that bayed the coming guests not yet at hand.

Were lovelier to me than fondly-coaxing cat.
To eat a crumblet in a tent's retiring nook

Were lovelier to me than eating breadcake bun..
The hoarse, loud roarings of the winds in every glen,

Were lovelier to me than timbrels' clattering pnlse.
A generous, slender youth, one of my uncle's sons,

Were lovelier to me than any foddered ass.

Mr. Gibb's versified rendering is as follows :
Meysiw's Ditty.

To dress in camlet smock with cool and placid eyne,

Were liefer far to me than robes of gauze to wear ;
A tent, wherethrough the winds in gentle wafts should breathe,

Were liefer far to me than palace haught and fair ;
A wayward camel-colt behind the litter-train.

Were liefer far to me than hinny debonair ;
A dog that bayed the guests ere yet they came me nigh,

Were liefer far to me than cat with fondling air ;
To eat a scantling meal aside within the tent,

Were liefer far to me than feast on dainties rare ;
The soughing moan of winds that blow through every glen.

Were liefer far to me than sounding tabors' blare ;
A slim but generous youth from 'mong my uncle's sons,

Were liefer far to me than foddered ass, I swear.



8 THE SONG OF MEYSUN.

The reader is now in a position to choose for hinaself which
of the English versions given of this little Arabian song,
ballad, or ditty he may think best adapted to convey its real
meaning. The variants in Dr. Carlyle's text, as compared
with that of Mr. Freeland, of Lr for pl^, of /iib:^^ for
(J^ss^, of <— Jy J for <-Jyj, are not of much consequence, the
last, ^^j, being probably a printer's error. His cJyjJ^Jifc,
however, indicates that the sixth line of Mr. Freeland's
version was not altogether unknown to some copyist through
whom Dr. Carlyle's text was derived, as that distich ends with
c_i^3Ji JiJ, of which the^ is a synonym with Dr. Carlyle's

:J^ ; and this last, again, is apparently a clerical substitute for
Mr. Freeland's j!i>, two distichs having been thus erroneously

fused into one. The substitution of ^i for ^^=s^ accounts
for Dr. Carlyle's expression of * poor,' where Mr. Freeland's
text requires a rendering of * slim,' * thin,' ' slender,' or the
like, though Mr. Freeland's free-and-easy rendering suggests
nothing of the kind.

Taking the distichs of Mrs. Clerk's version in the order of
Mr. Freeland's text, it may be remarked that she has
misunderstood the expression in No. 1 about the eye. It
is not the * abah ' that is to gladden the eye ; but it is * a
camlet smock ' together with a cool, ix. an unreddened,
uninflamed, ' tearless, cheerful eye,' or, in other words, ^' a
camlet with happiness of mind were lovelier, dearer to me

" In No. 2, again, it should not be that ' the winds

make tremble ' the tent ; but that the winds flutter as they
pass through the tent. In No. 3, ' litter ' should be litters,
i.e. a train of several or many litters. In No. 4, ^' around
my path " is a thoroughly Western misconception of what
really means in front of me, i.e. between them and me,
" short of me." In No. 5, *' varied feast" is too far from the
sense as to both words ; the comparison is between a dry,
broken little morsel, '' a crumblet," and a fresh-baked, soft



THE SONG OF MEYSUN.



cake of bread, usually eaten in Syria, etc., with other food at
meals. In No. 6, *' crevice " is not right ; and in No. 7, the
jj^ of the text is the very reverse of *'a boor," and really
means a fine, noble fellow ; while " rampant " is wrong
altogether, unless we are to read, as is given further on, in

Ziya Pasha's recension, cd^j>f. for u-i->i£ after J^ .

The text given by Ziya Pasha (then Ziya Bey) in a three-
volume collection of Arabic, Persian, and Turkish poems, to
which he gave the name of ci^UKi , is found in vol. ii. p. 442,
of the collection. It does not agree in the sequence of the
distichs with either of those of Mr. Freeland or Mrs. Clerk,
except as to the last, and only important one. This occupies
the same place in all three, as also in the versions of
Dr. Carlyle and Sir R. Burton. Several variant words
occur, too, in the distichs. No vowels are given. In the
following copy Mr. Freeland's order of the distichs is again
shown in the parentheses.

1 (2) U^^^ ^. J\ e^,

2 (1) uJ^.iAll (j^J ^ ^\ C -

3 (o) c-i-^y 1 J^^ cr* L5^^ S-
sl\ JLJ ,.t^ |J1 V -



4(6)
5(4)
6(3)
7(7)



jJLJ ^^



ij—Sl k_J5 ^^y



.J. J_i_J



c;-



i-jj - ^



t^









^l



I J^ c^^"



vj



h^ jyj' ^.



