(1572), many fine old Spanish mansions. Eclipsed for a
time, it has regained its commercial place in the community.
There are numerous small factories, the Banco Boyaca,
Union Comercial, the Compania de Energia Electrica (which
lights the town), the Compania Nueva del Acueducto (pro-
viding a good water supply), open market, where periodical
fairs are held, hospital, theatre and other establishments. Its
main source of activity is due to agriculture. There are
thermal mineral springs in the neighbourhood, and also coal
TUQUERRES, capital of prov. of Tuquerres, dep. of Narino ;
1° N lat. ; over 10,000 ft. above sea-level, situated in a plain,
overlooked by the three great volcanoes : Tuquerres, Cumbal,
and Pasto ; pop. 15,650. Industrial and agricultural
TURBACO, prov. of Cartagena, dep. of Bolivar, 10° 18'
N. lat. ; 711 ft. above sea-level, situated on a hill in close
proximity to Cartagena, of which it is a pleasure and
health resort ; pop. 6,000. Possesses fine mineral water
UBALA, prov. of Guavio, dep. of Cundinamarca, 4° 45'
N. lat. ; 6,253 ft. above sea-level ; pop. 6,400. Copper and
UBAQU£, prov. del Oriente, dep. of Cundinamarca, 4° 30'
N. lat. ; 5,856 ft. above sea-level ; pop. 6,300. Popular
holiday and health resort for Bogatanos. Site of an ancient
Indian town, near a sacred lake.
UBATE, cap. of prov. of Ubate, dep. of Cundinamarca,
5° N. lat. ; 8,469 ft. above sea-level ; pop. 9,600. Built on
the site of an old Indian town, on the Sabana of Bogota.
Centre of a very active cattle-breeding and agricultural
UNE, prov. del Oriente, dep. of Cundinamarca, 4° 24'
N. lat. ; 8,758 ft. above sea-level ; pop. 4,850. An
UNION. See La Union.
URRAS, dep. of Antioquia, 6° N. lat. ; 6,326 ft. above
sea-level, on the R. Panderisco ; pop. 13,000. Centre of
cattle-raising and agricultural district. Some rich salt mines.
VALLEDUPAR, cap. prov. of Valledupar, dep. of Magda-
lena, 10° 21' N. lat. ; 436 ft. above sea-level, on the banks
of the river Guatapuri, in a fertile plain ; pop. 7,300.
Agricultural centre. Silver, copper, and lead mines.
VEGA. See ~La. Vega.
VELEZ, cap. of the prov. of Velez, dep. of Santander ;
5° 54' N. lat. ; 7,190 ft. above sea-level, built on the slopes of
a mountain ; pop. 8,600. Agricultural centre.
VERGERA, prov. of Guaduas, dep. of Cundinamarca ;
5° N. lat. ; 4,268 ft. above sea-level ; pop. 5,800. Agricultural
and mining district.
VILLAVICENCIO, capital of the Intendencia del Meta ;
4° 15 N. lat. ; 1,496 ft. above sea-level ; pop. 4,800. Situated
in a pretty valley, surrounded by forests, in which the wild
cocoa-tree grows. Trade mostly in rubber and forest products.
Coal seams abundant in this district.
VILLETA, prov. of Facatativa, dep. of Cundinamarca ;
4° 56' N. lat. ; 2,753 ft. above sea-level ; pop. 5,600. Situated
in a pleasant, but rather hot valley. Copper and iron mines ;
sugar-cane plantations. There are well-known thermal
VIOTA, prov. of Tequendama, dep. of Cundinamarca,
4° 27' N. lat. ; 4,268 ft. above sea-level ; pop. 7,200.
YACOPI, prov. Guaduas, dep. of Cundinamarca ; 5° 13'
N. lat. ; 5,022 ft. above sea-level ; pop. 6,400.
YARUMAL, dep. of Antioquia ; 6° 49' N. lat. ; 7,372 ft.
above sea-level ; pop. 21,250. It is in direct communication
LIST OF IMPORTANT TOWNS 183
with the ports of Valdivia and Raudal on the Cauca. A
commercial, agricultural, cattle-raising and mining centre.
YOLOMBO, dep. of Antioquia ; 6° 35' N. lat. ; 4,823 ft.
above sea-level ; pop. 13,550. Agricultural and mining centre.
