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THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY

OF CALIFORNIA

IRVINE

GIFT OF
J. A. C. Grant



THE



AMERICAN STATE REPORTS,

CONTAINING THB

CASES OF GENERAL VALUE AND AUTHORITY,

SUBSEQUENT TO THOSE CONTAINED IN THE "AMERICAN
DECISIONS" AND THE "AMERICAN REPORTS,"

DECIDED IK THB

COURTS OF LAST RESORT

OF THB SEVERAL STATES.

4BLBCTBD, REPORTED, ASD ANNOTATED

BY A. 0. FREEMAN,

AMD THB ASSOCIATE EDITORS OF THB " AMKBICAJT DECISION!.*



VOL. XXXIII.



BAN FRANCISOW,

BANCROFT-WHITNEY COMPANY,

LAW PDBLUIUS AMD LAW BOOUKUBU,
1893.



abtered ^wording to Act of Congress in the year 189%

Br BANCROFT-WHITNEY COMPANY,
sfc the Office of the Librarian of Ccngress, at Washingto*,



8AK FBAHOIflOOl

ELicrmorm Ooimrti



AMERICAN STATE REPORTS.

VOL. XXXIII.



SCHEDULE

showing the original volumes of reports In which the
cases herein selected and re-reported may be found,
and the pages of this volume devoted to each state.

VAMU
WISCONSIN REPORTS ...... Vol. 82. 17-82

ALABAMA REPORTS ...... Vol. 94. 83-156

CALIFORNIA REPORTS ..... VoL 97. 167-215

ILLINOIS REPORTS Vols. 140, 14L 216-354

KANSAS REPORTS VoL 49. 855-413

MISSOURI REPORTS Vols. 110, 111. 414-556

MONTANA REPORTS VoL 12. 657-615

NEBRASKA REPORTS ...... VoL 84. 616-669

NEW JERSEY LAW REPORTS . . . Vol. 64. 670-689

NEW YORK REPORTS VoL 137. 690-755

NORTH DAKOTA REPORTS .... VoL 2. 766-804

PENNSYLVANIA STATE REPORTS . . VoL 148. 805-849

RHODE ISLAND REPORTS. - .... VoL 17. 850-907

VERMONT REPORTS . VoL 64. 908-949



SCHEDULE



8HOWINO IN WHAT VOLUMES OP THIS SERIES THE OASES

REPORTED IN THE SEVERAL VOLUMES OF OFFICIAL

REPORTS MAY BE FOUND.



Btete reporbi are In parentheses, nd the numbers of this series In bold-faced flgnre*.

ALABAMA. (83) 3; (84) 5; (85) 7; (86) 11; (87) 13; (88) 16; (89) 18; (90,

91) 84; (92) 25; (93) 30; (94) 33.
ARKANSAS. (48) 3; (49) 4; (50) 7; (51); 14; (52) 80; (53) 88; (54) 26;

(55) 89.
CALIFORNIA. (72) 1; (73) 8; (74) 5; (75) 7; (76) 9; (77) 11; (78, 79) 18; (80)

13; (81) 15; (85) 16; (83) 17; (84) 18; (85) 20; (86) 21; (87, 88) 22;

(89) 83; (90, 91) 25; (92, 93) 27; (94) 28; (95) 29; (96) 31; (97) 33.
COLORADO. (10) 3; (11) 7; (12) 13; (13) 16; (14) 20; (15) 22; (16) 25;

(17) 8L
CONNECTICUT. (54) 1; (55) 3; (56) 7; (57) 14; (58) 18; (59) 81; (60)25;

(61) 89.

