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Transcriber's Note

Italic text is denoted by _underscores_; bold text by =equal signs=; and
bold, italic text by +plus signs+. The oe ligature was replaced by the
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VOL. XVIII MARCH-APRIL, 1916 20c. a Copy

No. 2 $1 a Year


Bird-Lore


[Illustration (birdhouse in field)]


EDITED BY

FRANK M. CHAPMAN


PUBLISHED FOR THE AUDUBON SOCIETIES

BY

D. Appleton & Company


HARRISBURG, PA. NEW YORK

COPYRIGHT, 1916, BY FRANK M. CHAPMAN _R. Weber_.




Bird-Lore

March-April, 1916

- - - - - - - - -

CONTENTS


=GENERAL ARTICLES= Page
Frontispiece in Color - Bush-Tits, Verdin, and Wren-Tit
_Louis Agassiz Fuertes_
The World's Record for Density of Bird Population. Illustrated
by the author _Gilbert H. Grosvenor_ 77
The Robin in Yosemite. Verse _Garrett Newkirk_ 84
The Spring Migration of 1915 at Raleigh, N. C.
_S. C. Bruner and C. S. Brimley_ 85
First Efforts at Bird Photography. Illustrated by the author
_H. Tra Hartshorn_ 88
Long-eared Owl on Nest. Illustration _H. and E. Pittman_ 91
The Interesting Barn Owl. Illustrated by the author
_Joseph W. Lippincott_ 92
Photographs of Flickers _Arthur A. Allen_ 96
The Migration of North American Birds. Illustrated by
Louis Agassiz Fuertes _W. W. Cooke_ 97
Notes on the Plumage of North American Birds. Thirty-seventh
Paper _Frank M. Chapman_

=NOTES FROM FIELD AND STUDY= 100
A Correction; Hints for Bird Clubs, _W. M. Buswell_; Ornithological
Possibilities of a Bit of Swamp Land, _Arthur P. Stubbs_; My
Neighbor's Sparrow Trap, _Charles R. Keyes_; A Tropical Migration
Tragedy; A Shower of Birds, _R. L. Tripp_; A Heron's Involuntary
Bath, _John R. Tooker_; Winter Notes From Carlisle, Ind., _J. H.
Gilliland_; Notes from Nebraska, _Howard Paret_; A Gannet over the
Hudson River, _J. T. Nichols_; Petrels on the Hudson, _F. M.
Chapman_; Starling in Ohio, _Sheridan T. Wood_; Evening Grosbeaks
and Cardinals in Southern Wisconsin, _Ethel A. Nott_; Evening
Grosbeaks at Port Henry, N. Y., _Dora B. Harris_; Evening Grosbeak
at Glen Falls, N. Y., _E. Eveleen Hathaway_; Evening Grosbeaks at
Saratoga Springs, N. Y., _Jacolyn Manning, M. D._; The Evening
Grosbeak at Boston, _E. G. and R. E. Robbins_; Evening Grosbeaks
at Poughkeepsie, N. Y., _George W. Gray_; Evening Grosbeaks in
Lexington, Mass., _Winsor M. Tyler, M. D._; Evening Grosbeaks in
Vermont, _L. H. Potter_; Evening Grosbeaks in Connecticut, _Mary
Hazen Arnold_; Martin Problems, _May S. Danner_; A Bold Winter
Wren, _Edward J. F. Marx_.

=BOOK NEWS AND REVIEWS= 110
Grinnell's Distributional List of California Birds; Taverner on
the Food Habits of Cormorants; The Ornithological Magazines.

=EDITORIAL= 112

=THE AUDUBON SOCIETIES - SCHOOL DEPARTMENT= 113
Bird and Arbor Day - An Awakening, _A. H. W._; Junior Audubon Work;
Ways of Keeping up Interest in Bird Study; For and From Adult
and Young Observers, Red-wing Blackbird. Ills.

