Various.

The American Missionary — Volume 43, No. 10, October, 1889 online

. (page 1 of 5)
Online LibraryVariousThe American Missionary — Volume 43, No. 10, October, 1889 → online text (page 1 of 5)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


Produced by Cornell University, Joshua Hutchinson, Donald
Perry and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at
http://www.pgdp.net





THE AMERICAN MISSIONARY.

OCTOBER, 1889.

VOL. XLIII. NO. 10.




CONTENTS


EDITORIAL.

ANNUAL MEETING

VOTING MEMBERS

CLOSE OF FINANCIAL YEAR

LETTERS FROM CONTRIBUTORS

COMPROMISES AND THE CONGREGATIONAL CHURCHES OF GEORGIA

INDIAN CONTRACT SCHOOLS

A MINISTER'S TESTIMONY

NOTES BY THE WAY

* * * * *

"FREELY YE HAVE RECEIVED, FREELY GIVE"


THE SOUTH.

ITEMS FROM THE FIELD

VACATION AT TOUGALOO

FROM A TEACHER IN THE TENNESSEE MOUNTAINS

SIGNS OF PROGRESS

OBITUARY


STUDENT'S LETTER.

A BIT OF EXPERIENCE


THE INDIANS.

FORT YATES, DAKOTA


THE CHINESE.

OUR CHINESE IN CHINA


BUREAU OF WOMAN'S WORK.

WOMAN'S STATE ORGANIZATIONS

PARAGRAPHS

GLIMPSES FROM THE FIELD


OUR YOUNG FOLKS.

SCHOOL INCIDENTS


RECEIPTS

* * * * *

NEW YORK:

PUBLISHED BY THE AMERICAN MISSIONARY ASSOCIATION.

Rooms, 56 Reade Street.

* * * * *

Price, 50 Cents a Year, in Advance.

Entered at the Post Office at New York, N.Y., as second-class matter.

* * * * *


American Missionary Association.


PRESIDENT, Rev. WM. M. TAYLOR, D.D., LL.D., N.Y.


_Vice-Presidents._

Rev. A.J.F. BEHRENDS, D.D., N.Y.
Rev. F.A. NOBLE, D.D., Ill.
Rev. ALEX. McKENZIE, D.D., Mass.
Rev. D.O. MEARS, D.D., Mass.
Rev. HENRY HOPKINS, D.D., Mo.


_Corresponding Secretaries._

Rev. M.E. STRIEBY, D.D., _56 Reade Street, N.Y._
Rev. A.F. BEARD, D.D., _56 Reade Street, N.Y._


_Recording Secretary._
Rev. M.E. STRIEBY, D.D., _56 Reade Street, N.Y._


_Treasurer._

H.W. HUBBARD, Esq., _56 Reade Street, N.Y._


_Auditors._

PETER McCARTEE.
CHAS. P. PEIRCE.


_Executive Committee._

JOHN H. WASHBURN, Chairman.
ADDISON P. FOSTER, Secretary.


_For Three Years._

J.E. RANKIN,
WM. H. WARD,
J.W. COOPER,
JOHN H. WASHBURN,
EDMUND L. CHAMPLIN.


_For Two Years._

LYMAN ABBOTT,
CHAS. A. HULL,
CLINTON B. FISK,
ADDISON P. FOSTER.
ALBERT J. LYMAN.


_For One Year._

S.B. HALLIDAY,
SAMUEL HOLMES,
SAMUEL S. MARPLES,
CHARLES L. MEAD,
ELBERT B. MONROE.


_District Secretaries._

Rev. C.J. RYDER, _21 Cong'l House, Boston._
Rev. J.E. ROY, D.D., _151 Washington Street, Chicago._
Rev. C.W. HIATT, _64 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio._


_Financial Secretary for Indian Missions._

Rev. CHAS. W. SHELTON.


_Field Superintendents._

Rev. FRANK. E. JENKINS.
Prof. EDWARD S. HALL.


_Secretary of Woman's Bureau._

Miss D.E. EMERSON, _56 Reade St., N.Y._


COMMUNICATIONS

Relating to the work of the Association may be addressed to the
Corresponding Secretaries; letters for "THE AMERICAN MISSIONARY," to the
Editor, at the New York Office; letters relating to the finances, to the
Treasurer.