DELAWARE (5 Houst.) 1; (6 Houst.) 82.
FLORIDA. (22) 1; (23) 11; (24) 18; (25, 26) 83; (27) 86; (28) 89; (29) 30;

(30) 32.
GEORGIA. (76) 8; (77) 4; (78) 6; (79) 11; (80, 81) 18; (82) 14; (83, 84) 20;

(85) 81; (86) 88; (87) 27; (88) 30; (89) 32.
ILLINOIS. (121) 2; (122) 3; (123) 5; (124) 7; (125) 8; (126) 9; (127) 11;

(128) 15; (129) 16; (130) 17; (131) 19; (132) 22; (133, 134) 23;

(135) 85; (136) 29; (137) 31; (138, 189) 32; (140, 141) 33.
INDIANA. (112) 2; (113) 3; (114) 5; (115) 7; (116) 9; (117, 118) 10; (119)

12; (120, 121) 16; (122) 17; (123) 18; (124) 19; (125) 81; (126, 127) 22;

(128) 25; (129) 28; (130) 30; (131) 31; (132) 32.
IOWA. (72) 2; (73) 5; (74) 7; (75) 9; (76, 77) 14; (78) 16; (79) 18; (80) 20;

(81) 85; (82) 31; (83) 32.
KANSAS. (37) 1; (38) 5; (39) 7; (40) 10; (41) 13; (42) 16; (43) 19; (44) 21;

(45) 23; (46) 26; (47) 27; (48) 30; (49) 33.

KENTUCKY. (83, 84) 4; (85) 7; (86) 9; (87) 12; (88) 21; (89) 25; (90) 29.
LOUISIANA. (39 La. Ann.) 4; (40 La. Ann.) 8; (41 La. Ann.) 17; (42 L*.

Ann.) 81; (43 La. Ann.) 26; (44 La. Ann.) 32.
MAINB. (79) 1; (80) 6; (81) 10; (82) 17; (83) 23; (84) 30.
MARYLAND. (67) 1; (68) 6; (69) 9; (70) 14; (71) 17; (72) 80; (73) 25; (74)

28; (75) 32.
MASSACHUSETTS. (145)1; (146) 4; (147) 9; (148) 12; (149) 14; (150) 15; (151)

21; (152) 23; (153) 25; (154) 26; (loo) 31; (156) 32.



10 SCHEDULE.

MicmoAic. - (60, 61) 1; (62) 4; (63) 6; (64, C5) 8; (68, 67) 11; (68, 69, 75)

18; (70) 14; (71, 76) 15; (72, 73, 74) 16; (77, 78) 18; (79) 19; (80) 20;

(81, 82, 83) 81; (84) 22; (85, 86, 87) 24; (88) 26; (89) 28; (90, 91) SO;

(92) 31; (93) 32.
MIUNESOTA. (36) 1; (37) 5; (38) 8; (39, 40) 18; (41) 16) (42) 18} (43) 19;

(44) 20; (45) 22; (46) 24; (47) 28; (48) 31; (49) 38.
MISSISSIPPI. (65) 7; (66) 14; (67) 19; (68) 24; (69) SO.
MISSOURI. (92) 1; (93) 3; (94) 4; (95) 6; (96) 9; (97) 10; (98) 14; (99) 17;

(100)18; (101)20; (102)22; (103)23; (104,105)24; (100)27; (107)28;

(108, 109)32; (110, 111) 33.
MOWTANA. (9) 18; (10) 24; (11) 28; (12) 33.
NEBRASKA. (22) 3; (23, 24) 8; (25) 13; (26) 18; (27) 80) (28, 29) 86;

(30) 27; (31) 28; (32, 33) 29; (34) 33.
NEVADA. (19) 3; (20) 19.
NEW HAMPSHIBE. (64) 10; (62) 13; (65) 23.
NEW JERSEY. (43 N. J. Eq.) 3; (44 N. J. Eq.) 6; (60 N. J. L.) 7; (51

N. J. L.; 45 N. J. Eq.) 14; (46 N. J. Eq.; 52 N. J. L.) 19; (47 N. J r

Eq.) 24; (53 N. J. L.) 26; (48 N. J. Eq.) 27; (49 N. J. Eq.) 31; (54

N. J. L.)33.
NEW YORK. (107) 1; (108) 2; (109) 4; (110) 6; (111) 7; (112) 8; (113) 10;

(114) 11; (115) 12; (116, 117) 15; (118, 119) 16; (120) 17; (121) 18; (122)

19; (123) 20; (124, 125) 21; (126) 22; (127) 24; (128, 129) 26; (130,

131) 27; (132, 133) 28; (134) 30; (135) 31; (136) 32; (137) 33.
NORTH CAROLINA. (97, 98) 2; (99,100)6; (101)9; (102)11; (103)14; (104)

17; (105) 18; (106) 19; (107) 22; (10S) 23; (109) 26; (110) 28; (111) 32.
NORTH DAKOTA. (1) 26; (2) 33.

