—Major Gen. Peyton C. March, United States Chief
of Staff, arrives at New York from France.
— United States war cost for Februarv $1,002,878,60S
(loans to Allies, $325,000,000).
March 2 — Kieff, held by Bolsheviki since Feb. 8, oc-
cupied by German and L'krainian troops.
March 3 — By treaty of peace with four Central Pow-
ers signed at Brest-Litovsk, Bolsheviki agree to evac-
uate Ukrania, Esthonia, and Livonia. Finland, the
Aland Islands and Trans-Caucasian districts of Eri-
van, Kars and Batum.
— Sweden protests against German occupation of Fin-
— Germans claim to have captured in Russian advance
6,800 officers, 57,000 men, 2,400 guns. 5.000 machine
guns, S00 locomotives and thousands of motor vehi-
cles and trucks.
March 4 — Germany and Finland sign treaty.
— British, French and Italian Ambassadors in Tokio
ask Japan to safeguard Allied interests in Siberia.
— Norwegian steamship Havna (1,150 tons) torpedoed
by German submarine without warning; 9 die from
— Washing-ton announces building of $25,000,000 ord-
nance base in France.
March 5 — In Lorraine sector United States troops of
"Rainbow Division" (New York City) repel German
raid and take prisoners.
— Roumania signs preliminary treaty with Central Pow-
ers; gives up Dobrudja to the Danube; agrees to
certain economic measures and trade route to Black
March 6 — United States troops hold iVz miles of battle
front "somewhere in France."
— British Admiralty reports for past week : 18 mer-
chantmen sunk (12, 1,600 tons or over).
— Capt. Sato Yamamoto. Japanese Naval Attache in
Rome, arrives in New York City, reports 15 U boats
destroyed in Mediterranean last month by United
States^ Japanese, British, French and Italian destroy-
March 7 — German airplanes raid London at night; kill
11, injure 46.
— British Chancellor of Exchequer in House of Com-
mons moves credit of $3,000,000,000, states that at
end of March national debt will be $29,500,000,000;
loans to Allies total $6,320,000,000.
March S — In Ypres-Dixmude sector Germans attack
on mile front ; English counter attack.
— Spanish Cabinet resigns.
March 9 — Germans advance north of Poelderhoek take
200 yards of trenches ; British win back lost ground
and repulse raid east of Neuve Chapelle.
— On Lorraine front United States forces bombard and
obliterate over a mile of German trenches.
— United States casualty list shows: Killed in action,
19 ; from gas, 2 ; in aero accidents, 2 ; auto accident,
1 ; of disease, 13 ; severely wounded, 26 ; slightly
— Russian capital moves from Petrograd to Moscow.
— British forces m Palestine advance about a mile and
three-quarters on 12-mile front.
— Italian aircraft bombard enemy supply station near
March 10 — United States War Department announces
presence of Americans on Lorraine front, in Cham-
pagne, in Alsace, near Luneville, and in Aisne sector.
— British occupy Hit in Mesopotamia; Turks retire
22 miles up the Euphrates to Khan Baghdadi; British
airplanes bomb retreating Turks.
— Guildford Castle, British hospital ship, torpedoed in
English Channel; no one lost.
— British airmen bomb Daimler works at Stuttgart.
March 11 — United States troops go over the top at
Toul and return without loss.
liar. 11 — President Wilson sends message to Congress
of Soviets, expresses sympathy with Russian people;
says United States will take every opportunity to se-
cure for Russia complete sovereignty and independ-
— German air raid on Paris kills 29; 4 German machines
are brought down by gun fire; 15 German aviators
killed or made prisoner.
— In air fighting 10 German machines brought down
on western front, 7 disabled, 2 British machines fail
— French airmen destroy 3 German aircraft, bring down
3 bombing planes, disable 1.
—In air raid on Naples 7 in hospital killed, 9 civilians
March 12 — Three Zeppelins raid northeast coast of
—In Toul sector United States artillery discover and
blow to pieces German gas projectors, upsetting plans
for gas attack.