DONATIONS AND SUBSCRIPTIONS

In drafts, checks, registered letters, or post-office orders, may be
sent to H.W. Hubbard, Treasurer, 56 Reade Street, New York, or, when
more convenient, to either of the Branch Offices, 21 Congregational
House, Boston, Mass., or 151 Washington Street, Chicago, Ill. A payment
of thirty dollars at one time constitutes a Life Member.

NOTICE TO SUBSCRIBERS. - The date on the "address label," indicates the
time to which the subscription is paid. Changes are made in date on
label to the 10th of each month. If payment of subscription be made
afterward, the change on the label will appear a month later. Please
send early notice of change in post-office address, giving the former
address and the new address, in order that our periodicals and
occasional papers may be correctly mailed.


FORM OF A BEQUEST.

"I bequeath to my executor (or executors) the sum of - - dollars, in
trust, to pay the same in - - days after my decease to the person who,
when the same is payable, shall act as Treasurer of the 'American
Missionary Association,' of New York City, to be applied, under the
direction of the Executive Committee of the Association, to its
charitable uses and purposes." The Will should be attested by three
witnesses.




THE AMERICAN MISSIONARY.

* * * * *

VOL. XLIII. OCTOBER, 1889. No. 10.

* * * * *

American Missionary Association.

* * * * *


ANNUAL MEETING.

The next Annual Meeting of the American Missionary Association will be
held at Chicago, Ill., in the New England Church, commencing at three
o'clock Tuesday afternoon, October 29th. Rev. R.R. Meredith, D.D., of
Brooklyn, N.Y., will preach the sermon. Fuller details regarding the
reception of delegates and their entertainment, together with rates at
hotels, and railroad reductions, will be found on the last page of the
cover.

We are anxious that the Churches, Local Conferences and State
Associations should be fully represented at the meeting. This
Association is the almoner of their bounty and seeks their aid and
counsel at its annual gatherings. We believe that the work of the past
year will not only meet their approval, but increase their enthusiasm
for pushing forward with renewed interest what still lies before us. We
request the pastors of churches to secure the appointment of delegates,
and all local Conferences and State Associations whose meetings have not
been held, to name their delegates.

For notice of Woman's Meeting, see page 295.

* * * * *


VOTING MEMBERS.

Life members and delegates chosen by contributing churches, local
Conferences, and State Associations, constitute the Annual Meeting, as
will be seen by the following article of the Constitution.


ART. III. Members of evangelical churches may be constituted
members of this Association for life by the payment of
thirty dollars into its treasury, with the written
declaration at the time or times of payment that the sum is
to be applied to constitute a designated person a life
member; and such membership shall begin sixty days after the
payment shall have been completed. Other persons, by the
payment of the same sum, may be made life members, without
the privilege of voting.

Every evangelical church which has within a year contributed
to the funds of the Association, and every State Conference
or Association of such churches, may appoint two delegates
to the Annual Meeting of the Association; such delegates,
duly attested by credentials, shall be members of the
Association for the year for which they were thus appointed.


* * * * *


THE CLOSE OF OUR FINANCIAL YEAR.

These pages may fall into the hands of some of our constituents before
the close of our fiscal year, September 30th. We hope that the
opportunity will be embraced by church treasurers to remit promptly
funds designed for us, and that benevolent friends who have intended to
aid us during the year will carry out their purpose at once. The outlook
is encouraging and we shall hail with joy and gratitude the day of
deliverance from debt.

* * * * *


LETTERS FROM CONTRIBUTORS.

"Again I have the pleasure of enclosing for the general use of the
American Missionary Association a draft of one hundred dollars. The Lord
bless the work of the dear workers in the field. My love to them."

* * * * *

"Many years ago I used to contribute to the funds of the American
Missionary Association. My husband and I supported a teacher under its
auspices, but times have changed and we are not able to do that now. For
many years I have ceased to send any money to your treasury, for I
thought what little I could afford would do no good at all. But seeing
in the September MISSIONARY some contributions of a few dollars, I send
the enclosed five dollars. If each one interested in the cause would do
that, it would help some. My interest is unabated in your great and
glorious work for humanity and immortal souls."


FROM A MISSIONARY IN CHINA.

