TIDES. Soco Ferry. Winter Har1)or.
Corrected EBtabllBlixneiit 11Â»Â» 6" lO^ 52'"
Mean Bige and FaU of ttdes 8.2 ft. 10.5 ft.
Mean Rise and FaU of Springtides 11.7 ft.
Mean Else and FaU of Neap ttdeg 9.3 ft.
VARIATION OF THE COMPASS.
The magnetic variation for 1879 is 12^ 52' W., with an annual increase of about 8^.
The United States Government has establisheil on Fletcher's Neck, near Biddeford Pool, a life-saving station, which is ftillj
equipped with all the ^paratus necessary for the relief of those who may be shipwrecked.
COAST FROM FLETCHER'S NECK TO CAPE PORPOISE.
From Holman^s Point the shore takes a general course 8W. \ W. for six miles to Cape Porpoi&e, under which is the first
harbor met with to the southward of Winter Harbor. The shore-line is much indented by coves and inlets, and several inlands
lie close in with the mainland. Hoyt's Neck, which is the first point of land to the southward of Fletcher's
Neck, is low and grassy, about twenty feet high and bare of trees, and lies 8W. by W. from Holman's Hoyt'S Neck.
Point, three miles distant. The shores between these two points are low and bare, â€” being mainly formed by
the narrow strip of beach separating Biddeford Pool from the sea. Near the neck, however, wooded lands show over the shores,
which do not in any case rise higher than twenty feet above sea-level.
A little over half a mile below Hoyt's Neck is Curtis* Cove, a small, nearly circular cove with tolerably Curtis' Cove.
good water, but of no importance. Its northern shores, formed by the neck of land which separates it from
the small cove under Hoyt's Neck, are wooded with a variety of trees j and the southern shores are bare of trees except a grove
of spruce near the southern end.
Curtis' Cove is separated from Little River by a neck of land, partly cleared and partly wooded, called Cl6ave'8 Neck.
Cleave*8 Neck. This land is low, and as stated above is mostly cleared ; but a grove of trees, mostly spruce,
occupies its southern face. Several houses are seen near its northern end on the southern shore of Curtis' Cove, and another house
near the extreme southern point of the mouth of Little River. *
Little River empties into the northeastern part of Goose Fair Bay two miles and three-quarters to the Littl6 River.
northward of Cape Porpoise and four miles to th? southward of Fletcher's Neck. It is a narrow and
shallow stream, about fifty yards wide at its mouth, but widening to over one hundred yards a short distance above. Its general
course is about N NE. between marshy banks, and it is of no importance.
Two hundred and fifty yards to the southward of Cleave's Neck, with which it is connected at low water, lies a low islet
with one small grove of spruce upon it. This is Timber Island, lying N. and S., oval in shape, and a
quarter of a mile long. It is surrounded by ledges, and is connected at low water with Cleave's Neck by a Goose Fair Bay.
narrow ledge and a bar of bare shingle. This island forms the northeastern boundary of Goose Fair Bay,
an indentation in the shore extending fix)m Timber Island to Goose Fair Creek, a mile and a half to the southward, and of little
importance. Its shores are low, â€” the northern part wooded, the southern half grassy and backed by woods. The wooded land
back of the shore-line is from forty to sixty feet high, and occasional houses are seen along the shore.
Two large bare ledges occupy the middle of Goose Fair Bay, â€” the easternmost one, which is six hun- G0O86 RockS.
dred yards from shore and the same distance from Timber Island, being called Eastern Ooose Rock. The
western one is called Western Ooose Rock, and lies six hundred yai'ds 8W. from tiie eastern rock and the same distance from
the shore, with which it is connected at low water.
492 ATIiANTIC COAST PILOT.
CkXMie FiUr Cfareek, which empties iuto the sea at the southern end of this bay, is a narrow and crooked streamlet, which
takes its rise in the high country back of the coast and flows through marshy land to the sea. It is very
Cape Porpoise. shallow and of no commercial importance. A mile and a half 8. i B. jfrom the mouth of this creek is Cape
Porpoise, which is the eastern point of a barren rocky islet, called Cape Island, and is six miles and three-
quaiters BW. ^ W. from Wood Island Light-house; fifteen miles and a half 8W. ^ W. from Cape Elizabeth ; thirty-two and a
half miles 8W. by W. f W. from Cape Small Point ; and thirty-five and a half miles W 8W. fh)m Seguiu. From Boon Island
Light-house it bears N NE., fourteen miles distant. This cape, the first to the southward of Cape Elizabeth, is in
LaUtade 48Â° 21' 48" N.