OHIO. (45 Ohio St.) 4; (46 Ohio St.) 15; (47 Ohio St.) 21; (48 Ohio St.) 89.
OREGON. (15) 3; (16) 8; (17) 11; (18) 17; (19) 20; (20) 23; (21) 28;

(22) 29.
PENNSYLVANIA (115, 116, 117 Pa. St.) 2; (118, 119 Pa. St.) 4; (120, 121

Pa. St.) 6; (122 Pa. St.) 9; (123, 124 Pa. St.) 1O; (125 Pa. St.) 11; (126

Pa. St.) 12; (127 Pa. St.) 14; (128, 129 Pa. St.) 15; (130, 131 Pa. St.) 17;

(132, 133, 134 Pa. St.) 19; (135, 136 Pa, St.) 20; (137, 138 Pa. St.) 21;

(139, 140, 141 Pa. St.) 23; (142, 143 Pa. St.) 24; (144, 145 Pa. St.) 27;

(146 Pa. St.) 28; (147, 150 Pa. St.) 30; (151 Pa. St) SI; (148 Pa. St.)

33.

RHODE ISLAND. (15) 2; (16) 27; (17) 33.
SOUTH CAROLINA. (26) 4; (27, 28, 29) 13; (30) 14; (31, 32) 17; (33) 86;

(34) 27; (35) 28; (3,>) 31.

TENNESSEE. (85) 4; (86) 6; (87) 10; (88) 17; (89) 24; (90) 25; (91) 30.
TEXAS. (68) 2; (69; 24 Tex. App.) 5; (70; 25, 26 Tex. App.) 8; (71) 10;

(27 Tex. App.) 11; (72) 13; (73, 74) 15; (75) 16; (76) 18; (77; 28 Tex.

App.) 19; (78) 22; (79) 23; (29 Tex. App.) 25; (80, 81) 26; (82) 27;

(30 Tex. App.) 28; (S3) 29; (84) 31.
VERMONT. (60) 6; (61) 15; (62) 22; (63) 25; (64) 33.
VIRGINIA. (82) 3; (83) 5; (84) 10; (85) 17; (86) 19; (87) 24; (88) 89.
WASHINGTON. (1) 22; (2) 26; (3) 28; (4) 31.
WEST VIRGINIA. (29) 6; (30) 8; (31) 13; (32, 33) 25; (34) 86; (36) 89;

(36) 32.
WiaooNsnr. (69) 2; (70, 71) 5; (72) 7; (73) 9; (74, 76) 17; (76, 77) 80; (78)

23; (79) 24; (80) 27; (81) 29; (82) 33.
WYOMING. (3) 31.



AMERICAN STATE REPORTS.

VOL. XXXIII.



CASES REPORTED.



NAMK. SUBJECT. REPORT. PAOR.