"Enclosed we send twenty-five dollars, which please accept as our
subscription to the American Missionary Association work for the current
year. We are more and more interested in this work, especially in view
of the hateful prejudice that exists in many parts of the South against
the colored people and those who have so nobly espoused the cause of
their education and Christianization. This low-minded prejudice is very
similar to what we have to endure here in the interior of China, yet it
is harder to bear because coming from those who pretend to be
enlightened Christians, while here those who indulge in personal abuse
are mostly of the lowest and most ignorant heathen, though they are
often backed up by the literati."

* * * * *


COMPROMISES AND THE CONGREGATIONAL CHURCHES OF GEORGIA.

Americans are much addicted to settling difficulties by compromises; but
these compromises, in State and Church, especially in regard to slavery,
have so often been the sacrifice of principle to expediency that the
word has come to have a sinister meaning - implying such a sacrifice; and
they have so often proved failures as to show them to be unwise, even as
a matter of expediency.

A brief sketch of some of these past compromises, with their motives and
failures, may throw some light upon the compromise proposed for the
Congregational churches in Georgia.


POLITICAL COMPROMISES.

These have usually been made from more than one motive:

1. One strong plea is that the expediency is so urgent that a small
sacrifice of right is justifiable. In that celebrated law case of
Shylock the Jew _versus_ Antonio the merchant, so ably reported by
William Shakespeare, Esq., this reason was plainly stated. The
defendant's attorney, Bassanio, in order to avert from his client the
dreadful forfeit of a pound of flesh taken nearest his heart, appealed
to the judge:

"I beseech you
Wrest once the law to your authority;
To do a great right, do a little wrong."

The "wise young judge" knew the law, human and divine, too well to grant
this plea.

But that plea had its influence in securing the adoption of the Federal
Constitution. Among other difficulties in the way, a constructive
guarantee of slavery seemed necessary to secure the assent of some of
the Southern States. How strong the plea! Slavery was wrong to be sure,
but the terrible seven years' war was ended, and a great nation was
ready to come into existence! The compromise was made and the Union was
formed. But did the compromise save it? No! The "pound of flesh" was at
last the price. After a struggle of seventy-two years the crisis came,
Sumter was fired upon and the compromise was found to be a failure. "A
pound of flesh!" Nay, the flesh and blood of a million of men saved the
Union.

2. Another motive for a compromise is the expectation that while it is
all that can be done now, it will be a step towards the ultimate. This
was strongly urged in that first compromise. It was said that the
Declaration of Independence, the enthusiasm for liberty, and the
world-wide boast of equal rights, must work a universal consent to the
abrogation of slavery. Jefferson voiced the general sentiment when he
said: "I think a change is already perceptible since the origin of the
present revolution. The way I hope is preparing, under the auspices of
heaven, for a total emancipation." But slavery grew stronger, instead of
weaker, under the compromise, and from time to time required more
compromises, and more surrenders. The Missouri Compromise, the
Annexation of Texas, and the Fugitive Slave Law, each extorted under
threats of the "dissolution of the Union," are examples. But no
compromise ever wrenched an inch of territory from the clutch of slavery
and gave it to freedom. Freedom _held_ the whole Northwest, by the
_un_-compromising requirement: "There shall be neither slavery nor
involuntary servitude" there!

3. Another strong plea for compromise is the hopelessness of gaining
anything better. This was the consideration urged so vehemently against
the early Abolitionists. It was said: "Slavery is wrong - that we all
admit - but it is a fixed fact, invulnerable, backed up by wealth,
talent, pride and political influence, and all opposition is vain. You
Abolitionists are mere sentimentalists, visionaries, doctrinaires." This
had great influence with the indifferent, the timid, and especially with
those who vaunt themselves as "practical men," who boast that they care
nothing for abstractions, but take business views of things. This plea
and these men were largely influential in carrying forward some of the
most iniquitous compromises preceding the war.


ECCLESIASTICAL COMPROMISES ABOUT SLAVERY.

This glance at the compromises in the political history of the nation
prepares us to look at those in the Church. Here, too, compromises on
the subject of slavery were made as in the State, and generally from the
same motives and always with the same disappointing results.

The Churches before and during the revolutionary period were emphatic in
their utterances against slavery. Their accredited leaders and official
convocations used such terms as these: Methodist, "The sum of all
villanies;" Presbyterian, "Man stealers: stealers of men are those who
bring off slaves or freemen and keep, sell or buy them;" Baptist,
"Slavery is a violent deprivation of the rights of nature;"
Congregational, "Slavery is in every instance wrong, unrighteous,
oppressive, a great and crying sin, there being nothing equal to it on
the face of the earth."

