Journal of Entomology and Zoology, March 1917 online

. (page 1 of 4)
Online LibraryVariousJournal of Entomology and Zoology, March 1917 → online text (page 1 of 4)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


Produced by Larry B. Harrison, Tom Cosmas and the Online
Distributed Proofreading Team at from
images made available on The Internet Archive

Transcriber Note

Text emphasis is denoted as _Italic_ and =Bold=.







MARCH, 1917





Another Record of a Small Whip-Scorpion in California - _M. L. Moles_ 1

Notes on Chalcid Flies, Chiefly From California - _A. A. Girault_ 8

The Rose Flea-Beetle - _G. F. Moznette_ 13

Notes on Birds of Laguna Beach and Vicinity for 1916 - _H. H.
Nininger_ 20

Solpugids From the Claremont-Laguna Region - _J. Nisbet_ 22

Record of Two Pseudoscorpions From Claremont-Laguna
Region - _Winifred T. Moore_ 26

The Central Nervous System of a Sipunculid - _Wm. A. Hilton_ 30

Littoral Ascidians Collected at Laguna Beach 36

Summer School at Laguna Beach 38

Courses Offered at the Summer School of the Laguna Beach
Biological Laboratory, 1917 41

Entered at Claremont, Cal., Post-Office Oct. 1, 1910, as second
class matter, under Act of Congress of March 3, 1879

Journal of Entomology and Zoology


_Subscription_ $1.00 to domestic, $1.25 to foreign countries.

This journal is especially offered in exchange for zoological and
entomological journals, proceedings, transactions, reports of
societies, museums, laboratories and expeditions.

The pages of the journal are especially open to western entomologists
and zoologists. Notes and papers relating to western and Californian
forms and conditions are particularly desired, but short morphological,
systematic or economic studies from any locality will be considered for

Manuscripts submitted should be typewritten on one side of paper about
8 by 11 inches. Foot notes, tables, explanations of figures, etc.,
should be written on separate sheets. Foot notes and figures should be
numbered consecutively throughout. The desired position of foot notes
and figures should be clearly indicated in the manuscript.

Figures should be drawn so that they may be reproduced as line cuts so
far as possible. An unusually large number of half tones must be paid
for in part by the author. Other more expensive illustrations will be
furnished at cost. Figures for cuts should be made to conform to the
size of the page when reduced, that is, 5 by 7½ inches or less. The
lettering should be by means of printed numbers and letters pasted on
the drawings, in most cases.

Authors of articles longer than a thousand words will receive fifty
reprints of their publications free of cost. If more than this are
desired, the order should be given with the return of the proof sheets.
Extra copies and special covers or special paper will be furnished at
cost. Authors of short contributions will receive a few extra copies of
the number containing their articles.

Manuscripts should be sent by express or registered mail.

Address all communications to

The Journal of Entomology and Zoology

William A. Hilton, Editor

Claremont, California, U. S. A.

Another Record of a Small Whip Scorpion in California


In April, 1916, Dr. W. A. Hilton collected some small whip-scorpions
in the Pomona College Park at Claremont. These creatures were without
eyes and yet they seemed to avoid forceps. They were able to run
backwards or forwards with equal ease. On examination it was found
that there were long hairs on the legs such as shown in the figure.
Other specimens were afterwards found in one of the nearby canyons,
and two specimens in the college collection were marked "C. Metz, in
the mountains near Claremont."

Upon looking through the literature the species was determined to be
_Trithyreus pentapeltis_ Cook. In 1899 Dr. Hubbard collected some at
Palm Springs under stones in the canyon near the stream. Those which
we have found this year were under the dried oak leaves some distance
from water. Cook gave the generic name _Hubbardia_ which has not been

The following are the measurements of two types of the twenty or more
specimens found.

_Measurements_ - supposed Male:
Length of whole body, 7.5 mm.
Length of cephalothorax, 2 mm.
Length of abdomen, 3 mm.
Length of tail, 2.5 mm.
Length of first leg, 8 mm.
Length of maxillæ, 1.5 mm.
Width of abdomen, 1 mm.
Width of cephalothorax, 8 mm.

