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Cape Cod and All the Pilgrim Land, June 1922, Volume 6, Number 4 A Monthly Magazine Devoted to the Interests of Southeastern Massachusetts online

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Transcriber's notes:

(1) Numbers following letters (without space) like C2 were originally
printed in subscript. Letter subscripts are preceded by an
underscore, like C_n.

(2) Characters following a carat (^) were printed in superscript.

(3) Side-notes were relocated to function as titles of their respective
paragraphs.

(4) Macrons and breves above letters and dots below letters were not
inserted.

(5) The following typographical errors have been corrected:

Article CANAAN, CANAANITES: "If (Egyptian) troops come this year,
lands and princes will remain to the king, my lord; but if troops
come not, these lands and princes will not remain to the king, my
lord." quotes added after 'lord'.

Article CANTATA: "... though at the same time not excludeing the
possibility of a brilliant climax in the shape of a light order of
fugue." 'excludeing' amended from 'exclude ing'.

Article CAPE COLONY: "In the western part of the colony the winter
is the rainy season, in the eastern part the chief rains come in
summer." 'in' amended from 'is'.

Article CAPE COLONY: "Agriculture and Allied Industries."
'Industries' amended from 'Industires'.




ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA

A DICTIONARY OF ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE
AND GENERAL INFORMATION

ELEVENTH EDITION


VOLUME V, SLICE II

Camorra to Cape Colony




ARTICLES IN THIS SLICE:


CAMORRA CANDYTUFT
CAMP CANE
CAMPAGNA DI ROMA CANEA
CAMPAIGN CANE-FENCING
CAMPAN, JEANNE LOUISE HENRIETTE CANEPHORAE
CAMPANELLA, TOMMASO CANES VENATICI
CAMPANIA CANGA-ARGUELLES, JOSÉ
CAMPANI-ALIMENIS, MATTEO CANGAS DE ONÍS
CAMPANILE CANGAS DE TINÉO
CAMPANULA CANGUE
CAMPBELL, ALEXANDER CANINA, LUIGI
CAMPBELL, BEATRICE STELLA CANINI, GIOVANNI AGNOLO
CAMPBELL, GEORGE CANIS MAJOR
CAMPBELL, JOHN CANITZ, FRIEDRICH RUDOLF LUDWIG
CAMPBELL, JOHN CAMPBELL CAÑIZARES, JOSÉ DE
CAMPBELL, JOHN FRANCIS CANNAE
CAMPBELL, JOHN McLEOD CANNANORE
CAMPBELL, LEWIS CANNES
CAMPBELL, REGINALD JOHN CANNIBALISM
CAMPBELL, THOMAS CANNING, CHARLES JOHN
CAMPBELL-BANNERMAN, SIR HENRY CANNING, GEORGE
CAMPBELTOWN CANNIZZARO, STANISLAO
CAMPE, JOACHIM HEINRICH CANNOCK
CAMPECHE (state of Mexico) CANNON
CAMPECHE (city of Mexico) CANNON-BALL TREE
CAMPEGGIO, LORENZO CANNSTATT
CAMPER, PETER CANO, ALONZO
CAMPHAUSEN, OTTO VON CANO, MELCHIOR
CAMPHAUSEN, WILHELM CANOE
CAMPHORS CANON
CAMPHUYSEN, DIRK RAFELSZ CANONESS
CAMPI, GIULIO CANONIZATION
CAMPILLO, JOSÉ DEL CANON LAW
CAMPINAS CANOPUS
CAMPING OUT CANOPY
CAMPION, EDMUND CANOSA
CAMPION, THOMAS CANOSSA
CAMPISTRON, JEAN GALBERT DE CANOVA, ANTONIO
CAMPOAMOR Y CAMPOOSORIO, RAMON DE CANOVAS DEL CASTILLO, ANTONIO
CAMPOBASSO CANROBERT, FRANÇOIS CERTAIN
CAMPODEA CANT, ANDREW
CAMPOMANES, PEDRO RODRIGUEZ CANT
CAMPOS, ARSENIO MARTINEZ DE CANTABRI
CAMPOS CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS
CÂMPULUNG CANTACUZINO
CAMUCCINI, VINCENZO CANTAGALLO
CAMULODUNUM CANTAL
CAMUS, ARMAND GASTON CANTARINI, SIMONE
CAMUS, CHARLES ÉTIENNE LOUIS CANTATA
CAMUS, FRANÇOIS JOSEPH DES CANTEEN
CAMUS DE MÉZIÈRES, NICOLAS LE CANTEMIR
CANA CANTERBURY, CHARLES MANNERS-SUTTON
CANAAN, CANAANITES CANTERBURY
CANACHUS CANTHARIDES
CANADA CANTICLES
CANAL CANTILEVER
CANAL DOVER CANTILUPE, THOMAS DE
CANALE ANTONIO CANTILUPE, WALTER DE
CANALIS CANTO
CANANDAIGUA CANTON, JOHN
CANARD CANTON (city of China)
CANARY CANTON (Illinois, U.S.A.)
CANARY ISLANDS CANTON (New York, U.S.A.)
CANCALE CANTON (Ohio, U.S.A.)
CANCEL CANTON (country division)
CANCELLI CANTONMENT
CANCER, LUIS CANTÙ, CESARE
CANCER (astronomy) CANUSIUM
CANCER (disease) CANUTE
CANCRIN, FRANZ LUDWIG VON CANUTE VI.
CANDELABRUM CANVAS
CANDIA CANVASS
CANDIDATE CANYNGES, WILLIAM
CANDLE CANYON
CANDLEMAS CANZONE
CANDLESTICK CAPE BRETON
CANDLISH, ROBERT SMITH CAPE COAST
CANDOLLE, AUGUSTIN PYRAME DE CAPE COLONY
CANDON