But there were slaveholders in the churches, and as population increased
they became more numerous and naturally chafed under such denunciations.
But their impatience reached its climax under the modern anti-slavery
doctrine that immediate emancipation is the only remedy for the sin of
slavery. The South was alarmed and soon became imperious and exacting;
the North was timid and yielding. Then began the special era of
ecclesiastical compromises. Let me specify:

1. The utterances as to the guilt of slavery were modified, reaching at
length the point where some of the most eminent doctors of divinity and
the most learned professors in theological seminaries tried to vindicate
from the Bible the toleration of slavery.

2. Disclaimers were made as to the right to interfere with slavery. As,
for example, a large ecclesiastical assembly by vote disclaimed "any
right, wish or intention to interfere with the civil and political
relation between master and slave, as it exists in the slaveholding
States of this Union." A distinguished bishop is reported to have said:
"I have never yet advised the liberation of a slave, and I think I never
shall;" and an eminent doctor of divinity declared: "If by one prayer I
could liberate every slave in the land I would not dare to offer it."

3. Fine distinctions were drawn in behalf of slaveholders. It was
warmly urged in their defense that while slavery was a sin, the
individual slaveholder might not in every case be a sinner - a charity
that was made to cover a multitude of sinners. One large religious
assembly declared that it could not "exclude slaveholders from the table
of the Lord;" it would rather "sympathize with and succor them in their
embarrassments." An elaborate report was adopted at another large
convocation, in which it was suggested that the convert should be
admitted into the church while still a slaveholder, an oppressive ruler
and a proud Brahmin, in the hope that under proper teaching, "the master
may be prepared to break the bonds of the slave, the oppressive ruler to
dispense justice to the subject, and the proud Brahmin fraternally to
embrace the man of low caste."

The great motive for these concessions was the desire for church
enlargement. Slavery was a sin, but the slaveholder might not always be
guilty, and if church unity and church extension were to be secured in
the South, some concessions must be made. Then, too, there was
undoubtedly the hope that concessions and fraternal intercourse in
public assemblies and in Christian work would win the confidence of the
slaveholders, and perhaps prepare the way for the gradual removal of
slavery; and above all there was the cogent plea that compromise or
division was the only present choice. The "_half-loaf_" argument was
wielded most effectually, and here, especially, the "practical men" came
to the front, while on the heads of the devoted Abolitionists were
showered without stint the epithets "fanatics" and "visionaries."

So much zeal for the slaveholders, and so much sacrifice of
self-respect, not to say of conscience, surely deserved a better fate;
but all was in vain. The slaveholders scorned the compromises, and
ruthlessly rent asunder the great national churches and missionary
societies. The Congregationalists, never numerous in the South, clung
with great tenacity to their few churches, but at length surrendered
them.


ECCLESIASTICAL COMPROMISES ABOUT CASTE.

So ended the first chapter of humiliating and fruitless Church
compromises; but a new chapter has begun to be written, and so far
promises to read just as the other did, both as to the facts to be
recorded and the end that will be reached. Slavery is dead, but the son
and heir and legitimate representative, _race prejudice_, arises to take
its place. This does not propose to remand the colored race back into
slavery, but to hold them as inferiors, to be discriminated against as
to equal rights and to bear with their color the perpetual ban of
separation and degradation. This might be expected in the political
world, but not in the Church where "_all are one in Christ Jesus_." And
it would be a specially sad fact if the Church should be more tardy than
the State in the recognition of the equal manhood of the two races.

One great effort in the present ecclesiastical struggle is to secure the
reunion of the sundered Churches; and, as in the case of slavery, other
issues have been waived or compromised, leaving race-prejudice as the
real point in the contest. Great have been the endeavors for harmony.
Committees of Conference have been appointed, have met and conferred;
enthusiastic public meetings have been held; communion services have
been celebrated jointly, and great feasts have been spread to welcome
visiting delegations. But the South has been inflexible on the
color-line. The Northern leaders have made concessions, and in some
instances have been ready to surrender the main point, but the mass of
Northern Christians seem unwilling to deny the Saviour in the person of
the man whose ostracism is demanded for no fault of his own, but only
because God made him black.