— Paris Court of Revision rejects Bolo Pasha's appeal
from death sentence.
■ — German air ships attack Yorkshire coast; no casual-
— London announces release by German Government
from special imprisonment of Aviators Lieuts. Scholtz
and Woolsey, under threat of reprisal.
— British air raid on Coblenz, Germany, kills 50.
March 13 — German troops enter Odessa and control
Black Sea ; take 15 Russian warships.
—Dr. Walter T. Scheele, indicted in New York in 1916
for alleged placing of bombs on Allied ships in New
York Harbor, arrested in Cuba and deported from
Havana in custody of United States detectives.
— London reports unarmed British schooner Nanny
Wignall sunk by German submarine off Irish coast.
— British flyers bomb munition works and barracks at
Freyburg. Germany, and Bruges docks.
— British Admiralty reports week's losses by mine or
submarine: 18 merchantmen (15 of 1,600 tons or
over) ; 1 fishing vessel. Arrivals, 2,046 ; sailings,
2,062 ; merchantmen unsuccessfully attacked, 8.
— Richthofen, German aviator, achieved sixty-fifth vic-
— German aircraft raid London ; kill 1 man, 1 woman,
3 children; injure 3 men, 1 woman, 5 children; 6
houses destroyed; 30 damaged.
— German Government announces American property
in Germany will be seized in reprisal for seizing of
German property in United States.
— Phelps Collins of Detroit, Mich., member of Lafayette
Flying Corps, killed in air fight on French front.
March 14 — Gen. Pershing's men make first permanent
advance, occupy evacuated trenches northeast of Bad-
- — David E. Putnam of Brookline, Mass., of Lafayette
Escadrille. attacks 3 enemy airplanes, brings down 1,
drives 2 to flight.
— Copenhagen reports sinking of 2 Norwegian steam-
ers, Skrymer (1.475 tons) and Estrella (1,757 tons).
■ — Germans occupy Abo, on Finland coast, west of Hel-
March 15 — German submarine sinks Danish steamship
Randelsberg (1,551 tons) outside of German danger
■ — Allied airplanes bomb barracks, munition factories
and railway station at Zweibriicken ; 12 enemy planes
brought down; no British machines missing.
March 16 — French raid at Bethincourt Wood on 1,700
yard front to depth of 900 yards; take 160 prisoners,
including several officers.
March 17 — Germans announce Entente airmen made
2a attacks on German Rhine towns in February; 12
persons killed; 36 injured; attacks made also on in-
dustrial districts in Lorraine, Luxemburg, Saar and
■ — British airmen attack barracks and railway station
at Kaiserlautern, Bavaria.
March 18 — Great Britain and United States take over
Dutch shipping in United States and British ports.
— Belgians take over Flanders coast sector.
March 19 — French troops penetrate German line near
Rheims. Portuguese raid trenches east of Neuve
Chapelle, take prisoners and guns. German raids
near Fleurbaix and Bois Grenier repulsed. Ger-
man forces continue advance in Russia, ignoring arm-
istice. The Parliamentary Secretary of War reports
in British House of Commons that since October,
1917, British airmen have made 38 raids into German
territory, dropping 48 tons of bombs. London de-
spatch says German lost in air fighting: in January,
292 planes ; in Februarv, 273 ; in 17 days of March,
— United States Expeditionary Force casualties to date:
Killed in action, 154 ; killed or prisoner, 1 ; by acci-
dent, 145 ; disease, 683 ; lost at sea, 237 ; suicide, 11 ;
unknown causes, 14 ; of wounds, 37 ; executed, 1 ;
civilians, 7 ; gassed, 6 ; total deaths, 1,296 ; wounded,
544 ; captured, 21 ; missing, 14.
— United States destroyer Manley collides with British
warship in European waters ; depth bomb explodes,
kills Lieut. Commander Richard M. Elliott, Jr., and
15 enlisted men; Manley reaches port.
— Royal Mail steamer Amazon and Norwegian steam-
ship Stolt-Neilson, commandeered by the British, are
sunk by submarine.