CAMORRA, a secret society of Naples associated with robbery, blackmail
and murder. The origin of the name is doubtful. Probably both the word
and the association were introduced into Naples by Spaniards. There is a
Spanish word _camorra_ (a quarrel), and similar societies seem to have
existed in Spain long before the appearance of the Camorra in Naples. It
was in 1820 that the society first became publicly known. It was
primarily social, not political, and originated in the Neapolitan
prisons then filled with the victims of Bourbon misrule and oppression,
its first purpose being the protection of prisoners. In or about 1830
the Camorra was carried into the city by prisoners who had served their
terms. The members worked the streets in gangs. They had special methods
of communicating with each other. They mewed like cats at the approach
of the patrol, and crowed like cocks when a likely victim approached. A
long sigh gave warning that the latter was not alone, a sneeze meant he
was not "worth powder and shot," and so on. The society rapidly extended
its power, and its operations included smuggling and blackmail of all
kinds in addition to ordinary road-robberies. Its influence grew to be
considerable. Princes were in league with and shared the profits of the
smugglers: statesmen and dignitaries of the church, all classes in fact,
were involved in the society's misdeeds. From brothels the Camorra drew
huge fees, and it maintained illegal lottery offices. The general
disorder of Naples was so great and the police so badly organized that
merchants were glad to engage the Camorra to superintend the loading and
unloading of merchandise. Being non-political, the government did not
interfere with the society; indeed its members were taken into the
police service and the Camorra sometimes detected crimes which baffled
the authorities. After 1848 the society became political. In 1860, when
the constitution was granted by Francis II., the _camorristi_ then in
gaol were liberated in great numbers. The association became
all-powerful at elections, and general disorder reigned till 1862.
Thereafter severe repressive measures were taken to curtail its power.
In September 1877 there was a determined effort to exterminate it:
fifty-seven of the most notorious camorristi being simultaneously
arrested in the market-place. Though much of its power has gone, the
Camorra has remained vigorous. It has grown upwards, and highly-placed
and well-known camorristi have entered municipal administrations and
political life. In 1900 revelations as to the Camorra's power were made
in the course of a libel suit, and these led to the dissolution of the
Naples municipality and the appointment of a royal commissioner. A
government inquiry also took place. As the result of this investigation
the Honest Government League was formed, which succeeded in 1901 in
entirely defeating the Camorra candidates at the municipal elections.