Longitude 70Â° 24' 88" W.;
and on its northern side is situated Stage Island Harbor, and on its southern side is the entrance to Cape Porpoise Harbor.
STAGE ISIiAND HARBOR.
This harbor, together with Cape Porpoise Harbor, both of which afford good shelter in northerly winds, is formed by a
group of islands and islets lying along the mainland, most of them to the westward of the cape. Between and among these
islands wind various channels, which give excellent anchorage for light-draught vessels and tolerably good shelter even for
vessels drawing from twelve to eighteen feet. The main shore-line is much cut up by long coves, which increase the size of the
two harbore ; but these coves are, however, all bare at low water.
The most northerly of the group of islands mentioned above is called Stage Island, and forms part of the northern l>oundary
of Stage Island Harbor. It is a mile and three-quarters 8W. from Timber Island and six miles SW. i W.
Stage Island. from Holman's Point, is of irregular shape, lies NW. and BE., and is about six hundred and fifty yards long.
Its western end is three hundred and fifty yards from the mainland, and its southeastern point is connected
at low water by a reef of rocks with a small, low, rocky islet, called Little Stage Island. Stage Island is about twenty feet
high, and entirely bare of all vegetation except some small bushes and grass. On its northern side there is no passage except
at high water ; but the entrance to Stage Island Harbor is on its southern side, between Little Stage Island and Cape Island.
Cape Island, which is merely a mass of rock covered with a very scant growth of moss and grass, is
Cape Island. triangular in shape and three hundred and fifty yards long. It is four hundred yards 8. from Little Stage
Island and six miles and three-quarters 8W. ^ W. from Wood Island Light-house, and at low water a reef
of rocks connects it with Trott's Island, two hundred yards to the westward. The eastern extremity of Cape Island is called
Cape Porpoise, as above mentioned.
Trott'S Island. Trott's Island, the largest of the islands in this vicinity, lies two hundred yards to the westward of
Cape Island and six hundred and fifty yards to the soutbwestward of Stage Island, and forms the western
shore of Stage Island Harbor. It extends N. and 8., is about half a mile long, and its greatest width is three hundred and
fifty yards. The northern end is about thirty feet high and bare of trees, but from thf centre of the island nearly to its southern
point there is a dense growth of low fir with a few spruce trees.
At low water Trott's Island is connected on the east with Cape Island, on the south with Goat Island, (on the northern
side of the entrance to Cape Porpoise Harbor,) and on the north with Bedding's Island. This is a small.
Bedding's Island, low, grassy islet, about two hundred yards in diameter, which lies nearly two hundred yards to the north-
ward of Trott's Island and three hundred yards W 8W. firom the western point of Stage Island. It is two
hundred yards from the mainland, with which it is connected at low water, as well as with Blckford's Island, two hundred and
fifty yards W. by 8. fi^m it.
Stage, Cape, Trott's and Bedding's islands form the boundaries of Stage Island Harbor, which affords a narrow but oon^
fortnble anchorage, with four fathoms at low water, in all winds except easterly gales.
FOR APPROACHING AND ENTERING STAGE ISLAND HARBOR.
I. cominp front the NartHeatriufard. â€” There are 110 dangers in the approaches to this harbor,
and the following courses, if made goody will lead safely in ; but this anchorage is not recommended.
To enter U from the northward and eastward, steer SW. I W. from Cape Elizabeth until the middle
of Stage Island bears W. and the middle of Cape Island W. by S. J S., with twenty-three fathoms
water; when steer W. | S. about for the middle of Trott's Island. On this course the least water is
four and three-quarter fathoms. In passing between Little Stage Island and Cape Island keep about
midway between the two at high water, but at low water hug the low-water line on the Stage Islan^.!
side. As soon as you have passed between these two islands haul to the northward behind Little
Stage Island, or to the southward behind Cape Island, according to which side offers the best shelter.
From six to eighteen feet at low water may be found in this harbor, but it is unfit for strangers, and
nect^ssity only should compel such to attempt it.
CAPE PORPOISE HARBOR. 493
II. Cominff fr^m t%e Sauthwmrd. â€” A vessel bound to the eastward, and wishing, Sailing Direc*
on the approach of night or heavy weather, to anchor in Stage Island Harbor, must, iions â€” Stage
when on her course NB. \ N. Cape Porpoise Light-house bears N. by W. J W., steer Island Harbor.