Adams v. Fletcher Nuisances 17 R. I. 137.... 859

Allen v. Keily Landlord and ten't.. 17 R. I. 731 .... 905

Allentown v. Western U. Tel. Co. Man. corporations . .148 Pa, St. 117... 820

Askew v. State Homicide 94 Ala. 4 83

Atchison etc. R. R. Co. v. "Boerner.Eminent domain... 34 Neb. 240 637

Austin v. Bailey Mortgages 64 Vt. 367 932

Ballou Y. Earle Carriers 17 R. I. 441 881

Beck v. Dowell Damages Ill Mo. 506 547

Beck v. Haas Limitations o/act'ns. Ill Mo. 264 616

Beck v. Pennsylvania etc. R. R. Co.Eminent domain ... 148 Pa. St. 271. . . 822

Bensieck v. Cook Trust deeds 110 Mo. 173 422

Bibb v. State ...Husband and wife.. 94 Ala. 31 88

Billings v. Accident Ins. Co Insurance. ... .... 64 Vt. 78 913

Board of Commissioners v. Ottawa. Taxation 49 Kan. 747 396

Boss v. Northern Pac. R. R. Co. . . Railroad* 2 N. D. 123 .... 756

Bowers v. Smith Elections Ill Mo. 45 491

Bowling v. Garrett Mechanic's lien 49 Kan. 504 . . . . 377

Braa v. Sheffield Lease 49 Kan. 702 ... 386

Brown r. Pitcairn Specific perform? 'nee. 148 Pa. St. 387. . . S34

Butler v. Baker Brokers 17 R. I. 582 897

Capwell r. Sipe Privilege 17 R. I. 475 .... 89

Cass County Bank v. Bricker Compound 'g felony. 34 Neb. 516 .... 649

Caswell v. Caswell Mar ge and divorce. 64 Vt. 557 943

Jud 9 ment * 17 R. I. 492 .... 893

Chicago etc. Brick Co. v. Rein- \ Matster and servant .UQ I1L 334.. ,. 249
neiger j

Chicago etc. Cab Co. r. Yerkes. . . Corporations 141 111. 320 315

City of Camden v. Green Payment 54 N. J. L. 591. . 686

Cole v. O'Brien Agency , 34 Neb. 68 616

Commercial Nat. Bank T. Burch. .Corporations 141111. 519 331

Commonwealth v. Allen Highways 148 Pa. St. 358. . . 830

Commonwealth v. Hess Sales 148 Pa. St. 98.... 810

Connecticut River Sav. Bank T. j Trustt 64 Vt 571>> . 944

Albee f

Coving ton v. Neftzger Insane persons 140 I1L 608 261



12 CASES REPORTED.



8rp.jr.cr. REPORT. PAOB.

Dance, In r .................... Certiorari. ........ 2 N. D. 184.... 768*

Davis v. Bronsou ................ Contract* ......... 2 N. D. 300.... 788

Dean T. Driggs .................. Wareliotuemen ..... 137 N. Y. 274.... 721

Disbrow v. Durand .............. Services .......... 54 N. J. L. 343 . . 678

Dodge v. ranger ............... Man. corporations .. 17 R. I. 664 .... 901

Doty v. Teller .................. Estates ........... 64 N. J. L. 163.. 670

Dr K'y Co!' Mark '. Street t '*; \Streetrailway,.... 97 Cal. 553 ..... 203
Dwyer T. American Express Co. ..Master and servant. 82 Wis. 307 ..... 44