The Camorra was divided into classes. There were the "swell mobsmen,"
the camorristi who dressed faultlessly and mixed with and levied fines
on people of highest rank. Most of these were well connected. There were
the lower order of blackmailers who preyed on shopkeepers, boatmen, &c.;
and there were political and murdering camorristi. The ranks of the
society were largely recruited from the prisons. A youth had to serve
for one year an apprenticeship so to speak to a fully admitted
camorrista when he was sometimes called _picciotto d' honore_, and after
giving proof of courage and zeal became a _picciotto di sgarro_, one,
that is, of the lowest grade of members. In some localities he was then
called _tamurro_. The initiatory ceremony for full membership is now a
mock duel in which the arm alone is wounded. In early times initiation
was more severe. The camorristi stood round a coin laid on the ground,
and at a signal all stooped to thrust at it with their knives while the
novice had at the same time to pick the coin up, with the result that
his hand was generally pierced through in several places. The noviciate
as _picciotto di sgarro_ lasted three years, during which the lad had to
work for the camorrista who had been assigned to him as master. After
initiation there was a ceremony of reception. The camorristi stood round
a table on which were a dagger, a loaded pistol, a glass of water or
wine supposed to be poisoned and a lancet. The _picciotto_ was brought
in and one of his veins opened. Dipping his hand in his own blood, he
held it out to the camorristi and swore to keep the society's secrets
and obey orders. Then he had to stick the dagger into the table, cock
the pistol, and hold the glass to his mouth to show his readiness to die
for the society. His master now bade him kneel before the dagger, placed
his right hand on the lad's head while with the left he fired off the
pistol into the air and smashed the poison-glass. He then drew the
dagger from the table and presented it to the new comrade and embraced
him, as did all the others. The Camorra was divided into centres, each
under a chief. There were twelve at Naples. The society seems at one
time to have always had a supreme chief. The last known was Aniello
Ansiello, who finally disappeared and was never arrested. The chief of
every centre was elected by the members of it. All the earnings of the
centre were paid to and then distributed by him. The camorristi employ a
whole vocabulary of cant terms. Their chief is _masto_ or _si masto_,
"sir master." When a member meets him he salutes with the phrase _Masto,
volite niente?_ ("Master, do you want anything?"). The members are
addressed simply as _si_.

See Monnier, _La Camorra_ (Florence, 1863); Umilta, _Camorra et Mafia_
(Neuchâtel, 1878); Alongi, _La Camorra_ (1890); C.W. Heckethorn
_Secret Societies of All Ages_ (London, 1897); Blasio, _Usi e costumi
dei Camorriste_ (Naples, 1897).




CAMP (from Lat. _campus_, field), a term used more particularly in a
military sense, but also generally for a temporarily organized place of
food and shelter in open country, as opposed to ordinary housing (see
CAMPING-OUT). The shelter of troops in the field has always been of the
greatest importance to their well-being, and from the earliest times
tents and other temporary shelters have been employed as much as
possible when it is not feasible or advisable to quarter the troops in
barracks or in houses. The applied sense of the word "camp" as a
military post of any kind comes from the practice which prevailed in the
Roman army of fortifying every encampment. In modern warfare the word is
used in two ways. In the wider sense, "camp" is opposed to "billets,"
"cantonments" or "quarters," in which the troops are scattered amongst
the houses of towns or villages for food and shelter. In a purely
military camp the soldiers live and sleep in an area of open ground
allotted for their sole use. They are thus kept in a state of
concentration and readiness for immediate action, and are under better
disciplinary control than when in quarters, but they suffer more from
the weather and from the want of comfort and warmth. In the restricted
sense "camp" implies tents for all ranks, and is thus opposed to
"bivouac," in which the only shelter is that afforded by improvised
screens, &c., or at most small _tentes d'abri_ carried in sections by
the men themselves. The weight of large regulation tents and the
consequent increase in the number of horses and vehicles in the
transport service are, however, disadvantages so grave that the
employment of canvas camps in European warfare is almost a thing of the
past. If the military situation permits, all troops are put into
quarters, only the outpost troops bivouacking. This course was pursued
by the German field armies in 1870-1871, even during the winter
campaign.

Circumstances may of course require occasionally a whole army to
bivouac, but in theatres of war in which quarters are not to be depended
upon, tents must be provided, for no troops can endure many successive
nights in bivouac, except in summer, without serious detriment to their
efficiency. In a war on the Russo-German frontier, for instance,
especially if operations were carried out in the autumn and winter,
tents would be absolutely essential at whatever cost of transport. In
this connexion it may be said that a good railway system obviates many
of the disadvantages attending the use of tents. For training purposes
in peace time, _standing camps_ are formed. These may be considered
simply as temporary barracks. An _entrenched camp_ is an area of ground
occupied by, or suitable for, the camps of large bodies of troops, and
protected by fortifications.

