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LIPPINCOTT'S MAGAZINE OF POPULAR LITERATURE AND SCIENCE

June, 1876.

Vol. XVII, No. 102.




TABLE OF CONTENTS

ILLUSTRATIONS.

THE CENTURY - ITS FRUITS AND ITS FESTIVAL.
VI. - THE DISPLAY - INTRODUCTORY. [Illustrated]

DOLORES by EMMA LAZARUS.

GLIMPSES OF CONSTANTINOPLE by SHEILA HALE.
CONCLUDING PAPER. [Illustrated]

THEE AND YOU by EDWARD KEARSLEY.
A STORY OF OLD PHILADELPHIA. IN TWO PARTS. - I.

MODERN HUGUENOTS by JAMES M. BRUCE.

BLOOMING by MAURICE THOMPSON.

FELIPA by CONSTANCE FENIMORE WOOLSON.

AT CHICKAMAUGA by ROBERT LEWIS KIMBERLY.

THE ATONEMENT OF LEAM DUNDAS by MRS. E. LYNN LINTON.
CHAPTER XXXVII. UNWORTHY.
CHAPTER XXXVIII. BLOTTED OUT.
CHAPTER XXXIX. WINDY BROW.
CHAPTER XL. LOST AND NOW FOUND.

THE ITALIAN MEDIÆVAL WOOD-SCULPTORS by T. ADOLPHUS TROLLOPE.

REST by CHARLOTTE F. BATES.

LETTERS FROM SOUTH AFRICA by LADY BARKER.

OUR MONTHLY GOSSIP.
THE CABS OF PARIS by L.H.H.
A NEW MUSEUM AT ROME by T.A.T.
OUR FOREIGN SURNAMES by W.W.C.
THE NEW FRENCH ACADEMICIAN by R.W.

LITERATURE OF THE DAY.
Books Received.




ILLUSTRATIONS

FAÇADE OF THE SPANISH DIVISION, MAIN BUILDING.
FAÇADE OF THE EGYPTIAN DIVISION, MAIN BUILDING.
FAÇADE OF THE SWEDISH DIVISION, MAIN BUILDING.
FAÇADE OF THE BRAZILIAN DIVISION, MAIN BUILDING.
DOM PEDRO, EMPEROR OF BRAZIL.
JAPANESE CARPENTERS.
FAÇADE OF THE DIVISION OF THE NETHERLANDS, MAIN BUILDING.
THE CORLISS ENGINE, FURNISHING MOTIVE-POWER FOR MACHINERY HALL.
INTERIOR OF COOK'S WORLD'S TICKET-OFFICE.
FRENCH RESTAURANT LA FAYETTE.
THE MAMMOTH RODMAN GUN.
SCENE AT ONE OF THE ENTRANCES TO THE GROUNDS - THE TURNSTILE.
SCENE IN A BURIAL-GROUND.
THE SULTAN ABDUL-ASSIZ.
TURKISH COW-CARRIAGE.
ENTERING A MOSQUE.
CASTLE OF EUROPE, ON THE BOSPHORUS.
FORTRESS OF RIVA, AND THE BLACK SEA.
TURKISH QUARTER - STAMBOUL.
OBELISK OF THEODOSIUS.
SHEPHERDS.




LIPPINCOTT'S MAGAZINE

OF

_POPULAR LITERATURE AND SCIENCE_.

June, 1876.





THE CENTURY - ITS FRUITS AND ITS FESTIVAL.

VI. THE DISPLAY - INTRODUCTORY.


[Illustration: FAÇADE OF THE SPANISH DIVISION, MAIN BUILDING.]

All things being ready for their reception, how were exhibits,
exhibitors and visitors to be brought to the grounds? To do this with
the extreme of rapidity and cheapness was essential to a full and
satisfactory attendance of both objects and persons. In a large majority
of cases the first consideration with the possessor of any article
deemed worthy of submission to the public eye was the cost and security
of transportation. Objects of art, the most valuable and the most
attractive portion of the display, are not usually very well adapted to
carriage over great distances with frequent transshipments. Porcelain,
glass and statuary are fragile, and paintings liable to injury from
dampness and rough handling; while an antique mosaic, like the
"Carthaginian Lion," a hundred square feet in superficies, might, after
resuscitation from its subterranean sleep of twenty centuries with its
minutest _tessera_ intact and every tint as fresh as the Phoenician
artist left it, suffer irreparable damage from a moment's carelessness
on the voyage to its temporary home in the New World. More solid things
of a very different character, and far less valuable pecuniarily, though
it may be quite as interesting to the promoter of human progress, exact
more or less time and attention to collect and prepare, and that will
not be bestowed upon them without some guarantee of their being safely
and inexpensively transmitted. So to simplify transportation as
practically to place the exposition buildings as nearly as possible at
the door of each exhibitor, student and sight-seer became, therefore, a
controlling problem.