N. f B. for Timber Island, cariying not less than twenty fathoms water, until the
middle of Cape Island bears W. by S. \ S. and Wood Island Light-house bears NE. \ N., with nine-
teen fathoms. Then steer W. f S., which will lead, clear of danger, about midway between Little
Stage Island and Cape Island, in four and a half fathoms water ; after which follow the directions
CAPE PORPOISE HARBOR.
This harbor of refuge, before mentioned, is bounded hy the mainland and Negro and Bickford's islands on the north ;
Trott's Island on the east ; Goat, Folly and Green islands on the south ; and Bass Island and the mainland on the west. Thus
is formed an inlet of very irregular shape, with a narrow and difficult channel and a very contracted anchorage, â€” most of the
harbor being dry at low water.
Though with such disadvantages, Cape Porpoise Harbor is of great importance to vessels of light draught when caught out
in heavy or threatening weather, as the holding-ground is good, and should there be doubts of the tackling holduig out in a
veryiieavy gale you may safely slip and run upon the fiats. These are of soft mud and sand, and a vessel can lie aground
upon them with entire safety. The anchorage is so contracted that in the fishing season it is almost impossible to get a berth,
as the fishermen have their moorings, which occupy almost all of the channel, and coasters or other strangers coming in must
anchor so close to each other that fouling is the almost inevitable result.
Goat Island, forming the northern point of entrance to the harbor, lies two hundred and fifty yards 8W. from the southern
end of Trott's Island, (before described on page 492,) with which it is connected at low water. It is barren and rocky, lies S.
and W., is about two hundred yards long, and there is no vegetation except a little grass. On this island,
at its southwestern end, is built the light-house known as Goat Island Light-house, or Cape Porpoise Light- Goat Island and
house, a white stone tower twenty-five feet high, showing a fixed white light, of the sixth order of Fresnel, Ligllt-hoil86.
from a height of thirty-eight feet above sea-level. The keeper's dwelling is about one hundred and fifty feet
to the northward of the tower, and is connected with the latter by a wooden covered walk, â€” ^both house and walk being painted
white. This light is visible eleven miles in ordinary weather ; and its geographical position is
LaUtade 48Â° 21' 27" H.
Longitude TOO 25' 81" W.
Goat Island Light-house is the guide to Cape Porpoise Harbor, and bears from
Woodlslandldght-hoiwe, BW. J.W 7J
Cape EUsabeth, 8W. ^W 16
Cape BmaU Point, BW.hyW. f W 33
Beguin Idght-honte, W 8W 36
Boon Island Light-houie, NNE 14i
WhitelslandLight-honse, (Islesof Bhoals,)NE. byN 25
Three hundred and fifty yards W BW. from Goat Island is an islet formed entirely of sand, pebbles and loose stones, and
destitute of grass or trees. It lies nearly N. and 8., is about two hundred yards long, and is known as
Folly Island. The entrance to the harbor is between it and Goat Island; but the passage is so contracted Folly Island.
by the rocks which extend off from both blands as to make it somewhat difficult of approach. Liong reefs
extend from the southern end of Folly Island B. by W. seven hundred yards, and for half that distance are bare at low water ;
and heavy breakers are almost constant upon this point, which is known as Folly Island Point.
A little over two hundred yards W. from Folly Island is Green Island, a low islet, composed of sand and pebbles, and about
two hundred and fifty yards long. It lies N. and B., and is surrounded by ledges. There are half a dozen
spruce trees near its southern end and a group of fir in the centre ; but the rest of the island is bare. There 6r66n Island.
is a passage for light-draught vessels into the harbor between this island and Folly Island at high water;
but it is so narrow and obstructed by rocks as to render it highly dangerous for strangers.
Two hundred and fifty yards N. from Green Island is a low sandy island, about three hundred yards BaS8 Island.
long, called Bass Island, which has a single spruce tree upon it, but is otherwise bare. At low water the
passage between it and Green Island is contracted to about thirty yards, and at extreme low tides the two islets are joined by a
sand-bar. This island and Green Island form the western boundaries of Cape Porpoise Harbor.
Yaughan's Island lies close in with the mainland of Kennebunk, from which it is separated by a passage about fifty yards
wide leading into Turbnm's Creek. It is triangular in shape, about a third of a mile long in an B. and W. direction, and its
southern point is a quarter of a mile W. from Green Island. A reef extends from this point 8. by W. half
a mile, and for nearly six hundred yards of this distance is bare. Heavy breakers are constant on this Vaughan'S Island.
point, which is called Vaughan's Island Point. There is a channel for light-draught vessels at high water
between Green and Yaughan's islands, but it is not safe for strangers. Yaughan's Island is low, an<l bare except fur one or two
rees near its southern end and a small grove on the extreme western end, near the shore of Turbum's Creek.