_Ancient Camps._ - English writers use "camp" as a generic term for any
remains of ancient military posts, irrespective of their special age,
size, purpose, &c. Thus they include under it various dissimilar things.
We may distinguish (1) Roman "camps" (_castra_) of three kinds, large
permanent fortresses, small permanent forts (both usually built of
stone) and temporary earthen encampments (see ROMAN ARMY); (2)
Pre-Roman; and (3) Post-Roman camps, such as occur on many English
hilltops. We know far too little to be able to assign these to their
special periods. Often we can say no more than that the "camp" is not
Roman. But we know that enclosures fortified with earthen walls were
thrown up as early as the Bronze Age and probably earlier still, and
that they continued to be built down to Norman times. These consisted of
hilltops or cliff-promontories or other suitable positions fortified
with one or more lines of earthen ramparts with ditches, often attaining
huge size. But the idea of an artificial elevation seems to have come in
first with the Normans. Their _mottes_ or earthen mounds crowned with
wooden palisades or stone towers and surrounded by an enclosure on the
flat constituted a new element in fortification and greatly aided the
conquest of England. (See CASTLE.)




CAMPAGNA DI ROMA, the low country surrounding the city of Rome, bounded
on the N.W. by the hills surrounding the lake of Bracciano, on the N.E.
by the Sabine mountains, on the S.E. by the Alban hills, and on the S.W.
by the sea. (See LATIUM, and ROME (province).)




CAMPAIGN, a military term for the continuous operations of an army
during a war or part of a war. The name refers to the time when armies
went into quarters during the winter and literally "took the field" at
the opening of summer. The word is also used figuratively, especially in
politics, of any continuous operations aimed at a definite object, as
the "Plan of Campaign" in Ireland during 1886-1887. The word is derived
from the Latin _Campania_, the plain lying south-west of the Tiber, c.f.
Italian, _la Campagna di Roma_, from which came two French forms: (1)
_Champagne_, the name given to the level province of that name, and
hence the English "champaign," a level tract of country free from woods
and hills; and (2) _Campagne_, and the English "campaign" with the
restricted military meaning.




CAMPAN, JEANNE LOUISE HENRIETTE (1752-1822), French educator, the
companion of Marie Antoinette, was born at Paris in 1752. Her father,
whose name was Genest, was first clerk in the foreign office, and,
although without fortune, placed her in the most cultivated society. At
the age of fifteen she could speak English and Italian, and had gained
so high a reputation for her accomplishments as to be appointed reader
to the three daughters of Louis XV. At court she was a general
favourite, and when she bestowed her hand upon M. Campan, son of the
Secretary of the royal cabinet, the king gave her an annuity of 5000
_livres_ as dowry. She was soon afterwards appointed first lady of the
bedchamber by Marie Antoinette; and she continued to be her faithful
attendant till she was forcibly separated from her at the sacking of the
Tuileries on the 20th of June 1792. Madame Campan survived the dangers
of the Terror, but after the 9th Thermidor finding herself almost
penniless, and being thrown on her own resources by the illness of her
husband, she bravely determined to support herself by establishing a
school at St Germain. The institution prospered, and was patronized by
Hortense de Beauharnais, whose influence led to the appointment of
Madame Campan as superintendent of the academy founded by Napoleon at
Écouen for the education of the daughters and sisters of members of the
Legion of Honour. This post she held till it was abolished at the
restoration of the Bourbons, when she retired to Mantes, where she spent
the rest of her life amid the kind attentions of affectionate friends,
but saddened by the loss of her only son, and by the calumnies
circulated on account of her connexion with the Bonapartes. She died in
1822, leaving valuable _Mémoires sur la vie privée de Marie Antoinette,
suivis de souvenirs et anecdotes historiques sur les règnes de Louis
XIV.-XV._ (Paris, 1823); a treatise _De l'Éducation des Femmes_; and one
or two small didactic works, written in a clear and natural style. The
most noteworthy thing in her educational system, and that which
especially recommended it to Napoleon, was the place given to domestic
economy in the education of girls. At Écouen the pupils underwent a
complete training in all branches of housework.

See Jules Flammermont, _Les Mémoires de Madame de Campan_ (Paris,
1886), and histories of the time.