In the solution of it there is no exaggeration in saying that the
Centennial stands more than a quarter of a century in advance of even
the latest of its fellow expositions. At Vienna a river with a few small
steamers below and a tow-path above represented water-carriage. Good
railways came in from every quarter of the compass, but none of them
brought the locomotive to the neighborhood of the grounds. In the matter
of tram-roads for passengers the Viennese distinguished themselves over
the Londoners and Parisians by the possession of _one_. In steam-roads
they had no advantage and no inferiority. At each and all of these
cities the packing-box and the passenger were both confronted by the
vexatious interval between the station and the exposition
building - often the most trying part of the trip. Horsepower was the one
time-honored resource, in '73 as in '51, and in unnumbered years before.
Under the ancient divisions of horse and foot the world and its
_impedimenta_ moved upon Hyde Park, the Champ de Mars and the Prater,
the umbrella and the oil-cloth tilt their only shield against Jupiter
Pluvius, who seemed to take especial pleasure in demonstrating their
failure, nineteen centuries after the contemptuous erasure of him from
the calendar, to escape his power. It was reserved for the Philadelphia
Commission to bring his reign (not the slightest intention of a pun) to
a close. The most delicate silk or gem, and the most delicate wearer of
the same, were enabled to pass under roof from San Francisco into the
Main Building in Fairmount Park, and with a trifling break of twenty
steps at the wharf might do so from the dock at Bremen, Havre or
Liverpool. The hospitable shelter of the great pavilion was thus
extended over the continent and either ocean. The drip of its eaves
pattered into China, the Cape of Good Hope, Germany and Australia. Their
spread became almost that of the welkin.

Let us look somewhat more into the detail of this unique feature of the
American fair.

Within the limits of the United States the transportation question soon
solved itself. Five-sixths of the seventy-four thousand miles of railway
which lead, without interruption of track, to Fairmount Park are of
either one and the same gauge, or so near it as to permit the use
everywhere of the same car, its wheels a little broader than common.
From the other sixth the bodies of the wagons, with their contents, are
transferable by a change of trucks. The expected sixty or eighty
thousand tons of building material and articles for display could thus
be brought to their destination in a far shorter period than that
actually allowed. Liberal arrangements were conceded by the various
lines in regard to charges. Toll was exacted in one direction only,
unsold articles to be returned to the shipper free. As the time for
closing to exhibitors and opening to visitors approached the Centennial
cars became more and more familiar to the rural watcher of the passing
train. They aided to infect him, if free from it before, with the
Centennial craze. Their doors, though sealed, were eloquent, for they
bore in great black letters on staring white muslin the shibboleth of
the day, "1776 - International Exhibition - 1876." The enthusiasm of those
very hard and unimpressible entities, the railroad companies, thus
manifesting itself in low rates and gratuitous advertising, could not
fail to be contagious. Nor was the service done by the interior lines
wholly domestic. Several large foreign contributions from the Pacific
traversed the continent. The houses and the handicraft of the Mongol
climbed the Sierra Nevada on the magnificent highway his patient labor
had so large a share in constructing. Nineteen cars were freighted with
the rough and unpromising chrysalis that developed into the neat and
elaborate cottage of Japan, and others brought the Chinese display.
Polynesia and Australia adopted the same route in part. The canal
modestly assisted the rail, lines of inland navigation conducting to the
grounds barges of three times the tonnage of the average sea-going craft
of the Revolutionary era. These sluggish and smooth-going vehicles were
employed for the carriage of some of the large plants and trees which
enrich the horticultural department, eight boats being required to
transport from New York a thousand specimens of the Cuban flora sent by
a single exhibitor, M. Lachaume of Havana. Those moisture-loving shrubs,
the brilliant rhododendra collected by English nurserymen from our own
Alleghanies and returned to us wonderfully improved by civilization,
might have been expected also to affect the canal, but they chose, with
British taste, the more rapid rail. They had, in fact, no time to lose,
for their blooming season was close at hand, and their roots must needs
hasten to test the juices of American soil. Japan's miniature garden of
miniature plants, interesting far beyond the proportions of its
dimensions, was perforce dependent on the same means of conveyance.