=EDUCATIONAL LEAFLET No. 85.= Chestnut-sided Warbler. With colored
plate by Bruce Horsfall _T. Gilbert Pearson_ 128

=AUDUBON SOCIETIES - EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT= 132
A Case in Point; A Feeding-Shelf; Photographing Water-Fowl; Birds
and the Cold Spell; Florence Merriam Bailey; New Members and
Contributors; The Virginia Game Bill; Notes From the Field.

*.* _Manuscripts intended for publication, books, etc., for review and
exchanges, should be sent to the Editor, at the American Museum of
Natural History, 77th St. and 8th Ave., New York City._

=Notices of changes of addresses, renewals and subscriptions should be
sent to BIRD-LORE, HARRISBURG, PA.=

=Please remit by Draft or Money Order=

* * * * *

Important Notice to All Bird-Lore Subscribers

=Bird-lore= is published on or near the first days of February, April,
June, August, October, and December. Failure to secure the copy due you
should be reported not later than the 18th of the months above
mentioned. We cannot supply missing copies after the month in which the
number in question was issued.

Entered as second-class mail matter in the Post Office at Harrisburg,
Pa.


* * * * *


[Illustration (Wren House)]

Send $1 for this famous

WREN HOUSE

Known as Jennie's Choice

For three seasons "Jennie" preferred this House where there was a choice
of fifty.


A. P. GREIM

"Birdville" TOMS RIVER, N. J.


* * * * *


THE JACOBS BIRD-HOUSE COMPANY

First American enterprise for the manufacture of =Bird-Houses and
Bird-Feeding Devices=

=Over 33 years' experience by the Pres. Mgr.= Always leading in the
Bird-House enterprise,

=Jacobs Now Pays the Freight=

to your nearest steam railroad freight station!

[Illustration: Our Indorsement.]

Twelve beautiful designs of colony houses for the Purple Martin.

Individual nest boxes for Wrens, Bluebirds, Swallows, Chickadees,
Flickers, Titmice, Woodpeckers, etc.

Sheltered Feeding Devices and Food Tables, Cement Bird Baths and
Drinking Fountains.

Genuine Government Sparrow Traps.

Direct from our factory to user at factory prices, thus giving customers
the benefit of local dealers' and agents' commissions.

Mention this magazine and send 10 cts. for our beautifully illustrated
bird-house booklet.


JACOBS BIRD-HOUSE COMPANY

404 S. Washington St., Waynesburg, Pa.


* * * * *


[Illustration (Publisher's Logo)]

+Just the Book to Interest Children in Bird Study+

=LITTLE BIRD BLUE=

By William L. and Irene Finley

"No child can read this beautifully printed and illustrated book without
having his love for the bluebird increased; even the adult will find
much pleasure in text, illustrations, and exquisite make-up." - _Guide to
Nature._

"One of the prettiest and most commendable of children's books." - _St.
Louis Republic._

"It has the beneficial effect of intensifying our love of
birds." - _Rochester Post Express._

"Children could hardly have a more happy introduction to
bird-study." - _Lexington Herald._

"One of the most entertaining books for juveniles." - _Boston Globe._

"Told in a manner to delight children." - _Zion's Herald._

"Mr. and Mrs. Finley have written the book with much charm, and woven
into the story a great deal of bird-lore." - _Portland Evening Telegram._

_Profusely illustrated with drawings by Bruce Horsfall and photographs
by Mr. Finley. Price 75 cents net._


HOUGHTON MIFFLIN CO.,

4 Park Street 16 East 49th St.

BOSTON NEW YORK


* * * * *


=Everything from "Soup to Nuts" for the Birds=


Try Evang Bros. Mixtseed for Native and Migratory Birds! Large size
package, 50 cents.


=230 Main Street Evanston, Illinois=


* * * * *


=Bird Gardening=


WALTER M. BUSWELL, at present the Superintendent of the famous Bird
Sanctuary of the Meriden Bird Club, is prepared to give expert advice on
all matters pertaining to the attraction and protection of birds.