March 20 — To reduce coal consumption President Stan-
ley of Board of Trade announces in House of Com-
mons coal rationing rules — no cooking between 9 :30
P. M. and 5 A .M. ; no illumination of shop windows ;
no performances after 10.30, etc.
— French repulse German attacks off Arracourt, in Lor-
raine and raids northeast of Reinsand, in Souain
■ — United States guns shell village of Lahayville, causing
— Northwest of Toul airplane drops balls of liquefied
mustard gas on Lhiited States line.
— British airmen destroy 28 German machines; 12 of
their own missing.
■ — Steamship Sterling, with cargo of grain for Switzer-
land, sunk by collision.
— Norwegian sailing vessel Carla sunk by submarine ;
captain killed and crew lost.
March 21 — Beginning of "Big Drive" on 50-mile front,
from Arras to La Fere. On Luneville sector United
States artillery fire destroys first and second line po-
sitions. Canadians make gas attack between Lens
and Hill 70. British monitors bombard Ostend. In
Palestine British take Elowsallebeh. German long
range gun bombards Paris.
March 22 — Correspondents at the front report 40 Ger-
man divisions (about 500,000 men) engaged and great-
est concentration of artillery in world's history ; Ger-
mans had 1,000 guns in one small sector (1 for every
— Secretary of War Baker calls on King Albert of
Belgium at the front.
— Brussels fined $500,000 by Germany for recent anti-
—German Reichstag adopts war credit of $3,750,000,000.
March 23 — Germans break British front near Monchy,
Cambrai, St. Quentin and La Fere, pierced second
line, between Fontaine-les-Croisilles and Moeuvres.
— British evacuate positions in bend southwest of Cam-
brai ; Germans pierce third British line between Omig-
non stream and the Somme.
— Berlin announces first stage of battle ended, claims
capture of 25,000 prisoners, 400 field guns, 300 ma-
— British airplanes raid factories at Mannheim.
— Paris is bombarded by long range "fat Bertha" guns
from distance of 75 miles; 10 killed; 15 wounded.
—Gen. Zupelli succeeds Gen. Aldieri as Italian War
Mar. 23 — Secretary of War Baker guest of Ambassador
Page in London.
March 24 — Germans drive British back across the
Somme and repulse French and United States re-
inforcements ; capture Peronne, Chauny and Ham, in
Forest of St. Gobain.
■ — Paris is again shelled by "fat Bertha" gun.
— British airmen bomb Cologne and Metz.
— Finlanders report that German transport Frankland
struck a mine and sank at Noorland. the entire crew,
Admiral von Meyer and soldiers all lost.
March 21 to 24 — British airmen bring down 215 enemy
machines, losing 31 ; naval airmen bring down 17,
March 25 — The Germans take Bapaume, Nesle, Guis-
card, Biabats, Barleux and Etalon. The Mrench take
over sector of British battle front south of St. Quen-
tin and around Noyon. French are forced back, but
inflict heavy losses in retiring; British counter attack
fails. Allied forces lose 45,000 men; 600 guns.
— United States artillery shell St. Baussant and billets
north of Boquetan, opposite Toul sector, with gas.
— London announces Laiited States steamship Chatta-
hoochie (5,088 tons) sunk off English coast; crew of
74 saved. Long range bombardment of Paris re-
sumed. British positions in Palestine extended 9
miles toward Es Salt. Secretary of War Baker pre-
sented to King George at Buckingham Palace.
March 26 — Battle continues on whole front south of
Somme ; Germans are checked west of Roye and
Noyon. South of Peronne Gen. von Hof acker crosses
the Somme; takes heights of Maisonette and villages
of Biache and Belleaux ; Etalon is taken from the
French and English. In Toul sector United States
troops drive Germans out of Richecourt. British re-
treat on a wide front; Germans under von Below
and von der Marwitz take Richecourt, Biefvillers,
Grevillers, Irles and Miraumont, crossing the Ancre
River. The British defeat Turks in Mesopotamia,
capture 5,000 prisoners, 14 guns, 50 machine guns,
stores of munitions and supplies. L^nited States cas-
ualty list to date : Dead 1,383 ; wounded, 706 ; cap-
tured, 22; missing, 37.
