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Lippincott's Magazine of Popular Literature and Science Volume 17, No. 101, May, 1876 online

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LIPPINCOTT'S MAGAZINE OF POPULAR LITERATURE AND SCIENCE

May, 1876.

Vol. XVII, No. 101.




TABLE OF CONTENTS

THE CENTURY - ITS FRUITS AND ITS FESTIVAL.

V. - MINOR STRUCTURES OF THE EXHIBITION. [Illustrated]

GLIMPSES OF CONSTANTINOPLE by SHEILA HALE.

TWO PAPERS. - I. [Illustrated]

THE BALLAD OF THE BELL-TOWER by MARGARET J. PRESTON.

BERLIN AND VIENNA by JAMES MORGAN HART.

THE ATONEMENT OF LEAM DUNDAS.
By MRS. E. LYNN LINTON, AUTHOR OF "PATRICIA KEMBALL."

CHAPTER XXXIII. OUR MARRIAGE.

CHAPTER XXXIV. IS THIS LOVE?

CHAPTER XXXV. DUNASTON CASTLE.

CHAPTER XXXVI. IN LETTERS OF FIRE.

ROSE-MORALS by SIDNEY LANIER.

AN OLD HOUSE AND ITS STORY by K. T. T.

THE WATCH: AN OLD MAN'S STORY by IVAN TOURGUENEFF.

TRANSLATIONS FROM HEINE by EMMA LAZARUS.

I. - CHILDE HAROLD.

II. - SPRING FESTIVAL.

LETTERS FROM SOUTH AFRICA by LADY BARKER.

THE LIFE OF GEORGE TICKNOR by T. S. PERRY.

OUR MONTHLY GOSSIP.

A REMINISCENCE OF MACAULAY by E. Y.

UNVEILING KEATS'S MEDALLION by T. A. T.

GINO CAPPONI by T. A. T.

A DINNER WITH ROSSI by L. H. H.

"FOUNDERS DAY" AT RAINE'S HOSPITAL by B. M.

NOTES.

LITERATURE OF THE DAY.

_Books Received._




ILLUSTRATIONS

FOUNTAIN OF THE CATHOLIC TOTAL ABSTINENCE UNION.

JUDGES' PAVILION.

WOMEN'S PAVILION.

UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT BUILDING.

OHIO BUILDING.

NEW JERSEY BUILDING.

NEW YORK BUILDING.

PENNSYLVANIA BUILDING.

PLAN OF EXHIBITION GROUNDS.

JAPANESE BUILDING.

SWEDISH SCHOOL-HOUSE.

SPANISH BUILDING.

BRITISH BUILDINGS.

GERMAN BUILDING.

HORTICULTURAL HALL - INTERIOR.

AMMALE.

TURKISH LADY.

THE SULTAN'S NEW PALACE ON THE BOSPHORUS.

MARBLE STAIRCASE, PALACE OF BESKIK-TASCH.

MOSQUE OF ST. SOPHIA.

INTERIOR OF THE MOSQUE OF ST. SOPHIA.

HAREM SCENE.

MOUNT PLEASANT.





LIPPINCOTT'S MAGAZINE

OF

_POPULAR LITERATURE AND SCIENCE_.

MAY, 1876.




THE CENTURY - ITS FRUITS AND ITS FESTIVAL.

V. - MINOR STRUCTURES OF THE EXHIBITION.


[Illustration: FOUNTAIN OF THE CATHOLIC TOTAL ABSTINENCE UNION.]

Compress it as you may, this globe of ours remains quite a bulky
affair. The world in little is not reducible to a microscopic point.
The nations collected to show their riches, crude and wrought, bring
with them also their wants. For the display, for its comfort and good
order, not only space, but a carefully-planned organization and a
multiplicity of appliances are needed. Separate or assembled, men
demand a home, a government, workshops, show-rooms and restaurants.
For even so paternal and, within its especial domain, autocratic
a sway as that of the Centennial Commission to provide all these
directly would be impossible. A great deal is, as in the outer world,
necessarily left to private effort, combined or individual.

Having in our last paper sketched the provision made by the management
for sheltering and properly presenting to the eye the objects on
exhibition, we shall now turn from the strictly public buildings to
the more numerous ones which surround them, and descend, so to speak,
from the Capitol to the capital.