Edgerton v. Edgerton ............ Mar'ge and divorce. 12 Mont. 122 ... 557

Engel v. Eureka Club ............ Master and servant.. 137 N. Y. 100.... 692

Estate of Plate .................. Wills ........ . . ..148 Pa. St. 55. ... 805

Eyre T. Jordan .................. Landlord and ten'nt.lll Mo. 424 ..... 543

Fanning v. Chace ................ Slander .......... 17 R. I. 388 .... 878

Farley v. Farley ................ Mar'ge and divorce. 94 Ala. 501 ...... 141

Ferguson v. Nc-ilson ............. Married women. ... 17 R. I. 81 ...... 855

Ferguson v. Soden .............. Usury ............ Ill Mo. 208 ...... 512

Ferris v. Montgomery Land etc. ) D ,..,. n t AI KKI 1*0

Q O ^Partition .......... 94 Ala. 557 ..... 146

Fifth Avenue Bank v. Forty-),-, TOT XT xr > mn

second Street etc. R'y Co. . . . . \ Corporation, ....... 137 N. Y. 231 .... 712

First Nat. Bank v. Payne ........ Witnesses .......... Ill Mo. 291 ..... 620

First Nat. Bank v. Security Nat. ) r . . . XT , , -,

Bank > Neg. instruments. . . 34 Neb. 71 ...... 618

First Nat. Bank v. Sprague ....... Banks ............ 34 Neb. 318 ..... 644

Fish Bros Wajron Co. v. LaBelle J Trade . ma fr ...... 82 Wis. 546. .. 72

Wagon Works .............. J

Flint v. Hutchiuson etc. Burner Co.Slander ........... 110 Mo. 492 ..... 476

Gay v. Brierfield Coal etc. Co ..... Jurisdiction ....... 94 Ala. 303 ..... 122

Oaynor v. Blewett ............... Lis pendent ...... 82 Wis. 313 ..... 47

Gibney v. State ................ Negligence ........ 137 N. Y. 1 ...... 690

Goldsmith v. Eichold ............ Partnership ....... 94 Ala. 116 ..... 97

Goodwin v. Smith ............... Judicial sales ...... 49 Kan. 351 ..... 373

Gordon r. Gordon ............... Margeand divorce. Ill 111. 160 ...... 294

Gorman v. Southern Pacific Co. ..Railroads ......... 97 Cal. 1 ....... 157

Gunther T. Ullrich .............. Vendor andpurch'r. 82 Wis. 222 ..... 32

Haeussler v. Missouri Iron Co .... Partition .......... 110 Mo. 188. ..... 431

Harding v. Hawkins ............. Judgments ........ 141 111. 572 ...... 347

Harris v. Foster ........... . ..... Land lord and ten' nt. 97 Cal. 292 ..... 187

Hatch v. Kizer ................. Specific perform'nce.UQ 111. 583 ...... 258

Hawley v. Sheldon .............. Watercourses ...... 64 Vt. 491 ...... 941

Ilaxtun *tc. Heater Co. v. Gordon . Mechanic's lien .... 2 N. D. 246.... 776

Hayes v. Boylan ................ Deeds ............. 141 111. 400 ..... 326

Heizer v. Kingsland etc. M.lg.Co..N&jtigcnce ........ 110 Mo. 605 ...... 482

Herreshoffv. Boutineau .......... Contracts ......... 17R.I. 3.. 850

House v. Beak .................. Evidence .......... 141 III 290. ..... 307

Humboldt etc. Park Association ) ^
T.Stevens. ................. ICorporatioM. ...... 34 Neb. 528 . . . . 664

Hunt v. Hayes .................. Husband and w^fe . . 64 Vt. 89... ,. 917



CASES REPORTED. 13

KAMI. BDBJKCT. BPO* FAOI.