The Presbyterian Church (North) deserves special mention for having, in
the last General Assembly rejected a compromise that approved "the
policy of separate churches, presbyteries and synods." The prize was
nothing less than the ultimate reunion of the Northern and Southern
branches of that great Church. The leaders in the Church and in the
Assembly were committed to it and warmly advocated it, but when the test
vote came, it was rejected by an overwhelming majority! _God grant that
when the test comes for the Congregationalists they may show as much
back-bone!_ The present stage of the controversy finds the Methodists,
Baptists and Presbyterians still divided, with little prospect of
reunion. The Episcopalians in South Carolina have surrendered on a
compromise that permits the one colored minister in the Convention to
remain in it, but utterly forbids the admission of any others.


THE CONGREGATIONALISTS IN GEORGIA.

The Congregationalists are considering the question practically, but
with a division of sentiment. Some stand firmly against all race
distinctions, while others are disposed to compromise on a plan that
keeps the two organizations in Georgia still separated by the
color-line, but that provides for the appointment of a few delegates from
each, to form a new body that shall have charge of the interests of the
denomination and be represented in the National Council.

We are not careful to criticise the _details_ of this plan, nor are we
anxious to secure any particular modification of them. The cardinal fact
is that the plan itself keeps the two bodies in Georgia apart for no
other assigned or assignable reason than race prejudice; for who
supposes for a moment that if these bodies were both white there would
be this elaborate plan devised to touch each other with the tips of the
fingers, instead of giving at once the whole hand-grasp of Christian
fellowship? And so long as this plan makes or retains the line of caste
distinction or practically delays or evades its rejection, it is a
compromise that should not be endorsed. But already the old pleas for
compromise are urged in its behalf:

1. It is said that this is a first step towards the ultimate - a bridge
to facilitate a future coming together. But a bridge is not possible,
nor if possible, necessary. There is no doubt that since the New
Testament was written there have been great improvements in bridge
building, both mechanical and theological; but between equal manhood on
one side and race prejudice on the other, "there is a great gulf fixed,"
and no bridge can span the chasm. _The Negro must surrender his manhood
or the white man his prejudice._ There is no half way. But when either
is surrendered, there is no gulf, and no bridge is needed. If the Negro
will take his place as an inferior, he and the white man can ride on the
same seat in a buggy: if the white man will surrender his prejudice, the
Race-Problem is settled. Which shall be surrendered - the manhood or the
prejudice? The Congregational churches have no doubt on that question,
and if we are to educate men in right principles we must stand firmly
upon them ourselves. To begin with a compromise is to yield the very
point at issue.

2. But now also the opposite tack is taken. We are told that race
prejudice is a fixed fact - that the Southern people will never yield,
and that hence if we are to plant Congregational churches in the South
at all, we must compromise. And once more we have with us the "practical
men," who claim to take common sense views, and they urge us again to be
content with the "half-loaf." But this compromise "half-loaf" is very
much like the famous "little book" that John ate that was indeed in the
mouth "sweet as honey" but afterward proved to be exceedingly "bitter."
The truth is that this half-loaf, and Ephraim's "cake not turned" and
the drink that was "lukewarm, neither hot nor cold," constitute a very
unhealthy diet for Christian people. The past has its lesson by which we
ought to have profited; and it will be a shame if, with all our
experience, we are found to need the reproof that "when for the time ye
ought to be teachers, ye have need that some one teach you again which
be the _first principles of the oracles of God_."

We have to deal once more, in the history of this nation, with the
precious interests of the poor and neglected, and we must guard against
past mistakes. The issue before us is a square one, and no dodging and
no compromise will meet the case. We plead now for eight millions of
freemen as we once plead for four millions of slaves. God is their
Father, Christ is their Redeemer and the Church must recognize their
equal manhood. We hold with the _Christian Union_ that: "It were better
far that the Northern Church should not go with its missionary work into
the South at all, than that it should go with a mission which
strengthens the infidelity that denies that God made of one blood all
the nations of the earth for to dwell together."

* * * * *

The Methodist, Baptist and Presbyterian churches North resist all
overtures for separating the colored and white people in churches and
ecclesiastical bodies in the South. The Episcopal Church, in Virginia
and South Carolina at least, have consented to the separation on the
color-line. The Congregationalists will soon decide the position they
will take. Will they range themselves with the Episcopalians now
standing alone?

* * * * *


1 3 4 5

Online LibraryVariousThe American Missionary — Volume 43, No. 10, October, 1889 → online text (page 1 of 5)