494 ATLANTIC COAST PIIX)T.
Bickfbrd's Island. Bickford's Island is situated at the northern extremity of Cape Porpoise Harbor, and is connected with
the mainland by a causeway eighty yards long. It is oval, lies N. and S., is two hundred and fifty yards
long, about twenty feet high, bare of trees, and has upon its summit a group of houses. There is a lai-ge fish-house near the
southern end and several wharves on the southwestern end of the island.
Negro Island. About one hundred yards SW. from Bickford's is a low bare islet, one hundred and fifty yards long,
called Negro Island. It lies one hundred and fifty yards firom the main shore, exactly opposite the mouth
of the long narrow cove leading up to the settlement, and forms, with Bickford's Island, the northern boundary of the harbor
Trott's Island, lying on the northern side of the harbor, after passing Goat Island, has been already described under Stage
The mainland, forming the western side of both Stage Island and Cape Porpoise harbors, is, as before remarked, much cut
up by coves and other indentations. The first of these, called Sampson's Cove, may be said to lie in the
Sampson's Cove, first-named harbor, and opens into the laud about two-thirds of a mile to the southward of Qoose Fair Creek
and W NW. from Stage Island. It has an average width of two hundred yards, and terminates at the back
of the village ; but is entirely dry at low water, and fast filling up with salt-meadow.
One-third of a mile to the southward of Sampson's Cove is the second indentation, â€” a long nan*ow cove ninning in a
northerly direction for a third of a mile with an average width of two hundred yards. The village or settle-
Porpoise Cove. ment of CSape Porpoise is built upon the banks and at the head of this cove, which is called Porpoise Cove.
The neck of land which separates this from Sampson's Cove to the northward is thirty feet high, cleared
and occupied by apart of the village; and a ^rove of trees will be seen near its northern end. A verv consoicuous house,
(with a chimney at each gable,) called Stone's House, is situated on the southern end of the neck, and is a good landmark.
A long narrow neck of land, cleared and settled, separates Poi-poise Cove from another, called Ellison's
Ellison's Creek. Creek, which makes in to the northward about a third of a mile with an average width of one himdred and
fifty yards. It is bare at low water, and its western shores are about twenty feet high and mostly cleared ;
but there are a few scattered trees.
Three-quarters of a mile SW. from the mouth of Ellison's Creek, and on the western side of Yaughan's Island, makes in
Turbum's Creek, which, like the others, is of little importance. It runs nearly N. and S. for about half
Turburn'S Creek, a mile, but is narrow, crooked and nearly all bare at low water. Its shores are higher than those to the
eastward,â€” being in some places sixty feet high ; but they are nearly all cleared, and have only occasional
g^ves of spruce, pine, oak and other trees.
IN APPROACHING AND ENTERING CAPE PORPOISE HARBOR.
I, cominff frovn the Northward ana skutward. â€” Vessels ooming from the northward and east-
ward must be careful to avoid Folly Island Point, which makes off to the southward
Fo//y hiand from Folly Island to a distance of over a third of a mile. This is a most dangerous
Point ledge, and vessels beating in or out must be careful not to approach it too closely, as
it is rarely that the sea does not break upon it in two fathoms. The current of flood
also sets strongly upon it, and it is not buoyed.
The Old Prince lies on the eastern side of the entrance, has five feet at mean low water and three
at the lowest spring tides, extends N. and S., and is a little over two hundred yards long. The shoalest
part of this ledge bears SE. \ S. from Goat Island Light-house, distant nearly four
The Old Prince, hundred yards, and SW. J W. from the southern point of Cape Island, distant three-
eighths of a mile, (eight hundred yards.) A red spar-buoy, marked No. 2, is placed
in five fathoms water on the southwestern end of this ledge, about one hundred yards S. from the
Two hundred yards B. from the southern end of Folly Island is a shoal spot witli thhieenfeet at
mean low water. To avoid this and the other shoals and rocks to the eastward of Folly Island vessels
must, after passing The Old Prince buoy, steer nearly for the red buoy on Groat Island Point, and
must be careful not to bring this buoy and the beacon on Beacon Ledge in range, but to keep them
well open until they are almost up with the buoy.
Goat Island Point is a ledge of rocks bare at half-tide, which extends off W SW. from the south-
western point of Gxxit Island to a distance of one hundred and fifty yards. A red
Goat Island spar-buoy (No. 4) is placed on its western point, which is extremely bold-to. The
Point buoy is not two yards from the bare rocks at low water, but is in four fathoms water,
and may be passed close-to by leaving it to the eastward.