Our circuit brought us back to the neighborhood of the principal
entrance. Standing here, facing the interval between the Main Building
and Machinery Hall, our eyes and steps are conducted from great to
greater by a group of buildings which must bear their true name of
offices, belittling as a title suggestive of clerks and counting-rooms
is to dimensions and capacity exceeding those of most churches. Right
and left a brace of these modest but sightly and habitable-looking
foot-hills to the Alps of glass accommodate the executive and staff
departments of the exposition. They bring together, besides the
central administration, the post, police, custom-house, telegraph,
etc. A front, including the connecting verandah, of five hundred feet
indicates the scale on which this transitory government is organized.
Farther back, directly opposite the entrance, but beyond the north
line of the great halls, stands the Judges' Pavilion. In this
capacious "box," a hundred and fifty-two by a hundred and fifteen
feet, the grand and petit juries of the tribunal of industry and taste
have abundant elbow - room for deliberation and discussion. The same
enlightened policy which aimed at securing the utmost independence and
the highest qualifications of knowledge and intelligence in the two
hundred men who determine the awards, recognized also the advantage
of providing for their convenience. Their sessions here can be neither
cramped nor disturbed. So far as foresight can go, there is nothing
to prevent their deciding quietly, comfortably and soundly, after mute
argument from the vast array of objects submitted to their verdict, on
the merits of each. The main hall of this building, or high court as
it may be termed, is sixty by eighty feet, and forty-three feet high.
In the rear of it is a smaller hall. A number of other chambers
and committee-rooms are appropriated to the different branches as
classified. Accommodation is afforded, besides, to purposes of a less
arid nature - fêtes, receptions, conventions, international congresses
and the like. This cosmopolitan forum might fitly have been modeled
after

the tower that builders vain,
Presumptuous, piled on Shinar's plain.

Bricks from Birs Nimroud would have been a good material for the
walks. Perhaps, order being the great end, anything savoring of
confusion was thought out of place.

[Illustration: JUDGES' PAVILION.]

Fire is an invader of peace and property, defence against whose
destructive forays is one of the first and most constant cares of
American cities, old and new, great and small. Before the foundations
of the Main Building were laid the means of meeting the foe on the
threshold were planned. The Main Building alone contains seventy-five
fire-plugs, with pressure sufficient to throw water over its
highest point. Adjacent to it on the outside are thirty-three more.
Seventy-six others protect Machinery Hall, within which are
the head-quarters of the fire service. A large outfit of steam
fire-engines, hose, trucks, ladders, extinguishers and other
appliances of the kind make up a force powerful enough, one
would think, to put out that shining light in the records of
conflagration - Constantinople. Steam is kept up night and day in the
engines, which, with their appurtenances, are manned by about two
hundred picked men. The houses for their shelter, erected at a cost
of eight thousand dollars, complete, if we except some architectural
afterthoughts in the shape of annexes, the list of the buildings
erected by the commission.

[Illustration: WOMEN'S PAVILION.]

_Place aux dames!_ First among the independent structures we must note
the Women's Pavilion. After having well earned, by raising a large
contribution to the Centennial stock, the privilege of expending
thirty-five thousand dollars of their own on a separate receptacle of
products of the female head and hand, the ladies selected for that a
sufficiently modest site and design. To the trait of modesty we
cannot say that the building has failed to add that of grace. In this
respect, however, it does not strike us as coming up to the standard
attained by some of its neighbors. The low-arched roofs give it
somewhat the appearance of a union railway-depot; and one is apt to
look for the emergence from the main entrances rather of locomotives
than of ladies. The interior, however is more light and airy in effect
than the exterior. But "pretty is that pretty does" was a favorite
maxim of the Revolutionary dames; and the remarkable energy shown by
their fair descendants, under the presidency of Mrs. E. D. Gillespie,
in carrying through this undertaking will impart to it new force. The
rule is quite in harmony with it that mere frippery should be avoided
within and without, and the purely decorative architect excluded with
Miss McFlimsey. The ground-plan is very simple, blending the cross and
the square. Nave and transept are identical in dimensions, each being
sixty-four by one hundred and ninety-two feet. The four angles
formed by their intersection are nearly filled out by as many sheds
forty-eight feet square. A cupola springs from the centre to a height
of ninety feet. An area of thirty thousand square feet strikes us as a
modest allowance for the adequate display of female industry. For the
filling of the vast cubic space between floor and roof the managers
are fain to invoke the aid of an orchestra of the sterner sex to keep
it in a state of chronic saturation with music.

[Illustration: UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT BUILDING.]

Reciprocity, however, obtains here. The votaries of harmony naturally
seek the patronage of woman. Her territorial empire has accordingly
far overstepped the narrow bounds we have been viewing. The Women's
Centennial Music Hall on Broad street is designed for all the musical
performances connected with the exposition save those forming part of
the opening ceremonies. This is assuming for it a large office, and we
should have expected so bold a calculation to be backed by floor-room
for more than the forty-five hundred hearers the hall is able to seat.
A garden into which it opens will accommodate an additional number,
and may suggest souvenirs of _al-fresco_ concerts to European
travelers.

Nor does the sex extend traces of its sway in this direction alone. A
garden of quite another kind, meant for blossoms other than those of
melody, and still more dependent upon woman's nurture, finds a place
in the exposition grounds near the Pavilion. Of the divers species
of _Garten_ - _Blumen-, Thier-, Bier_-, etc. - rife in Vaterland, the
_Kinder_- is the latest selected for acclimation in America. If
the mothers of our land take kindly to it, it will probably become
something of an institution among us. But that is an _If_ of
portentous size. The mothers aforesaid will have first to fully
comprehend the new system. It is not safe to say with any confidence
at first sight that we rightly understand any conception of a German
philosopher; but, so far as we can make it out, the Kindergarten
appears to be based on the idea of formulating the child's physical as
thoroughly as his intellectual training, and at the same time closely
consulting his idiosyncrasy in the application of both. His natural
disposition and endowments are to be sedulously watched, and guided
or wholly repressed as the case may demand. The budding artist
is supplied with pencil, the nascent musician with trumpet or
tuning-fork, the florist with tiny hoe and trowel, and so on. The
boy is never loosed, physically or metaphysically, quite out of
leading-strings. They are made, however, so elastic as scarce to
be felt, and yet so strong as never to break. Moral suasion,
perseveringly applied, predominates over Solomon's system. It is
a very nice theory, and we may all study here, at the point of the
lecture-rod wielded by fair fingers, its merits as a specific for
giving tone to the constitution of Young America.