_Measurements_ - Supposed Female and Juvenile, Fig. 1:
Length of whole body, 4.5 mm.
Length of cephalothorax, 1.5 mm.
Length of abdomen, 2 mm.
Length of tail, 1 mm.
Length of first leg, 5.5 mm.
Length of maxillæ, 2 mm.
Width of cephalothorax, 6 mm.
Width of abdomen, 1 mm.

_Color of supposed Male_ - Cephalothorax and maxillæ, dark reddish
brown. Abdomen and legs light yellow brown.

_Color of supposed Female and Juvenile_ - All parts bright yellow brown.

Cephalothorax suboval, upper margin strongly concave at the sides and
tapering to a point at the median line. Sides convex at upper edge;
lower margin strongly convex. The cephalothorax is strongly chitinized,
showing two small oval spots. The small suboval area between the
chitinized cephalothorax and the abdomen is soft with five chitinized

On the dorsal surface of each abdominal segment are two muscle
depressions, while on the ventral surface the fourth, fifth and sixth
segments have dark colored plates near the segmental divisions which
are used for muscle attachments; besides the two muscle depressions.

The book-lungs openings are found on the ventral surface of the first
abdominal segment, as is also the epigynum.

The caudal appendage of the juvenile and female is made up of three
small joints tapering to a blunt end. It is held in an upright position
above the abdomen. Cook in his description supposed this form to be a
female or juvenile; Krayselin considers it a different species, but
upon close study of the rest of the organs of this form it was finally
decided that it was a juvenile and probably a female, the supposition
being held that the juvenile took the form of the female, as is often
the case, until the last few molts. The epigynum of this form was
extremely undeveloped, having only a small epigastric furrow with
depressions at either end.

The caudal appendage of the supposed male is made up of two stout
joints to which is attached a heart-shaped body tapering to a blunt
apex. This body has deep pits both on the dorsal and ventral sides near
the base.

On the tibia of the first pair of legs are two long special sensory
hairs set in little pits. On the second, third and fourth legs one hair
was found, also on the tibia. These hairs are three-fourths as long as
the leg.

The mouth parts consist of a pair of strong mandibles and labium.
The labium is placed between the two coxæ of the maxillæ. The long
process of the coxa clothed with its long simple hairs seems to have
some performance in the work of the mouth parts. The labium is suboval,
clothed thickly with simple short hairs, the upper margin having a
single row of long heavy straight hairs with many long single curved
hairs covering them.

The mandibles are provided with three distinct kinds of hairs or
spines. The large subquadrate proximal joint was clothed with long
barbed spines, the movable finger having on its median surface a row of
fifteen back curved barbed spines. In the space between the movable and
stationary finger were long hairs, enlarged in the center and tapering
off to a fine point, the tapered portion being barbed. The mandibles
are set well down in the sephalothorax.

The sexual openings were found in the usual place; the ventral surface
of the first abdominal segment, this being enlarged so as to do away
with the second abdominal segment. The epigynum consists of a long
epigastric furrow with a large lip-like opening near its median line.
Just above this opening and on either side were small longitudinal

Prof. Dr. Friedrich Dahl places the external sexual organs of this
family on the legs and in the Thelyphonidæ which is closely related.
They are found in the second joint of the tarsus of the first legs.
Careful study failed to find any trace of secondary sexual organs in
_Trithyreus pentapeltis_.

_Krayselin, Karl_ 1899
Das Tierreich. Scorpiones und Pedipalpi.

_Cook, O. F._ 1899
Hubbardia, a new genus of Pedipalpi, Entomological Society
Proceedings, vol. 3.

_Comstock, John Henry_ 1911
The Spider Book, pp. 17-18.

_Banks, Nathan_ 1900
Synopsis of North American Invertebrates. Am. Nat. Vol. 34.

_Dahl, Dr. Friedrich_ 1913
Vergleichende Physiologie and Morphologie Der Spinnentiere.
Jena, Verlang N. G. Fischer.

(_Contribution from the Zoological Laboratory of Pomona College._)


Fig. 1. Drawing of the upper side of a young Trithyreus pentapeltis
Cook ×10.