,L^



t^g..,^^ ,






^,Ji\ for ^ ^^2?jT



The variant words are, in 1, ic^
in 3, ^u^^ for l:^: ; in 5, jl^U 1 for ^'lli'Vl , and ki for j;^ ;
in 6, ^^1^ for (J^V\ , and uJ^c>j for w-Jyj ;
last word, j^-i-.-^^ for

Of these variants,



and in 7, the



J^jV \ and AY^\ \ are both correct and
synonymous plurals of ^JM the wind) ^ means in it, while



10 THE SONG OF MEYSUN.

d^ signifies yr<9?w it', in 3, ^:^ 7ny tent, is for l^j of a
tent ; in 5, J^J^^ ^^^^ sudden, unexpected droppers-in by
night, takes place of uJl;^ VT ^^^ guests ; while lEJ and > are
synonyms for cat ; in 6, JibVT, pi. of jXb, means the erect
forms, the figures (of men), while ^UliV\, pi. of ^f^,
signifies camel-litters in which women sit when travelling ;
uJ.u>, appears to be a misprint; and in 7, <-^-ii ^^"^ a coarse
barbarian, a tiresome lout, is a much more apposite converse
of i-2-.:sr jj4^ a slender, generous youth, than is u-c-ii ^-^
6X foddered ass. Were the poem to be edited anew, this
word j*-i-^ should be adopted as the better and probably
true reading. The distich could then be rendered :

*' A slender, generous youth, one of my uncle's sons,
"Were lovelier to me than any tiresome lout."

By further considering that, as none of the distichs except
this last is composed of two rhyming hemistichs, it would
be perhaps better if this distich also were deprived of its
rhyme; a critic might feel inclined to prefer Dr. Carlyle's
%Ai at the end of the first hemistich, and the distich might
stand thus in translation :

'' A generous youth, though poor, one of my uncle's sons,
"Were lovelier to me than rude, offensive lout."

But " poor " and *' generous," again, are not very usual
poetic concomitants ; and a word such as <J-ii» tender-hearted,
i-i^ considerate, J>-J noble, etc., if met with in any variant

recension, would make a better antithesis to cJ-.i-c, and
would be a still more preferable alternative to »— a-.^^ or J-ii
in the hemistich here treated of.

Of the whole, very artless poem, it may be said that the
repetition of ^S in distich No. 1, and of jS\ in distich No.
5, are doubtless blemishes. The repetition of el-^ in distichs
2 and 5, and the virtual repetition of J\^j\ and "Igl in



THE SONG OF MEYSUN. H

distichs 2 and 6, are still open to objection, though less so
than the former. The variation of the rhyming long vowels,
by the use of four letters, ^\ and three letters, ^^, is at best a
permissible licence in Arabic verse, is not tolerated in Persian
or Turkish, and cannot be taken as adding beauty to the
poem. The sevenfold repetition may be taken, perhaps, as a
very effectual mark of individuality in the composition, which
thus stands unparalleled, very likely, and can therefore be
held to constitute a kind of beauty not advisable to imitate.
We may, therefore, look upon '* Meysun's Poem " as a some-
what faulty, though striking, artless ballad, w^ell adapted to
captivate the rude, uncultivated children of the desert and
villagers, so as to elicit their applause on being recited. We
shall then have said as much in its praise as its subject admits
of; and this preference for desert-life shown in its words may,
it seems, have given to our own poet, Moore, the germ of the
idea from which he evolved his charming little gem of " Fly
to the desert, fly with me ! " which is as untrue, in reality, as
it is specious and captivating to young, ardent minds, un-
acquainted with the hard lot of incessant toil, frequent starva-
tion, and ceaseless blood-feuds, of which the life of the desert
is chiefly made up.

But a much more serious question arises with reference to
the supposed authorship of this little Arabic ditty ; more
especially since it is known that Ziya Pasha, himself a poet
of high standing and research, avows himself ignorant of its
composer. In a marginal note he has laconically marked the
poem as being "by an author unknown." One would imagine
that he must certainly have known that common rumour has
for ages attributed it to Meysun ; and he may, therefore,
in his judgment, have deliberately and definitively rejected
this parentage. Before I had heard of his marginal note, I
had myself felt inclined to doubt, urged by considerations of
the status and known or probable precedents, respectively, of
the dramatis personce of the little burletta. Did, then, Meysun



12 THE SONG OF MEYSUN.

probably compose or even sing these verses? Did Mu^wiya,
on hearing' her sing them on a chance occasion, dismiss her
summarily from his home — from his mansion of governor, for
he was not a sovereign until many years later? His son and
successor, Yezld, from his recorded age of 34 at his accession,
must have been born not many years after Mu'awiya became


1 3 4 5

Online LibraryUnknownObservations on the so-called poem of Meysun, and on Meysun's claim to the authorship of the poem, with an appendix on Arabic transliteration and pronounciation → online text (page 1 of 5)