In re Dance ..................... Certiorari ...... ... 2 N. D. 184.... 768

Kftmp r. People. ................ Mun. corporation*.. HI III 9 ........ 270

Kansas City eta R. R. Co. T. ) D ., ,

Higdon./ ................ ... {Jfow&WKfc ...... 94 Ala. 286 ..... 119

Keck v. Bieber .................. Indemnity bondt ...148 Pa. St. 645... 846

Kennedy v. California Sav. Bank. . A Uachment ........ 97 CaL 93 ...... 163

84 Neb. 808..... 666



..... . XL. 676.. 682

Larmonv. Knight ............... Trusts ........... 140111.232. ..... 229

Larson v. Metropolitan etc. R'y Co. Real property ..... 110 Mo. 234 ...... 439

Leatherbury v. Connor ........... Sales. ............ 64 N. J. L. 172.. 672

Lier maim v. Chicago etc. R'y Co. . Railroads. ........ 82 Wis. 286 ..... J7

Lindsay v. Cooper ............... Estoppel. .......... 94 Ala. 170 ..... 105

Linkauf r. Lombard ............. Corporations. ...... 137 N. Y. 417. . . . 743

Madison Square Bank v. Pierce. . .Neg. instruments. . .137 N. Y. 444.... 751

McCasker v. Enright ............ Evidence .......... 64 Vt. 488 ...... 938

Meier v. Morgan ................ Master and servant . 82 Wis. 289 ..... 39

Metcalf v. Sweeney .............. Master and servant. 17 R. I. 213 .... 864

Mills v. La Verne Land Co ........ Mechanic's lien.. . . 97 Cal. 254 ...... 168

More v. Bennett ................ Contracts .......... 140 111. 69 ........ 21 6

Mutual Accident'Asa'n v. Jacobs. . Banks ............ 141 111. 261 ...... 302

Norris r. Heald ................. Mortgages ........ 12 Mont. 282... 581

North Hudson Mutual Building ) ,, on ,. ._

etc. Ass'n v. Childs ......... 7 [ forporahont ....... 82 Wis. 460 ..... 67

Norton v. Atchison etc. R. R. Co.. Judgments ........ 97 Cal. 388 ...... 198

Noyesv. Hubbard ............... Insolvency ......... 64 Vt. 302 ...... 928

O'Keeffe v. First Nat. Bank ....... Neg. instruments. . . 49 Kan. 347 .... 370

Page v. Krekey. ................. Guaranty .......... 137 N. Y. 307 ____ 731

Parker v Providence etc. Steam-



^, ^ ^ . . 17 R. I. 376 .... 869
boat Co ................. .... )

Phenix Ins. Co. v. Munger ....... Insurance ......... 49 Kan. 178.... 360

Peck v. State ....... ............ Judgments ........ 137 N. Y. 372 ____ 733

Penn Mutual Life Ins. Co. v. Heiss. Railroads ........ 141 111. 3~> ....... 273

People v. Montecito Water Co. ...Quo warrant*) ..... 97 Cal. 276 ...... 172

Pierce v. Marple ................ Mechanics lien ..... 148 Pa. St. 69 ____ 808

Pitzmnn v. Boyce ................ Easements ........ Ill Mo. 387 ...... 636

Plate's Estate ................... Wills ............ 148 Pa. St. 55.... 805

Ramberg v. Wahlstrom .......... Cotenancy ......... 140 111. 182 . ..... 227

Rathbun v. Berry ............... Chattel mortgages.. 49 Kan. 735 .... 389

Raymond v. Wimsette ........... Watercourses ...... 12 Mont 551 . . . 604

Re Buck man's Will .............. Witnesses ......... 64 Vt. 313 ...... 930

Reeve v. First Nat. Bank ........ Neg. instruments. . . 54 N. J. L. 208 . 675

Reynolds v. Boston etc. R. R. Co. Railroads ......... 64 Vt. 66 ....... 908

Richards v. Day ................. Filling blanks ...... 137 N. Y. 183 - - 704

Richardson v. Campbell. ......... Interest ..... ...... 34 Neb. 181 ..... 633



14 CASES REPORTED.



SUBJECT. RETOMI,

Richelieu Hotel Co. r. Intern*. ) Cmvorationtf . . . . 140 111. 248 ...... 234

tioual etc. Encampment Co. . . )
Riley v. Martinelli .............. Trusts. ........... 97 Cal. 575 ..... 209

Robinson r. firewater. ........... Wills ............ 140111. 649 ...... 268

Robimon T. Smith ............... Evidence .......... Ill Mo. 205 ...... 610

Savage r. Phoanix Ins. Co ........ Insurance. ........ 12 Mont. 458.... 691

Say re Borough v. Phillips ........ Mun. corporation*. .148 Pa. St. 482... 842

Scarf Y. Aldrich ................. Ouardi'n and ward. 97 Cal. 360 ..... 190

Sclmltzv. Plankinton Bank ...... Mortgages ........ 141 111. 116 ...... 290

Sherrible T. Chaffee ............. Exemptions ....... 17 R. I. 195 ..... 863

Sirxsr v. Quinlan ................. Easement ......... 82 W is. 390..... 66

Smith v. Borden' ................ Married women, ... 17 R. L 220 .... 867

Spancake T. Philadelphia etc. ) Railroadt _ ...... 148 Pa . St . 184... 821

1C. K. (Jo ............... .... )