CAMPANELLA, TOMMASO (1568-1639), Italian Renaissance philosopher, was
born at Stilo in Calabria. Before he was thirteen years of age he had
mastered nearly all the Latin authors presented to him. In his fifteenth
year he entered the order of the Dominicans, attracted partly by reading
the lives of Albertus Magnus and Aquinas, partly by his love of
learning. He took a course in philosophy in the convent at Morgentia in
Abruzzo, and in theology at Cosenza. Discontented with this narrow
course of study, he happened to read the _De Rerum Natura_ of Bernardino
Telesio, and was delighted with its freedom of speech and its appeal to
nature rather than to authority. His first work in philosophy (he was
already the author of numerous poems) was a defence of Telesio,
_Philosophia sensibus demonstrata_ (1591). His attacks upon established
authority having brought him into disfavour with the clergy, he left
Naples, where he had been residing, and proceeded to Rome. For seven
years he led an unsettled life, attracting attention everywhere by his
talents and the boldness of his teaching. Yet he was strictly orthodox,
and was an uncompromising advocate of the pope's temporal power. He
returned to Stilo in 1598. In the following year he was committed to
prison because he had joined those who desired to free Naples from
Spanish tyranny. His friend Naudée, however, declares that the
expressions used by Campanella were wrongly interpreted as
revolutionary. He remained for twenty-seven years in prison. Yet his
spirit was unbroken; he composed sonnets, and prepared a series of
works, forming a complete system of philosophy. During the latter years
of his confinement he was kept in the castle of Sant' Elmo, and allowed
considerable liberty. Though, even then, his guilt seems to have been
regarded as doubtful, he was looked upon as dangerous, and it was
thought better to restrain him. At last, in 1626, he was nominally set
at liberty; for some three years he was detained in the chambers of the
Inquisition, but in 1629 he was free. He was well treated at Rome by the
pope, but on the outbreak of a new conspiracy headed by his pupil,
Tommaso Pignatelli, he was persuaded to go to Paris (1634), where he was
received with marked favour by Cardinal Richelieu. The last few years of
his life he spent in preparing a complete edition of his works; but only
the first volume appears to have been published. He died on the 21st of
May 1639.

In philosophy, Campanella was, like Giordano Bruno (q.v.), a follower of
Nicolas of Cusa and Telesio. He stands, therefore, in the uncertain
half-light which preceded the dawn of modern philosophy. The sterility
of scholastic Aristotelianism, as he understood it, drove him to the
study of man and nature, though he was never entirely free from the
medieval spirit. Devoutly accepting the authority of Faith in the region
of theology, he considered philosophy as based on perception. The prime
fact in philosophy was to him, as to Augustine and Descartes, the
certainty of individual consciousness. To this consciousness he assigned
a threefold content, power, will and knowledge. It is of the present
only, of things not as they are, but merely as they seem. The fact that
it contains the idea of God is the one, and a sufficient, proof of the
divine existence, since the idea of the Infinite must be derived from
the Infinite. God is therefore a unity, possessing, in the perfect
degree, those attributes of power, will and knowledge which humanity
possesses only in part. Furthermore, since community of action
presupposes homogeneity, it follows that the world and all its parts
have a spiritual nature. The emotions of love and hate are in
everything. The more remote from God, the greater the degree of
imperfection (i.e. _Not-being_) in things. Of imperfect things, the
highest are angels and human beings, who by virtue of the possession of
reason are akin to the Divine and superior to the lower creation. Next
comes the mathematical world of space, then the corporeal world, and
finally the empirical world with its limitations of space and time. The
impulse of self-preservation in nature is the lowest form of religion;
above this comes animal religion; and finally rational religion, the
perfection of which consists in perfect knowledge, pure volition and
love, and is union with God. Religion is, therefore, not political in
origin; it is an inherent part of existence. The church is superior to
the state, and, therefore, all temporal government should be in
subjection to the pope as the representative of God.

In natural philosophy Campanella, closely following Telesio, advocates
the experimental method and lays down heat and cold as the fundamental
principles by the strife of which all life is explained. In political
philosophy (the _Civitas Solis_) he sketches an ideal communism,
obviously derived from the Platonic, based on community of wives and
property with state-control of population and universal military
training. In every detail of life the citizen is to be under authority,
and the authority of the administrators is to be based on the degree of
knowledge possessed by each. The state is, therefore, an artificial
organism for the promotion of individual and collective good. In
contrast to More's _Utopia_, the work is cold and abstract, and lacking
in practical detail. On the view taken as to his alleged complicity in
the conspiracy of 1599 depends the vexed question as to whether this
system was a philosophic dream, or a serious attempt to sketch a



Online LibraryVariousCape Cod and All the Pilgrim Land, June 1922, Volume 6, Number 4 A Monthly Magazine Devoted to the Interests of Southeastern Massachusetts → online text (page 1 of 46)