March 27 — Major Gen. Pershing offers all United States
forces for service wherever needed.
— Lloyd George appeals for American reinforcements.
— The Germans gain foothold in Ablainville and in
Albert ; British recapture Morlincourt and Chipilly,
and advance line to Proyart ; Germans make slight
advance east of Montdidier; are checked in regions
of Lassigny and Noyon.
— Odessa reported captured by Soviet and Ukrainian
— British Admiralty reports week's losses: 28 mer-
chantmen (16 over 1,600 tons); 1 fishing vessel;
French lose 1 over 1,600 tons ; Italy loses 3 over 1,500
March 2S — Heavy fighting along 55-mile front from the
southeast of Somme to northeast of Arras. German
drive checked ; in counter attacks French drive Ger-
mans out of villages of Courtemanche, Nesle-St.
Georges, and Assainvillers ; in some places from Gav-
relle to Boyelles Germans make slight advances, take
Montdidier and push line to Pierrepont.
— British airmen bring down 24 German machines, dis-
able 7, and 2 balloons ; bomb Bapaume. Bray and Pe-
ronne ; 19 British machines are missing after aero
fighting and 4 after night bombing.
—French airmen (27th-2Sth) drop 18 tons projectiles
in regions of Guiscard and Ham ; pursuit squadrons
bring down 17 German planes and set fire to 2 cap-
— Entire Turkish force in area of Hit, in Mesopotamia,
is captured or destroyed; 3,000 prisoners taken (in-
cluding German officers) ; 10 guns, 2,000 rifles, many
machine guns, 600 animals. British forces cross the
— A squad of police rounding up deserters in Quebec,
Canada, is attacked by a crowd of citizens.
March 29 — The French General, Ferdinand Foch, chos-
en Commander in Chief of all Allied forces in France
(British, French, American. Italian, Belgian and Port-
— Ninth day of "Big Drive," which is halted; British
are pressed back to a line running west of Hamel,
Marcelcave and Denain ; Franco-British troops hold
line along Avre, and in front of Neuvillesur-Bernard,
Mezieres, Marcelcave and Hamel.
— Germans claim to have taken 70,000 prisoners and
1,100 guns. British bring down 9 hostile airplanes;
drive 2 out of control. Two British machines miss-
—The German long range gun kills 75 worshippers at
Good Friday services in a Paris church and wounds
— The President orders temporary suspension of food
shipment, except for military supplies, and concentra-
tion on sending of troops.
March 30 — Fighting is resumed on 70 miles of front.
British hold their position. The French report severe
fighting on 40-mile front, Moreuil to Lassigny ; vil-
lages in region of Orvillers, Plemont and Plessier de
Roye change hands several times; Germans claim
progress between the Somme and the Oise. They
capture Beaucourt and Mezieres.
— Long range gun again bombards Paris, killing 8 (4
women) ; wounding 37 (9 women, 7 children).
— During the week German submarines sink 3 Italian
steamships, of more than 1,500 tons; 10 small sailing
March 31 — British regain village of Denain; Canadian
cavalry and infantry recapture Moreuil.
— Since British flying corps arrived in Italy it has
brought down S3 Austrian and German planes and lost
— The Germans continue to advance in the Ukraine,
Capture Poltava and set it on fire.
— British steamship Conargo is torpedoed in the Irish
Sea and a Greek steamship is sunk by gun fire; 50
men are missing from the two.
— Danish steamship Indian is sunk by a German sub-
marine about 130 miles north of Azores ; captain and
28 officers and men lost : 9 saved.
March 31 and April 1 — Allied aero squadron throw
13 tons of bombs on railways and cantonments at
Ham, Chauny and Noyon.
April 1 — On western front Allies hold their ground,
and at some points advance ; recapture Hangard-en-
Santerre. Germans capture heights north of Moreuil.
—In Mesopotamia British advance 73 miles beyond
Anah and threaten Aleppo.