Fig. 2. Lower or ventral view of T. pentapeltis ×10.

Figs. 3, 4, and 5. Various views of the caudal end of an adult T.
pentapeltis. Much enlarged.

Fig. 6. Labium. Much enlarged.

Fig. 7. Maxilla. Much enlarged.

Fig. 8. Mandible of Trithyreus. Much enlarged.

Fig. 9. One jaw of mandible. Much enlarged.

[Illustration: 1]

[Illustration: 2]

[Illustration: 3]

[Illustration: 4]

[Illustration: 5]

[Illustration: 6]

[Illustration: 7]

[Illustration: 8]

[Illustration: 9]

Notes on Chalcid Flies, Chiefly From California


The following descriptions are chiefly from specimens sent by the
Department of Zoology of Pomona College.

_Eusandalum californicum_ n. sp.

_Female_: Similar in every respect to _coquillettii_ Ashmead except as
follows: The hyaline cross-stripe between the fuscous cross-stripes of
the forewing is distinctly narrower than either fuscous cross-stripe
(broader than either in the other); the stylus of the abdomen is a
little shorter than the ovipositor valves (their extruded portion),
both equal in length in _coquillettii_. Otherwise the same. Antennæ
11-jointed, tapering, the club single and no longer than the pedicel,
funicle 1 quadrate, 2 longest, elongate, somewhat compressed, over
thrice the length of the pedicel. Types compared.

A female from Claremont (C. F. Baker).

_Types_: Catalogue No. 20357, U. S. National Museum, the female on a
tag, a fore wing antenna and hind leg on a slide.

In the U. S. National Museum a female from the Santa Cruz Mountains,
California, part of the type of _coquillettii_ (now a single female
from Los Angeles).

_Eusandalum obscurum_ n. sp.

The type is one female from Easton, Washington (Kincaid). Catalogue No.
20358, U. S. National Museum, the female on a tag. See table.

_Eusandalum alpinum_ n. sp.

The type is a part of the type of _coquillettii_ from the Santa Cruz
Mountains, California; Catalogue No. 20359, U. S. National Museum, the
specimen on a tag. See table.

_Eusandalum georgia_ n. sp.

One female, pinned, Georgia, Catalogue No. 20369, U. S. National
Museum. A second female from Washington, D. C. See table.

_Eusandalum arizona_ n. sp.

A female, Santa Rita Mountains, Arizona (Schwarz), May 27. Catalogue
No. 20361, U. S. National Museum, tag. See table.

Synopsis of the North American Species of _Eusandalum_. Females. (From
the types.)

1. Wings bifasciate, the distal fuscous band at apex. Legs red
except the coxae, the antennae wholly concolorous. Ovipositor
extruded for over half the length of the abdomen. Scutellum
longitudinally lined.

Hyaline band of fore wing distinctly narrower than either fuscous
band (one on each side of it); stylus a little shorter than the
ovipositor. _californicum_ Girault

Hyaline band of fore wing somewhat broader than either fuscous
stripe; stylus and ovipositor equal. _coquillettii_ Ashmead

2. Wings unifasciate or wholly embrowned or with a large unbroken,
fuscous area. Wings wholly infuscated. Scutellum densely
punctate like the scutum (in the first species). Propodeum with
a lateral sulcus.

Ovipositor much extruded.

Legs reddish except the coxae and the first and third femora
_ventrad_; more slender than usual, the ovipositor about as in
_californicum_ but the abdomen is longer, hence the ovipositor
is so. Fore wing with a longitudinal white streak caudad of
middle. _acmaeoderae_ Rohwer

Ovipositor extruded for less than a fourth the length of the abdomen,
the stylus subobsolete.

Fore wings indefinitely slightly stained; legs reddish except the
coxae; scutellum long-lineolated. _obscurum_ Girault

Wings infuscated from the bend of the submarginal vein to apex or
nearly. Antennæ concolorous (compare _obscurum_).