Spotta v. Wabash etc. R'y Co... ..Railroads. ........ Ill Mo. 380 ...... 631

State v. Herron ................. Assault ........... 12 Mont. 230 ... 676'

State T. King ................... Limitations ofact'ns. 34 Neb. 196 .... 635

State v. Ma Foo ................ Criminal law ...... 110 Mo. 7 ........ 414

State T.Mathers ............... Evidence .......... 64 Vt. 101 ..... 921

State v. Russell ................. Elections .......... 34 Neb. 116.... 625

State T. Sheerin ................ Assault ........... 12 Mont. 539.... 600

State v. Wilcox ...... ........... Rape ............. Ill Mo. 569 ...... 651

St. Sure v. Lindsfelt ............ Judgment* ........ 82 Wis. 346 .... 60

Talcott T. Field ................. Insurance. ........ 34 Neb. 611 .... 662

Taylor v. Murphy ............... Mechanic'* lien .... 148 Pa. St 337. . . 825

Thompson T. State .............. Larceny.... ....... 94 Ala. 535 ..... 145

Valiu v. Milwaukee etc. R. R. Co. Negligence. ........ 82 Wia. 1 ....... 17

Valley Nat. Bank v. Crowell ...... Neg. instruments . . .148 Pa. St. 284 .. 824

Vangiudertaelen v. Poenixlua. Co. Insurance ......... 82 Wia. 112 .... 29

Wadd v. Hazleton ............... Trusts ........... 137 N. Y. 215 ____ 707

Wagner v. Darby ................ Mechanics lien..... 49 Kan. 343 .... 369

64Vt.221 ...... 928



Walton v. Oliver ................ Corporations ...... 49 Kan. 107.... 355

Weaton v. Sto-ldard ............. Partition ......... 137 N. Y. 119.... 697

Wetherell v. O'Brien ............ Banks ....... ^ ....140 I1L 146 ..... 221

Whitmore v. Dwelling House ) , . . ,, a . . ft _

j lia C Q ........ ^Insurance ......... 148 Pa. St 405... 838

Wiloox T. Moon. ................ Libel. ............ 64 Vt 450 ...... 936

Willi v. Lucaa .................. Accessaries ........ 110 Mo. 219 ..... 436

Will of Buckman ................ Witnesses ......... 64 Vt. 313 ..... 930

Wilton T. Shipman .............. Process, .......... 34 Neb. 573 . . . . 660

Yeatman T. King ................ Seed-grain statutes. 2 N. D. 421.... 797

Youngw T. Jadah ............... Civil rightt ........ Ill Mo. 303... ... 627



AMERICAN STATE REPORTS.

VOL, xxxm.



CASES

IN THB

SUPREME COURT

or

WISCONSIN.



VALIN v. MILWAUKEE AND NORTHERN E. R Co.

[82 WISCONSIN, 1.]

OOKTRIBUTORY NEGLIGENCE, QUESTION OF, SHOULD BE SUBMITTED TO JURY,
WHEN. The proof of contributory negligence must be clear and de-
eisive, not leaving room for impartial and unbiased minds to arrive at
any other conclusion, in order to warrant any absolute direction to the
jury on that ground. When, therefore, plaintiff's intestate is killed
at a crossing by a locomotive of the defendant under the following cir-
cumstances, the question of the contributory negligence of the deceased
should be submitted to the jury, and it is error to direct a verdict for
the defendant. The locomotive with only a tender and snow pilot at-
tached was running north at a high rate of speed; there was no regular
train due at the time; the deceased, having just unhitched his horses
from a sled, at a point about thirty feet east of the crossing, was driving
them westward across the track, his view to the south being greatly if
not entirely obstructed by piles of logs and other obstructions, until he
came within fifteen feet of the track, when the forefeet of his near horse
were over the rail. The day was cold, windy, and blustery; it was snow-
ing some and the snow was drifting, the wind blowing from the north-
east; the locomotive approached with much less noise than an ordinary
train would make, and those in charge of it gave 110 signal by bell or
whistle; the deceased, when eight or nine feet from the track, saw the
locomotive one hundred and sixty-four feet away, but had no time for
deliberation or to observe its unusually high rate of speed, and was
truck by it before he could get across the track.