— French estimate German losses during 11-day of-
fensive at 275,000 to 300,000.
— Long distance bombardment of Paris continued; 4
killed; 9 injured.
— British Admiralty announces loss of Tithonus by sub-
marine, with 4 of crew.
—In draft riot in Quebec 4 civilians are killed and a
number of soldiers wounded.
— In London no hot meals are served between 9 :30
P. M. and 5 A. M.. ; and theatres close at 10 :30 P. M.
April 2 — Between the Avre and the Luce the Allies
captured 50 prisoners and 13 machine guns; near
Hebuterne, 73 prisoners, 3 machine guns; prisoners
are also taken at Ban-de-Sapt and in raid on Colonne
trench. United States troops on Meuse heights, south
of Verdun, are attacked with gas and high explosive
shells. Gen. Pershing reports United States casual-
ties : Killed by accident, 1 : of disease, 4 ; wounds, 2 ;
various causes, 2 ; wounded, 13 ; total killed in action,
183; killed or prisoners, 1; by accident, 164; disease,
793 ; lost at sea, 237 ; died of wounds, 52 ; various
causes, 39. A Turkish Army begins occupation of
Batum, Kars and Ardahan, districts in the Caucasus.
German prisoners report the bursting of one of the
long range guns bombarding Paris, killing 5 of tbe
gun crew. Count Czernin, Austro-Hungarian Foreign
Minister, discusses the 14 points laid down by Presi-
dent Wilson in Feb. 11 address, approves of them as a
basis of peace, but doubts if Allies will accept them.
April 3 — Ayette is taken by the Allies; 192 prisoners
captured, including 6 officers. British 'raid northeast
of Loos and Poelcapelle.
April 3 — British airmen down 9 German machines, drive
3 out of control, destroy 1 balloon, losing 5. British
Admirally reports losses for past week : 13 merchant-
men over 1,600 tons ; 5 fishing vessels ; arrivals 2,416 ;
— White Guards capture eastern part of Tammerfors,
Finland, and 1,000 prisoners.
— War Council at Washington, D. C, announces that
all available shipping will be used to rush troops to
— 40,000 German troops land at Hango, Finland.
— Capt. James Byford McCudden, British airman, age
23, wins the Victoria Cross. Has been awarded Dis-
tinguished Service Order, Croix de Guerre, Military
Cross and Military Medal; has encountered 54 enemy
April 4 — King Albert confers upon Gen. Pershing Bel-
gian Grand Cross of Order of Leopold.
— Kaiser Wilhelm confers upon Baron von Richthofen
Order of Red Eagle with Crown and Swords for 75
—Ten German attacks at junction of French and Brit-
ish Armies on the Somme; German forces make
slight advance, occupying villages of Mailly, Raineval
— United States troops now occupy Meuse heights, south
—Amsterdam despatch says Allied raid on Coblenz
killed 26, wounded 100; that on Treves killed 60, and
on Cologne struck a troop train.
— Moscow despatch reports Erzerum captured by Ar-
menians from Turks.
April 5 — French improve position in region of Mailly.
Raineval and Morisel and in Cantigny; Germans
occupy village of Dernacourt, reach Albert-Amiens
railway, but are driven back.
— Germans claim to have taken between March 21 and
29, 51,218 prisoners; total up to present, 90,000;
1,300 guns; the Allies deny these figures.
—Japanese and British forces land at Vladivostok.
— Cunard Line freighter Valeria (5,865 tons) reported
— United States Army at end of the first year of the
war totals more than 1,500,000 men.
April 6— Germans strike east and south of Chauny, gain
foothold at Abbecourt, and Barisis ; suffer severe
losses; take Pierremande and Folembray.
—The Belgian relief ship Ministre de Smet de Naeyer
(2,712 tons) is sunk by a mine in the North Sea; 12
drowned ; 17 saved.
— The President at Liberty Loan meeting in Baltimore
condemns German treaties forced on Russia and Rou-
mania and says Germany's challenge will be met with
"force to the utmost."