[Illustration: FAÇADE OF THE EGYPTIAN DIVISION, MAIN BUILDING.]

The locomotive was summoned to the aid of foreign exhibitors on the
Atlantic as on the Pacific side, though to a less striking extent, the
largest steamships being able to lie within three miles of the
exposition buildings. It stood ready on the wharves of the Delaware to
welcome these stately guests from afar, indifferent whether they came in
squadrons or alone. It received on one day, in this vestibule of the
exposition, the Labrador from France and the Donati from Brazil. Dom
Pedro's coffee, sugar and tobacco and the marbles and canvases of the
Société des Beaux-Arts were whisked off in amicable companionship to
their final destination. The solidarity of the nations is in some sort
promoted by this shaking down together of their goods and chattels. It
gives a truly international look to the exposition to see one of
Vernet's battle-pieces or Meissonier's microscopic gems of color jostled
by a package of hides from the Parana or a bale of India-rubber.

Yet more expressive was the medley upon the covered platforms for the
reception of freight. Eleven of these, each one hundred and sixty by
twenty-four feet, admitted of the unloading of fifty-five freight-cars
at once. At this rate there was not left the least room for anxiety as
to the ability of the Commission and its employés to dispose, so far as
their responsibility was concerned, of everything presented for
exhibition within a very few days. The movements of the custom-house
officials, and the arrangements of goods after the passing of that
ordeal, were less rapid, and there seemed some ground for anxiety when
it was found that in the last days of March scarce a tenth of the
catalogued exhibits were on the ground, and for the closing ten days of
the period fixed for the receipt of goods an average of one car-load per
minute of the working hours was the calculated draft on the resources of
the unloading sheds. Home exhibitors, by reason of the very completeness
of their facilities of transport, were the most dilatory. The United
States held back until her guests were served, confident in the abundant
efficiency of the preparations made for bringing the entertainers to
their side. Better thus than that foreigners should have been behind
time.

When the gates of the enclosure were at last shut upon the steam-horse,
a broader and more congenial field of duty opened before him. From the
rôle of dray-horse he passed to that of courser. Marvels from the ends
of the earth he had, with many a pant and heave, forward pull and
backward push, brought together and dumped in their allotted places. Now
it became his task to bear the fiery cross over hill and dale and
gather the clans, men, women and children. The London exhibition of
1851 had 6,170,000 visitors, and that of 1862 had 6,211,103. Paris in
1855 had 4,533,464, and in 1867, 10,200,000. Vienna's exhibition drew
7,254,867. The attendance at London on either occasion was barely double
the number of her population. So it was with Paris at her first display,
though she did much better subsequently. Vienna's was the greatest
success of all, according to this test. The least of all, if we may take
it into the list, was that of New York in 1853. Her people numbered
about the same with the visitors to her Crystal Palace - 600,000.
Philadelphia's calculations went far beyond any of these figures, and
she laid her plans accordingly.

Some trainbands from Northern and Southern cities might give their
patriotic furor the bizarre form of a march across country, but the
millions, if they came at all, must come by rail, and the problem was to
multiply the facilities far beyond any previous experience, while
reconciling the maximum of safety, comfort and speed with a reduction of
fares. The arrangements are still to be tested, and are no doubt open to
modification. On one point, however, and this an essential one, we
apprehend no grounds of complaint. There will be no crowding. The train
is practically endless, the word _terminus_ being a misnomer for the
circular system of tracks to which the station (six hundred and fifty by
one hundred feet) at the main entrance of the grounds forms a tangent.
The line of tourists is reeled off like their thread in the hands of
Clotho, the iron shears that snip it at stated intervals being
represented by the unmythical steam-engine. The same modern minister of
the Fates has another shrine not far from the dome of Memorial Hall,
where his acolytes are the officials of the Reading Railroad Company.

Care for the visitor's comfortable locomotion does not end with
depositing him under the reception-verandah. The Commission did not
forget that a pedestrian excursion over fifteen or twenty miles of
aisles might sufficiently fatigue him without the additional trudge from
hall to hall over a surface of four hundred acres under a sun which the
century has certainly not deprived of any mentionable portion of its
heat. Hence, the belt railway, three and a half miles long, with trains
running by incessant schedule - a boon only to be justly appreciated by
those who attended the European expositions or any one of them. His
umbrella and goloshes pocketed in the form of a D.P.C. check, the
visitor, more fortunate than Brummel or Bonaparte, cannot be stopped by
the elements.

[Illustration: FAÇADE OF THE SWEDISH DIVISION, MAIN BUILDING.]