As in _californicum_ but the scutellum finely punctate differs
from _acmaeoderae_ in being more robust, the first and third
femora are not metallic ventrad, the costal cell is broader, the
tip of the fore wing is hyaline for a short distance.
_alpinum_ Girault

Legs wholly concolorous except the knees and tips of tibiae narrowly
and the tarsi; as in the preceding but stylus and ovipositor
subequal. _cyaneum_ Ashmead

3. Wings hyaline or subhyaline. Antennæ concolorous except at
extreme base.

Ovipositor extruded for about half the length of the abdomen, the
stylus slightly short.

Middle legs except coxae, all knees narrowly, tips of tibiae and the
tarsi reddish brown. Postmarginal vein subequal to the stigmal.
_hubbardii_ Ashmead

Ovipositor extruded for less (or not more) than a third the length of
the abdomen, the stylus subequal.

Postmarginal vein subequal to the stigmal.

Legs reddish except the coxae and cephalic femora and tibiae.

Scutellum somewhat more distinctly lineolated longitudinally,
punctate. Ovipositor short. _hyalinipenne_ Ashmead

Postmarginal vein distinctly longer than the stigmal. Legs
concolorous except knees, tips of tibiae and the tarsi. Stylus
somewhat shorter than the ovipositor which is a third the length
of the abdomen. _georgia_ Girault

4. Wings subhyaline. Antennæ with the basal fourth of the cape
honey yellow.

Postmarginal vein distinctly much longer than the stigmal, twice
longer. Ovipositor extruded for nearly half the length of the
abdomen, the stylus a little shorter. Legs honey yellow except
fore and hind coxae. _arizona_ Girault

All the species have the postmarginal vein shorter than the stigmal
or no longer, save where noted; the parapsidal furrows are
distinct, but very short, joining before the middle of the
scutum from cephalad. The club is usually single, the antennae
11-jointed, tapering-filiform.

_Dialinus begini_ Crawford

One female, Santa Clara County (C. F. Baker).

_Elachistus coxalis_ Howard

One pair, San Mateo County, California, the male; and Laguna Beach,
Southern California, the female (C. F. Baker).

The following species is an _Eudecatoma_ (there being no distinct
substigmal spot but only a very minute one) but for the present I
include this segregate within the older one.

_Decatoma subimmaculata_ n. sp.

_Female_: Length, 2.00 mm. Of the usual habitus and sculpture, the
punctation not coarse.

Honey yellow, the wings hyaline, the following black markings: Ocellar
dots obscurely, upper margin of occiput (a crescent), median channel
nearly to apex and cephalic margin of the propodeum (except laterad);
abdominal petiole and the median line of abdomen dorsad narrowly,
from just before apex of segment 2 nearly to the apex of segment 4.
Abdomen compressed, segments 2, 4 and 5 subequal, longest, the abdomen
glabrous, its petiole about twice longer than wide. Propodeum openly
rugoso-punctate, the median channel single, distinct, no median basin.
Pedicel black above, nearly twice longer than wide, a little longer
than funicle 1, the other four funicle joints subequal, subquadrate.
Club 2-jointed, the first joint shortest.

One female, Claremont, California (C. F. Baker); on oak.

_Type_: Catalogue No. 20400, U. S. National Museum, the female on a
tag, the antennae and a caudal leg on a slide.

Differs from _catesbaei_ Ashmead (types compared), in being larger,
the median channel of the propodeum is distinct for its whole length
and does not consist principally of two large foreae, the cross-carina
passing _profimad_ of it has an area on each side of the meson which
runs at first nearly parallel to the channel (the forking) but in the
Florida species, this carina continues more or less parallel with the
cephalic margin of the propodeum.

_Scutellista cyanea_ Mots

One female, Claremont, California (C. F. Baker).

_Cleonymus californicus_ n. sp.

_Female_: Length, 4.00 mm.