— Long distance bombardment of Paris.
April 7— British retake Aveluy Wood and repel attack
opposite Albert and south of Hebuterne; the suburbs
of Chauny - and French and British positions near
Amigny are taken by German forces under Gen. von
Boehn, with 1,400 prisoners.
— Germans bombard Rheims.
— United States troops in Toul sector repel two Ger-
man raids. Turks take Ardahan from Armenians;
Constantinople reports Turkish troops advancing over
wide area in the Caucasus.
April 8— Germans drive French back to the west bank
of Ailette, take Verneuil and heights east of Coucy-le-
Chateau. British make slight advance on south bank
of Somme; lines around Bucquoy are heavily shelled.
— Belgian relief ship Flanders sunk by mine.
— Germany sends ultimatum, demanding the removal
or disarmament of all Russian warships in Finnish
waters by April 12.
— Brig. Gen. C C. Williams ordered to Washington to
relieve Brig. Gen. Charles B. Wheeler, who goes to
France as ordnance officer with Gen. Pershing.
April 9 — Germans drive in line held by British and
Portuguese 4% miles on 11-mile front, from Givenchy
to La Bassee capture Richebourg-St. Vaast and La-
ventie ; British repel attacks at Givenchy and Fleur-
— Man-Power Bill, including a provision for conscrip-
tion in Ireland, is introduced in the House of Com-
April 10 — Germans cross the Lys between Armentieres
and Estaires ; British are forced back north and south
of Armentieres ; French repulse Germans in Hangard.
April 10 — British and Portuguese, on line from La
Bassee Canal to Armentieres, are forced back six
miles ; at Messines Ridge, south of Ypres, British re-
tire 2 miles. In counter attack on Givenchy, British
take 750 prisoners.
— The village of Hangard changes hands several times,
remaining with the French, who penetrate line north-
west of Rheims and bring back prisoners.
— The Germans claim to have taken 6,000 prisoners and
— Secretary Daniels says 1,275 vessels (1,055,116 tons)
were added to the navy in the first year of the war.
■ — German troops at Lhnburg, Prussia, mutiny, killing
— Russian Commerce Commissioner says treaty with
Germany takes 300,000 square miles, with 56,000,000
inhabitants (32% of Russia's entire population, be-
sides one-third of her railways, 73% of her iron,
89% of her coal).
— Brig. Gen. Frederick E. Resche, German born, of
Minnesota, in command 34th National Guard, Camp
Cody, N. M., is discharged from the service for fail-
ing to maintain his command on efficient footing.
April 11 — Germans attack British from La Bassee to
Ypres-Comines Canal and push them back 6 miles on
north end of battle front at Estaires and Steenwerck.
British troops retire from Armentieres, which is full
— British troops continue advance in Palestine.
— A shot from German long range gun strikes found-
ling asylum in Paris; kills 4; wounds 21.
— United States steamship Lake Moor (4,500 tons) is
sunk by German submarine; 5 officers, 40 men miss-
— British in Palestine advance a mile and a half on 5-
mile front, take villages of El-Kefr and Rafat.
■ — German squadron, with several transports, arrives at
■ — Paris despatch states that in an official note a letter
of Charles of Austria, written to his brother-in-law
Prince Sixtus de Bourbon, is made public, in which
the Emperor acknowledges the just claims of France
to Alsace-Lorraine, offers to support France's claim
and declares Belgium to be re-established and retain
her African possessions. Vienna despatch states that
in an official telegram to the Kaiser the Emperor de-
clares M. Clemenceau is "piling up lies," and assures
the German Emperor he repels the assertion that he
recognizes France's claim to Alsace-Lorraine.
April 12 — Field Marshal Haig issues a special order
of the day, 'All positions must be held to the last
man." Germans sweep the British and Portuguese
from the line of the River Lys; they claim to have
captured 20,000 prisoners and 200 guns. Germans at-
tack near Ploegsteert ; force the British from Neuve
Eglise. Germans capture British garrison at Armen-
tieres (50 officers, 1 British and 1 Portuguese Gen-