=Address: Meriden, New Hampshire=


* * * * *


I should be pleased to have any MUSEUM or HIGH SCHOOL desiring to secure
an excellent ORNITHOLOGICAL and OÖLOGICAL COLLECTION for study and
scientific purposes communicate with me.


=GEO. W. AMES=

=No. 707 Washington Avenue=

=Bay City, Mich.=


* * * * *


+To Bird-Lovers+

Use Comstock's

BIRD NOTEBOOKS

Nos. 1 and 2

in your bird study


Each book has outlines for recording location, size, nesting, habits,
etc., for use in the field. In addition, book No. 1 has 30, and book No.
2 has 28 outline drawings of birds (by Louis Agassiz Fuertes), on
watercolor paper for recording the colors.

These books are used in quantity in classes, rural, city and normal
schools and colleges.

Pocket size, 124 pages

30 cts. each, 50 cts. set of two


_Send for circular of the Nature

Notebook Series_


The Comstock Publishing Company

110 Roberts Place, Ithaca, N. Y.


* * * * *


[Illustration: _Wren House No. 6_]

=Do You Love Birds?=


Encourage them to live in your gardens. Use our successful bird-houses
for Wrens, Chickadees, Bluebirds and Purple Martins. Strongly made - well
painted, to resist weather. Prices 35¢ to $10. Design illustrated $1 50.
Our reliable wire Sparrow Trap endorsed by U. S. Government, $3 F. O. B.
Dubuque. _Write for free illustrated Folder No. 233-B._


=Farley & Loetscher Mfg. Co., Dubuque, Iowa=


* * * * *


=Bird-Lores Wanted=

======================================================================

_(The publishers of BIRD-LORE respectfully urge subscribers who desire
to have unbroken files of the magazine, to renew their subscription at
the time of its expiration.)_

======================================================================

Vol. I, Nos. 2, 3, 4; Vol. II, Nos. 1, 2, 3, 5; Vol. III, Nos. 4, 5;
Vol. XIII, Nos. 1, 2. PHILIP DOWELL, Port Richmond, N. Y.

Vol. I, Nos. 2, 3, 4, 6; Vol. II, Nos. 2, 3, 5; Vol. III, Nos. 1, 2, 4;
Vol. IV, Nos. 1, 2; Vol. V, No. 1; Vol. VII, No. 1; Vol. IX, Nos. 3, 6;
Vol. X, Nos. 1, 3, 4, 5; Vol. XII, Nos. 4, 6; Vol. XIII, Nos. 1, 2, 4;
Vol. XIV, Nos. 1, 2; Vol. XV, No. 6. W. H. BROOMHALL, Stockport, Ohio.

Vol. XII, No. 5; Vol. XV, No. 6; Vol. XVI, Nos. 1, 2. WILLARD L.
METCALF, 140 W. 79th Street, New York.

Vol. III, No. 2; will pay $2. E. W. HADELER, Painesville, Ohio.

Vol. XIII, No. 1. E. S. WILSON, 1044 Congress Ave., Indianapolis,
Indiana.

Vol. X, No. 3; will pay $1. P. S. MCGLYNN, Moline, Ill.

Vol. XI, complete. A. J. ANDERSON, 1822 West Palmer Avenue,
Sioux City, Ia.

Vol. XVI, Nos. 1, 2. A. D. TINKER, 631 S. 12th St., Ann Arbor, Mich.

======================================================================

PUBLISHER'S NOTE. - Complete sets of BIRD-LORE can no longer be supplied
by the publishers, and now bring nearly three times the price at which
they were issued. To subscribers who desire to complete their files, we
offer the free use of our advertising columns.