ZAPATOCA, cap. of prov. of Zapatoca, dep. of Santander ;
6° 35' N. lat. ; 5,652 ft. above sea-level ; pop. 10,600. Situa-
ted on a plateau surrounded by hills. Chief industry, manu-
facture of " Panama " straw hats. Cultivation of tobacco
and other tropical plants. Lead mines.
ZARAGOZA, dep. of Antioquia; 7° 21' N. lat. ; 674 ft.
above sea-level ; an important port on the Nechi, an affluent
of the Magdalena ; pop. 2,452. Founded in 1581. A
commercial, and also gold (placer) and coal-mining centre.
ZIPAQUIRA, cap. of the prov. of Zipaquira, dep. of Cundi-
namarca ; 4° 46' N. lat. ; 8,700 ft. above sea-level ; pop.
9,917. Picturesque, well-built town, situated on a plateau,
at the foot of a huge rock-salt hill. Salt, lead, iron, sulphur,
and coal-mining. Busy market for these minerals and also
sugar, rice, cotton, tobacco, and textiles. Terminus of the
Ferroccaril del Norte.
LIST OF STEAMSHIP LINES AND RIVER SERVICES
Colombia is fairly well served by passenger and cargo
From English Ports. — Southampton : The Royal Mail
Steam Packet Company : fortnightly service passenger and
cargo via New York and the West Indies to Puerto Colombia
and Cartagena. [This company, in conjunction with the
Scrutton Line, has a cargo service from various English and
Continental ports to the West Indies, calling at Colombian
ports when cargo offers.]
Liverpool : Leyland Line fortnightly passenger and
cargo service to Puerto Colombia and Catagena. Harrison
Line monthly passenger and cargo service to the same ports.
Elders and Fyffes, a weekly service to Santa Marta, out-
ward passengers only. [This line varies its English port of
sailing from time to time.]
From Continental Ports. — The Compagnie Generale Trans-
atlantique have two monthly sailings from French ports
for Colon and Puerto Colombia, calling at Cartagena when
The Compania Transatlantica have a monthly sailing from
Barcelona to the West Indies and Colombian ports.
The Hamburg-American Line, sail from Hamburg twice a
month, calling at Puerto Colombia and Cartagena via New
La Veloce, Navigacione Italiana a Vapore, has a monthly
sailing from Genoa to Puerto Colombia.
From the United States. — Besides the Royal Steam Packet
and the Hamburg-American (European service) Lines, which
call at New York on the outward and homeward voyages,
the latter company's Atlas Service has a weekly sailing
from New York to Puerto Colombia, calling at Cartagena
on the outward and Santa Marta on the homeward voyages.
The United Fruit Company has a weekly passenger and
cargo service from New York to Santa Marta, the ships calling
at Jamaica, Colon, Cartagena and Puerto Colombia. It
offers special facilities for the pleasure or tourist traffic
Buenaventura and Tumaco are visited fortnightly by a
coasting service of the Pacific Steam Navigation Company
(Royal Mail Steam Packet Company) from the port Panama.
The German Kosmos liners also call at these ports, but
Magdalena. — The " Empresa Aliadas " (an English Com-
pany) has a fleet of twenty-nine stern-wheeled steamers
(total tonnage, 6,000), which sail up to La Dorada and up the
Cauca, from Barranquilla. The " Empresa Hanseatica "
has a fleet of seven steamers (total tonnage, 1,269), sailing
from both Cartagena and Barranquilla. Both companies
run weekly mail services for Bogota and the intervening
ports ; and the former has an intermediate service. The
other companies are the Compania Antioqueha de Transportes,
two steamers (486 tons). The Compania de Santa Marta
Wharf, with regular service between Barranquilla and Santa
Marta (two steamers, 60 tons). The Compania de Transportes
de Soto (three steamers, 120 tons).
Cauca. — The Compania de Navegacion del Rio Cauca,
runs a good service between Cali and Cartago, 124 miles.
San Juan. — The Anglo-Colombian Development Company
runs a regular steam service from Buenaventura to San
Pablo, over 350 miles.
Patia. — At Tumaco there are five small steamers which
ply up the Patia and the Telembi to Barbacoas.
Zulia. — There is a good steam service of steamers from
Guerto Villamizar, united to Cucuta by rail, to the Venezuelan
port of Maracaibo.
Meta. — An irregular steamboat service is kept up between
Ciudadl Bolivar (Venezuela) and Orocue (fourteen days up
stream from Ciudad Bolivar, and seven days homeward).
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