CONTRIBUTORY NEGLIGENCE NOT CHARGEABLE TO ONE CALLED TO ACT IN
EMERGENCY, WHEN. Contributory negligence is not always chargeable
upon the failure to exercise the greatest prudence or the best of judg-
ment in cases where a person is required to act suddenly or in an emer-
gency.

HlOLIGENCK OF DEFENDANT QUESTION FOR JURY, THOUGH CONTRIBUTORY

NEGLIGENCE ON PLAINTIFF'S FART, WUKN. In an action against a rail-
road company to recover damages for the death of the plaintiff's intes-
tate, the negligence of the deceased will not enable the company to escape
AM. ST. RKP., VOL. XXX1IL 2 17



18 VALIN v. MILWAUKEE ETC. R. R. Co. [Wisconsin,

liability if the act which caused the injury was done by the defendant
after it discovered his negligence, and it could have avoided the injury
by the exercise of reasonable care and prudence; and if the deceased
waa not a trespasser, such supervening negligence need not be gross in
order to authorize a recovery. When, therefore, the engineer of a loco-
motive by which the plaintiff's intestate was killed at a railroad crossing
testifies that, when five hundred and forty feet from the crossing he
aw the deceased and his team, the heads of the horses being then within
eight or nine feet of the track; that they were headed as if they were
going to cross, but he did not think they would cross; that they were
then standing still, but when he got within a few yards of them the
deceased made a dive to go across; that when he saw them he did not
think it prudent to sound the whistle for fear it would frighten the horses
onto the right of way; that after striking them he reversed the engine
and stopped the locomotive within three hundred and fifty feet; and
another intelligent witness, who was at the time standing near the scene
of the accident, testifies that the deceased and his horses did not stop
at any tinv after they started from a point about thirty feet from the
track until they were struck by the locomotive, the case should be
submitted to the jury, and it is error to direct a verdict for the defend-
ant.

ACTION brought by Louis Valin, as administrator of the es-
tate of Narcisse Craite, to recover from the defendant damages
for the killing of his intestate at a crossing by one of its loco-
motives. At the point where the accident happened the de-
fendant's road runs due north and south. The crossing at
which it occurred was constructed and maintained by the
company, and was in general use by Craite and others at all
hours in passing and repassing about their lawful business,
with the knowledge and acquiescence of the defendant. The
locomotive was going north at the time the accident happened.
Other facts necessary to an understanding of the case are
stated in the opinion.

Ellis, Greene, and Merrill, and E. H. Ellis, for the appellant.
Charles E. Vroman, for the respondent.

PINNEY, J. The evidence of negligence on the part of the
company, to say the least, was quite sufficient to require that
the case should be submitted to the jury, unless the alleged
negligence of the deceased contributing to his death was so
clearly and conclusively proved as to justify the court in tak-
ing the case from the jury and directing a verdict for the de-
fendant; and the vital question is whether, under the peculiar
circumstances of the case, the alleged negligence of the de-
ceased is one of fact for the jury or of law for the court

The rule ia well settled that, in order to justify the court in



March, 1892.] VALIN v. MILWAUKEE ETC. R. R. Co. 19

taking a case from the jury, the question must be wholly one
of law; for if it depends upon controverted facts, upon what
facts the testimony establishes, the credibility of witnesses,
or what inferences or conclusions ought to be drawn from the
testimony, then it is clearly a question to be submitted to the
jury. If the jury arrive at a conclusion wholly unwarranted
by the evidence, or which may be imputed to passion, sympa-
thy, or prejudice, so that upon the whole case the court can
see that justice has not been done, then for these or kindred
reasons the court, in the exercise of sound discretion, may set
aside the verdict and grant a new trial; but the giving of an



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