* * * * *


[Illustration: Note: Frontispiece

1. Bush-Tit
2. Lead-colored Bush-Tit
3. Lloyd's Bush-Tit, Male
4. Lloyd's Bush-Tit, Female 5. Verdin 6. Wren-Tit

(One-half natural size)]




=Bird-Lore=

A BI-MONTHLY MAGAZINE

DEVOTED TO THE STUDY AND PROTECTION OF BIRDS

Official Organ of The Audubon Societies

================================================================

Vol. XVIII March-April, 1916 No. 2

================================================================




The World's Record for Density of Bird Population

By GILBERT H. GROSVENOR

Editor of the National Geographic Magazine

With photographs by the author


In the winter of 1913, our family bought a farm of one hundred acres,
fifty acres in forest and fifty in fields, in Montgomery County,
Maryland, about ten miles from Washington. We moved out in April. At the
time, no members of the family, including my wife, six children, and
myself, could name more than three birds - the Crow, the Robin, and the
Turkey Buzzard. We had, however, become interested in birds, owing to
our friendship for the Editor of BIRD-LORE, and for other Audubon
workers, and determined to see what we could do to get birds around the
home, which we named 'Wild Acres.'

The house is a typical old farmhouse, surrounded by an old apple and
pear orchard, with vegetable garden and hedges, and open fields beyond.
Surrounding the fields is a tract of fifty acres in woods, with a
beautiful stream, and several springs scattered around in the fields and
woods.

The first thing we did was to drive away the English Sparrows which had
possession of the place. We got small shot-guns, and, whenever a Sparrow
appeared, shot him. It wasn't long before those that were not shot,
left. We then made houses for Martins, Wrens, Bluebirds and Flickers,
some of which were immediately occupied. We had such success that in the
winters of 1914 and 1915 we put up more houses, and in the spring of
1915 had attracted so many birds around the house that Dr. H. W.
Henshaw, the Chief of the U. S. Biological Survey of the Department of
Agriculture, became interested, and delegated Dr. Wells W. Cooke to
visit our place. Dr. Cooke was so impressed by the number of feathered
friends that we had gathered around us that he urged me to make a census
of the birds living on an acre or two adjacent to the house, as he
thought it probable that a count would bring us a world record. The
record up to this time was held by a family in Chevy Chase, Maryland,
who had attracted thirteen pairs of birds to one half-acre.

[Illustration: A BLUEBIRD'S NEST BOX, IN WHICH A PAIR OF BLUEBIRDS
REARED THREE BROODS IN 1914, AND AGAIN IN 1915]

The prospect of securing a world's record was so inviting that, during
the last week of June, 1915, I made a census of all birds nesting on the
acre adjoining our house and barns, with the result that we found
fifty-nine pairs of birds with young or eggs in the nest on that acre,
the highest number of land-birds inhabiting one acre that has yet been
reported to the Department of Agriculture or to any Audubon society. The
details of the census are presented below:

LIST OF BIRDS NESTING ON ONE ACRE ADJACENT TO THE HOUSE AND BARNS OF
GILBERT H. GROSVENOR IN THE WEEK OF JUNE 15-21, 1915

(Only pairs whose nests were located with young or eggs in them are
counted.)

Flicker* 1 pair
Bluebird* 1 "
Yellow Warbler 1 "
Orchard Oriole 2 "
Catbird 2 "
Song Sparrow 1 "
Chipping Sparrow 2 "
Phoebe 1 "
House Wren* 14 "
Robin 7 "
Robin 7 "
Kingbird 1 "
Martins* 26 "
-
Total 59 pairs

English Sparrows 0

The asterisk (*) indicates pairs nesting in boxes put up by the family.

A similar census made of the second adjoining acre showed thirty-three
pairs nesting in this area, as follows:

LIST OF BIRDS NESTING ON SECOND ACRE

Song Sparrow 1 pair
Carolina Wren* 1 "
Flicker* 1 "
Maryland Yellow-Throat 1 "
Brown Thrasher 1 "
House Wren* 4 "
Robin 2 "
Catbird 1 "
Chipping Sparrow 1 "
Screech Owl* (no young in nest
June 15, as brood had already
left) 1 "
Martins* 18 "
Towhee 1 "
-
Total 33 pairs

English Sparrows 0

[Illustration: A MARTIN HOUSE IN THE MEADOW, ABOUT ONE HUNDRED YARDS
FROM THE HOUSE

It is advisable not to place the Martin box too near the house, for
the birds begin to chatter long before dawn, and will awaken the
household.]