We shall have amply disposed of the subject of transportation when we
add that the neighborhood or city supply to the thirteen entrance-gates
is provided for by steam-roads capable of carrying twenty-four thousand
persons hourly, and tram-roads seating seven thousand, besides an
irregular militia or voltigeur force of light wagons, small steamers and
omnibuses equal to a demand of two or three thousand more in the same
time. It was not deemed likely that Philadelphia would require
conveyance for half of her population every day. Should that supposition
prove erroneous, the excess can fall back upon the safe and inexpensive
vehicle of 1776, 1851, 1867 and 1873 - sole leather.

Let us return to our packing-cases, and see where they go. To watch the
gradual dispersal of a congregation to their several places of abode is
always interesting. Especially is it so when those places of retreat
bear the names and fly the flags of the several nations of the globe.
This stout cube of deal, triple-bound with iron, disappears under the
asp and winged sphere of the Pharaohs. That other, big with rich velvets
and broideries, seeks the tricolor of France. Yonder, a wealth of silks
and lacquer finds a resting-place in the carved black-walnut _étagères_
of Japan. Here go, cased in the spoils of the fjelds, toward a pavilion
seventy-five paces long and twenty wide, the bulky contributions of the
Norsemen. Swedish carpentry in perfection offers to a deposit separate
from that of the sister-kingdom a distinct receptacle. Close at hand
stand the antipodes in the pavilion of Chili, that opens its graceful
portal to bales sprinkled mayhap with the ashes of Aconcagua. There
"crashes a sturdy _box_ of stout John Bull;" and Russia, Tunis and
Canada roll into close neighborhood with him and each other. A queer and
not, let us hope, altogether transitory show of international comity is
this. Many a high-sounding, much-heralded and more-debating Peace
Congress has been held with less effect than that conducted by these
humble porters, carpenters and decorators. This one has solidity. Its
elements are palpable. The peoples not only bring their choicest
possessions, but they also set up around them their local habitations.
It is a cosmopolitan town that has sprung into being beneath the great
roof and glitters in the rays of our republican sun. In its
rectangularly-planned streets, alleys and plazas every style of
architecture is represented - domestic, state and ecclesiastical,
ancient, mediæval and modern. The spirit and taste of most of the races
and climes find expression, giving thus the Sydenham and the Hyde Park
palaces in one. The reproductions at the former place were the work of
English hands: those before us are executed, for the most part, by
workmen to whom the originals are native and familiar. In this feature
of the interior of the Main Building we are amply compensated for the
breaking up of the _coup d'oeil_ by a multiplicity of discordant forms.
The space is still so vast as to maintain the effect of unity; and this
notwithstanding the considerable height of some of the national stalls,
that of Spain, for example, sending aloft its trophy of Moorish shields
and its effigy of the world-seeking Genoese to an elevation of forty-six
feet. The Moorish colonnade of the Brazilian pavilion lifts its head in
graceful rivalry of the lofty front reared by the other branch of the
Iberian race. In so vast an expanse this friendly competition of
Spaniards and Portuguese becomes, to the eye, a union of their
pretensions; and a single family of thirty-three millions in Europe and
America combines to present us with two of the handsomest structures in
the hall.

[Illustration: FAÇADE OF THE BRAZILIAN DIVISION, MAIN BUILDING.]

A moderate dip into statistics can no longer be evaded. We must map out
the microcosm, and allot to each sovereign power its quota of the
surface. The great European states which have assumed within the century
the supreme direction of human affairs are assigned a prominent central
position in the Main Building. Great Britain and her Asiatic possessions
occupy just eighty-three feet less than a hundred thousand; her other
colonies, including Canada, 48,150; France and her colonies, 43,314;
Germany, 27,975; Austria, 24,070; Russia, 11,002; Spain, 11,253; Sweden
and Belgium, each 15,358; Norway, 6897; Italy, 8167; Japan, 16,566;
Switzerland, 6646; China, 7504; Brazil, 6397; Egypt, 5146; Mexico, 6504;
Turkey, 4805; Denmark, 1462; and Tunis, 2015. These, with minor
apportionments to Venezuela, the Argentine Confederation, Chili, Peru
and the Orange Free State of South Africa, cover the original area of
the structure, deducting the reservation of 187,705 feet for the United
States, and excluding thirty-eight thousand square feet in the annexes.
France must be credited, in explanation of her comparatively limited
territory under the main roof, with her external pavilions devoted to
bronzes, glass, perfumery and (chief of all) to her magnificent
government exhibit of technical plans, drawings and models in
engineering, civil and military, and architecture. These outside
contributions constitute a link between her more substantial displays
and the five hundred paintings, fifty statues, etc. she places in
Memorial Hall.