Dark metallic green, the tegulae, antennae (except the club and
pedicel) and the legs (except the concolorous coxae, the apex of caudal
femar lateral and the last two pairs of tibiae dorsad more or less),
reddish brown, the venation fuscous, the fore wings bifasciate, the
first stripe from the base of the marginal vein and broken distad of
the middle, the second from the postmarginal vein, obovate in shape,
twice the width of the first. The (triangular) head, the thorax and
abdomen, scaly punctate, the propodeum and abdomen 2 subglabrous,
the distal margins of the abdominal segments glabrous. Propodeum
foreolate along the cephatic and caudal margins, and along the median
carina on each side, the lateral carina represented by a distinct,
curved, foreate sulcus, the spiracle large, subreniform. Scutellum
simple. Antennæ inserted near the clypeus, a little below the eyes,
11-jointed, the club pointed ovate, acuminate at apex, embraced by the
long projection from one side of the apex of the distal funicle joint
which reaches to distal three-fourths of the club. Funicles 1 and 2
narrowest, grading into 3, all subquadrate, 4 longest, a little longer
than wide and subequal to the pedicel; 8 wider than long. Postmarginal
vein a little longer than the slender, curved stigmal, about a third
the length of the marginal. Stigmal vein parallel, in general trend,
with the costal margin.

Two females, mountains near Claremont (C. F. Baker).

_Types_: Catalogue No. 20348, U. S. National Museum, the females on
tags, a fore wing and an antennae on a slide.

The abdomen is subpetiolate; it was distinctly, quadrately petiolate in
a male specimen of _cleonymus depressus_ in the U. S. National Museum.

_Entedon occidentalis_ Girault

Several specimens, Claremont, California (C. F. Baker).

_Isosoma grande_ Riley

One winged female, mountains near Claremont, California (C. F. Baker).

_Metapleura spectabilis_ Westwood

One female, Claremont, California (C. F. Baker).

The Rose Flea-Beetle

(_Haltica probata_ Fall)




From a careful perusal of the literature it is apparent that scarcely
anything but the original description of _Haltica probata_ Fall
appears in print. As this species has at various times been reported
on several of our cultivated plants, and as there is some possibility
of its becoming destructive to our cultivated roses, observations have
been made from time to time and this paper brings together, so far as
possible, the recorded facts concerning the species.


The species was first described by Dr. H. C. Fall in 1910.[A] Mr.
Arthur Gibson[B] mentions it as attacking leaves of strawberry plants
at Nelson, British Columbia. The species is referred to as _Haltica
evicta_ Lec., but after a comparison with specimens in the writer's
collection and later in Dr. Fall's collection at Pasadena, California,
I am led to believe that the species reported by Mr. Gibson as _evicta_
is not _evicta_ but _probata_. It has been reported from Spokane,
Washington, on strawberries, and at various times has been reported
feeding on cultivated crops in Oregon.

The species is distributed along the Pacific Coast from British
Columbia to California. It has been reported from Nelson in British
Columbia; Everett and Spokane in Washington; from Corvallis, Pamelia
Lake, Mary's Peak, the Three Sisters, and Josephine County in Oregon;
and from Santa Rosa, Belmont, Siskiyou, and Trinity Counties in

[Footnote A: Transactions of the American Entomological Society of
America, Vol. 36, pp.]

[Footnote B: Canadian Entomological Circular No. 2. 152-159.]


With the approach of warm weather in the spring, when the buds of
the wild rose are showing their green, the little bronze beetles
(Pl. I, Fig. 2) come from their winter quarters, about the middle
of April or earlier depending on the spring weather conditions, and
commence feeding on the tender small leaves of the expanding buds. The
beetles possess a very brilliant lustre and when approached manifest
a saltatorial habit, and may leap for a considerable distance. The
insect passes the winter in the adult stage and during that time may
be found concealed in convenient places. The writer has taken numerous
individuals from beneath the moss of the scrub oak, which grows
abundantly along the creeks in the Willamette Valley in Oregon. The
first individuals were taken on April 11, 1913, feeding on a species of
wild rose, _Rosa nukatana_ Presl. near Corvallis, Oregon. The adults
were at the time resting in the sun on the dried fruits of the rose and
also on the moss which covered the oaks. In 1915, the first beetles
were out on March 19 or somewhat earlier. Sometimes the March weather
is too severe so that the beetles do not appear until later, and the
inclement weather frequently puts a stop to the activity of the beetles
and retards oviposition.

After emerging from their hibernating quarters, the beetles jump or

1 3 4

Online LibraryVariousJournal of Entomology and Zoology, March 1917 → online text (page 1 of 4)