[Illustration: MARTIN HOUSE IN THE HEN-YARD OCCUPIED BY TWENTY-FIVE
PAIRS OF MARTINS IN 1914 AND 1915.

The Martins are very efficient guardians of our chickens. I have
often seen them drive the Hawks and Crows away. They hate Buzzards
also.]

I attribute our success primarily to shooting the Sparrows and driving
all cats away, to putting up many boxes, to keeping fresh water handy at
all times, etc. We did everything we could for the comfort of our birds;
for instance, we put on twigs little pieces of the oil-paper that our
butter was wrapped in, and we left mud in convenient places for the
Martins. The Catbirds used the oil-paper for their nests, in fact, they
used all kinds of scraps. Imagine the delight of the family when, on
examining one of the Catbird's nests in the autumn, we found one of the
children's hair-ribbons, and also a piece of an old dress of the baby!

[Illustration: A SCREECH OWL'S NEST

This box was put up for Flickers in the winter of 1914. Flickers took
possession in March, but were driven out by Sparrow Hawks. But the
Sparrow Hawks were frightened away two weeks later by the too great
prominence of the position. Later a pair of Screech Owls adopted it for
their home. Last winter we took the box down and carried it to the barn,
to serve as a model for making other boxes. On opening it we found a
live owl inside.]

[Illustration: A SPARROW HAWK'S NEST ON THE EDGE OF THE WOODS

We had much difficulty in keeping red and flying squirrels out of the
houses placed near the woods. In 1915 red squirrels drove out a pair of
Flickers brooding in a box on the forest edge.]

We had read a great deal about how tame birds become when they are
protected, but were constantly amazed at the quickness with which they
perceived the care taken of them. Perhaps the most remarkable nest was
that of a Phoebe, which was built under the cornice of the piazza,
within reach of my hand. We had a little school in the morning at the
house, and ten children were continually running up and down the piazza,
shouting at the top of their voices, but the Phoebe went on building
her nest, then hatched her eggs and fed her young without fear, though
she could see everyone and everyone could see her.

I was also surprised to find how friendly birds, even of the same
species, can become. For instance, we had fourteen pairs of Wrens on a
single acre, some of the nests being not more than fifteen feet apart.
We also had Robins nesting only twelve yards apart. The Bluebirds, on
the other hand, do not like each other and would not tolerate another
pair of Bluebirds nearer than 100 yards.

[Illustration: A FLICKER WAS NESTING IN BOX AND DID NOT STIR, THOUGH
THERE WERE FIVE CHILDREN IN THE TREE AND FOUR BELOW WHEN THIS
PHOTOGRAPH WAS TAKEN. (June 7, 1914.)]

[Illustration: AN APARTMENT HOUSE FOR WRENS

When we started building houses, we did not realize that Wrens would not
share a house with another pair of Wrens. This house has rooms for
eighteen pairs of Wrens. The room on the left was occupied in 1913, 1914
and 1915, and all the other rooms were vacant. Note Wren on box.]

[Illustration: A WREN HOUSE IN THE GARDEN

Note the Wren on the perch. We had fourteen pairs of house Wrens nesting
on one acre adjoining the house and barns in 1915. This is the largest
number reported of Wrens living on one acre.]

The first year we had no Flickers, but there was a pair nesting in an
old apple tree on our neighbor's property. During the winter the tree
was blown down and our oldest son obtained permission to get it. He cut
out the portion of the tree which contained the nest, cleaned out the
hole, and then hung the nest in a dying cherry tree, as shown in our
illustration. The nest was not more than ten yards from the house, but
was taken possession of in 1914 and again in 1915.

The photographs illustrate some of our tenants. We are putting up this
winter many more houses on the rest of the farm, as, up to this time,
our efforts have been confined to the ten acres nearest the house.