After passing Groat Island Point the channel becomes extremely narrow, â€” running between dry
flats and ledges in the direction of Bickford's Island. To keep in the deepest water
Beacon Ledge, it is necessary to give the beac3n on B3a3on Ledge a berth to the eastward of a hun-
dred and fifty yards. This latter is a large ledge, always out ; and the beacon, which
CAPE PORPOISE HARBOR. 495
18 known as the Pilot's Beacon, consists of a rude pile of stones surmounted by a pole, â€” ^the whole
having been erected on the dry ledge by the fishermen for their own convenience.
Gangway Rock, which is marked by a black spar-buoy (No. 3) placed on its Gangway Rock.
northeastern side in fifteen feet, lies on the southern side of the channel, about half a
mile to the westward of Groat Island Light-house, and has six feet at low tides. The channel to the
south westward of the buoy is not safe.
FOR APPROACHING AND ENTERING CAPE PORPOISE HARBOR.
I. Coming aiongshare from f#Â»Â« NorthetMtufard. â€” Steer SW. J W. from Cape Elizabeth (carry-
ing not less than ten fathoms and passing a mile and a half outside of Wood Island in about twenty-
five fathoms) until Goat Island Light-house bears NW. by N. J N., a mile and a half distant, with
^ twenty-four fathoms, when steer NW. f N., leaving the red buoy on The Old Prince seventy-five
,^ yards to the eastward. Folly Island Point two hundred and fifty yards to the westward, and Goat
^ Island Point buoy close-to to the eastward, and carrying dot less than five fathoms up to the latter.
"^ When past this buoy and the light-house, and the latter bears B. by S. J S., with thirteen feet, soft
' ' \J bottom, steer N. J W. for Stone's House, and anchor abreast of the Pilot's Beacon, or when it bears
"^ B. by S. The best water at this anchorage is fifteen feet at mean low water, but is confined to a ver}-
narrow slue. Or, if the weather be mild, round Gt)at Island Point buoy and steer for the beacon, and
anchor with the light bearing B. by S. J S. In very heavy weather it is best to run upon the flats,
where you may lie aground at half-tide, soft muddy bottom.
II. Coming from Seaward. â€” Bring Wood Island Light-house to bear N. by W., six miles
> distant, and Gt>at Island Light-house W. by N. J N., distant seven miles, with forty fathoms water,
and steer W. \ N., carrying not less than twenty-four fathoms, until Wood Island Light-house is on
with the eastern point of Fletcher's Neck (day-time) and Groat Island Light-house bears NW. by N.
\ N., when there will be twenty-four fathoms, and Wood Island Light-house will bear NB. | N.
Now steer NW. f N., carrying not less than five fathoms, and follow the directions previously given.
IN APPBOACHINO AND ENTEBIKG CAPE PORPOISE HABBOB.
II. Cmning frofm the SouthMcettwurd, alongshore, â€” Bumpkin Island, a low rocky islet, which
^ ^N, lies a little over half a mile SW. from Vaughan's Island, is surrounded by ledges and sunken rocfa.
^;^ A long reef makes off from its southern end in a southwesterly direction for three
"S? hundred and fifty yards, and is called Bumpkin Island Southwest Ledge. It is a very Bumpkin Island
dangerous reef, but many of its rocks are bare at low water and so indicate its presence Ledges.
at ail times of tide. It is not buoyed, and a vessel to avoid it must not approach the
island from the southward nearer than a third of a mile, or seven hundred yards. Bumpkin Island
Eastern Ledge extends off from Bumpkin Island due B. for three hundred yards, and has on its
extremity a rock bare at half-tide, which serves to mark the eastern boundary of the ledge, which
would otherwise require a buoy. Vessels must, in tacking to windward, always give Bumpkin Island
a good berth to avoid this reef.
Southward from the end of Vaughan's Island a long line of rocks extends for half a mile. For
six hundred yards of this distance the reef is bare at low water, and two feet at mean
low water is found seven hundred yards (or one-third of a mile) from the island. This Vaughan's
reef is known as Vaughan's Island Point, and heavy breakers constantly roll in upon Island Point
\iy even in the smoothest weather. It is not buoyed, and must be carefully avoided by
vessels coming from the southward, as it is almost directly in the way.
From the southern end of Folly Island a long point extends S. by W. for a third of a mile, and
is known as Folly Island Point. Between five and six hundred yards from the island,
on the line of this ledge, there is a depth of but four feet, and, as the rocks are steep. Folly Island
it is rarely that it does not break in two fathoms off the ledge. This is a very danger- Point