In Machinery and Agricultural Halls, respectively, Great Britain has
37,125 and 18,745 feet; Germany, 10,757 and 4875; France, 10,139 and
15,574; Belgium, 9375 and 1851; Canada, 4300 and 10,094; Brazil, 4000
and 4657; Sweden, 3168 and 2603; Spain, 2248 and 5005; Russia, 1500 and
6785; Chili, 480 and 2493; Norway, 360 and 1590. Austria occupies 1536
feet in Mechanical Hall; and in that of Agriculture are the following
additional allotments: Netherlands, 4276; Denmark, 836; Japan, 1665;
Peru, 1632; Liberia, 1536; Siam, 1220; Portugal, 1020.

The foreign contributions in the department of machinery are, it will be
seen, hardly so large as might have been anticipated. When the spacious
annexes are added to the floor of the main hall, the great preponderance
of home exhibitors - five to one in the latter - is shown to be still more
marked. In Agricultural Hall the United States claim less than
two-thirds. The unexpected interest taken in this branch by foreigners
will enhance its prominence and value among the attractions of the
exposition. The collection of tropical products for food and
manufacturing is very complete. The development of the equatorial
regions of the globe has barely commenced. Even our acquaintance with
their natural resources remains but superficial. The country which takes
the lead in utilizing them in its trade and manufactures will gain a
great advantage over its fellows. England's commercial supremacy never
rested more largely on that foundation than now. Brazil, the great power
of South - as the Union is of North - America, possesses nearly half of
the accessible virgin territory of the tropics. Our interest joins hers
in retaining this vast endowment as far as possible for the benefit of
the Western World. A perception of this fact is shown in the exceptional
efforts made by Brazil to be fully represented in all departments of the
exposition, and in the visit to it of her chief magistrate, as we may
properly term her emperor, the only embodiment of hereditary power and
the monarchical principle in a country that enjoys - and has for the half
century since its erection into an independent state maintained - free
institutions.

[Illustration: DOM PEDRO, EMPEROR OF BRAZIL.]

In art domestic exhibits utterly lose their preponderance. Our artists
content themselves with a small fraction of the wall- and floor-space in
Memorial Hall and its northern annex. In extent of both "hanging" and
standing ground they but equal England and France, each occupying
something over twenty thousand square feet. Italy in the æsthetic combat
selects the chisel as her weapon, and takes the floor with a superb
array of marble eloquence, some three hundred pieces of statuary being
contributed by her sculptors. She might in addition set up a colorable
claim to the works executed on her soil or under the teaching of her
schools by artists of other nativities, and thus make, for example, a
sweeping raid into American territory. But she generously leaves to that
division the spoils swept from her coasts by the U.S. ship Franklin,
together with the works bearing her imprint in other sections, satisfied
with the wealth undoubtedly her own, itself but a faint adumbration of
the vast hoard she retains at home. Italy does not view the occasion
from a fine-art standpoint alone. Of her nine hundred and twenty-six
exhibitors, only one-sixth are in this department.

[Illustration: JAPANESE CARPENTERS.]

Nor, on the art side of our own country, must we overlook the Historical
division, the perfecting of which has been a labor of love with Mr.
Etting. He allots space among the old Thirteen, and reserves a place at
the feast of reunion to the mother of that rebellious sisterhood.

Forty acres of "floor-space" _sub Jove_ remained to be awarded to
foreign and domestic claimants. Gardening is one of the fine arts.
Certainly nothing in Memorial Hall can excel its productions in
richness, variety and harmony of color and form. Flower, leaf and tree
are the models of the palette and the crayon. Their marvelous
improvement in variety and splendor is one of the most striking triumphs
of human ingenuity. A few hundred species have been expanded into many
thousand forms, each finer than the parent. It is a new flora created by
civilization, undreamed of by the savage, and voluminous in proportion
to the mental advancement of the races among whom it has sprung up.
Progress writes its record in flowers, and scrawls the autographs of the
nations all over Lansdowne hill. No need of gilded show-cases to set off
the German and Germantown roses, the thirty thousand hyacinths in
another compartment, or the plot of seven hundred and fifty kinds of
trees and shrubs planted by a single American contributor. The Moorish
Kiosque, however, comes in well. The material is genuine Morocco, the
building having been brought over in pieces from the realm of the


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