[Illustration: A FLICKER'S NEST BOX ON AN APPLE TREE ONLY TWELVE
YARDS FROM THE HOUSE AND BORDERING THE DRIVEWAY.

In this same tree, also, a pair of Robins and a pair of Chipping
Sparrows nested in 1915.]

[Illustration: A BOX OCCUPIED BY FLICKERS AND WRENS

When the Flickers came back the second year (1915), they tried to
excavate a new door to their house, on the opposite side from that
shown in the picture, but soon desisted, leaving a hole about 2
inches deep. Later a pair of Wrens built a nest in the new hole, so
that in 1915 a brood of Flickers and a brood of house Wrens were
living in the box at the same time. Note the Flicker's head in the
doorway.]

We have already found the following birds nesting on some part of the
100 acres of field and woods: Flicker, Robin, Catbird, Bluebird, Orchard
Oriole, House Wren, Purple Martin, Summer Warbler, Brown Thrasher,
Chipping Sparrow, Phoebe, Barn Swallow, Grasshopper Sparrow,
Whip-poor-will, Towhee, Indigo Bunting, Black-and-White Warbler, Song
Sparrow, Meadowlark, Chat, Maryland Yellowthroat, Field Sparrow,
Cardinal, Red-eyed Vireo, Ovenbird, Wood Thrush, Scarlet Tanager,
Acadian Flycatcher, Great Crested Flycatcher, Mourning Dove, Kingbird,
Red-headed Woodpecker, Wood Pewee, Bob-white, Chickadee, Titmouse,
White-breasted Nuthatch, Carolina Wren, Mockingbird, Goldfinch, Crow,
Bluejay, Downy Woodpecker, Hairy Woodpecker, Barred Owl, Screech Owl,
Sparrow Hawk, Red-shouldered Hawk, Redstart, Yellow-throated Vireo,
Cedarbird, Vesper Sparrow, Louisiana Water-thrush, and Ruby-throated
Hummingbird.

We had, in 1915, seventy-five pairs of Martins in an area of
approximately ten acres, and expect to have a great many more than this
in 1916. We had one pair of Red-shouldered Hawks nesting in our woods,
and kept them for two years; but they developed such fondness for
poultry, being caught repeatedly thieving, that finally we had to shoot
them.

We have in the woods a splendid pair of Barred Owls. They come around
the barns at night, and I suspect them also of attempts at
chicken-thieving, but they are too handsome and rare a bird in these
parts to shoot. We have nothing good to say of the Screech Owl, which we
suspect of having been the cause of the mysterious disappearance of many
young birds from the nests.

If any one wants excitement, I suggest that he buy or borrow a stuffed
Owl, and put it out in the garden in the daytime during the nesting
season. All the birds in the neighborhood will soon congregate, and the
children will learn the birds quicker than in any other way.


The Robin in Yosemite

By GARRETT NEWKIRK


In this divine cathedral grand,
O'erborne by silent awe I stand,
When, friendly greets me, near at hand,
The Robin in Yosemite.

Beneath high wall and towering dome,
By roaring rapids dashed with foam,
I hear the old, sweet voice of home -
The Robin in Yosemite.

I hear from every sculptured wall
The voices of the ages call,
And, cheering with their echoes all,
The Robin in Yosemite.


The Spring Migration of 1915 at Raleigh, N. C.

By S. C. BRUNER and C. S. BRIMLEY


The migration of birds at Raleigh, N. C, during the spring of 1915 was
so unusual that it is believed that a short account, together with a
list of the records, will be of interest to the readers of BIRD-LORE. In
considering the following remarks, it may be well to bear in mind that
records of the bird migration in this locality have been made each year
for the past thirty-one years. Also, the amount of time spent in making
observations during the past season is significant. From March 19 to May
7, field trips were made by Mr. Bruner on forty-seven days out of a
possible fifty. Prior to and after this period observations were made by
him for several weeks at intervals of from two to four days. Mr. Brimley
was in the field for twelve days from March 30 to April 28, but was


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