At the side of the Kindergarten springs a more indigenous growth - the
Women's School-house. In this reminder of early days we may freshen
our jaded memories, and wonder if, escaped from the dame's school,
we have been really manumitted from the instructing hand of women, or
ever shall be in the world, or ought to be.

Is the "New England Log-house," devoted to the contrasting of the
cuisine of this and the Revolutionary period, strictly to be assigned
to the women's ward of the great extempore city? Is its proximity to
the buildings just noticed purely accidental, or meant to imply that
cookery is as much a female art and mystery as it was a century ago?
However this may be, the erection of this temple to the viands of
other days was a capital idea, and a blessed one should it aid in the
banishment of certain popular delicacies which afflict the digestive
apparatus of to-day. This kitchen of the forest epoch is naturally
of logs, and logs in their natural condition, with the bark on.
The planking of that period is represented by clap-boards or slabs.
Garnished with ropes of onions, dried apples, linsey-woolsey garments
and similar drapery, the aspect of the walls will remind us of
Lowell's lines:

Crook-necks above the chimly hung,
While in among 'em rusted
The old Queen's-arm that Gran'ther Young
Brought hack from Concord busted.

The log-house is not by any means an abandoned feature of antiquity.
It is still a thriving American "institution" North, West and South,
only not so conspicuous in the forefront of our civilization as it
once was. It turns out yet fair women and brave men, and more than
that - if it be not treason to use terms so unrepublican - the highest
product of this world, gentlemen and gentlewomen.

[Illustration: OHIO BUILDING.]

Uncle Sam confronts the ladies from over the way, a ferocious battery
of fifty-seven-ton Rodman guns and other monsters of the same family
frowning defiance to their smiles and wiles. His traditional dread of
masked batteries may have something to do with this demonstration. He
need not fear, however. His fair neighbors and nieces have their hands
full with their own concerns, and leave him undisturbed in his stately
bachelor's hall to "illustrate the functions and administrative
faculties of the government in time of peace and its resources as a
war-power." To do this properly, he has found two acres of ground none
too much. The building, business-like and capable-looking, was erected
in a style and with a degree of economy creditable to the officers
of the board, selected from the Departments of War, Agriculture, the
Treasury, Navy, Interior and Post-Office, and from the Smithsonian
Institution. Appended to it are smaller structures for the
illustration of hospital and laboratory work - a kill-and-cure
association that is but one of the odd contradictions of war.

The sentiments prevalent in this era of perfect peace, harmony and
balance of rights forbids the suspicion of any significance in
the fact that the lordly palace of the Federal government at once
overshadows and turns its back upon the humbler tenements of the
States. A line of these, drawn up in close order, shoulder to
shoulder, is ranged, hard by, against the tall fence that encloses
the grounds. The Keystone State, as beseems her, heads the line by
the left flank. Then come, in due order, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois,
Michigan, Wisconsin, New Hampshire, Connecticut, Massachusetts and
Delaware. New Jersey and Kansas stand proudly apart, officer-like, on
the opposite side of the avenue; the regimental canteen, in the shape
of the Southern Restaurant, jostling them rather too closely. Somewhat
in keeping with the over-prominence of the latter adjunct is the
militia-like aspect of the array, wonderfully irregular as are its
members in stature and style. Pennsylvania's pavilion, costing forty
thousand dollars, or half as much as the United States building, plays
the leading grenadier well; but little Delaware, not content with the
obscure post of file-closer, swells at the opposite end of the line
into dimensions of ninety by seventy-five feet, with a cupola that, if
placed at Dover, would be visible from half her territory.

[Illustration: NEW JERSEY BUILDING.]

These buildings are all of wood, with the exception of that of Ohio,
which exhibits some of the fine varieties of stone furnished by the
quarries of that State, together with some crumbling red sandstone
which ought, in our opinion, to have been left at home. All have two
floors, save the Massachusetts cottage, a quaint affair modeled after
the homes of the past. Virginia ought to have placed by its side one
of her own old country-houses, long and low, with attic windows, the
roof spreading with unbroken line over a portico the full length of
the front, and a broad-bottomed chimney on the outside of each gable.
The State of New York plays orderly sergeant, and stands in front
of Delaware. She is very fortunate in the site assigned her, at
the junction of State Avenue with several broad promenades, and her
building is not unworthy so prominent a position.

From the Empire State we step into the domain of Old England. Three
of her rural homesteads rise before us, red-tiled, many-gabled,
lattice-windowed, and telling of a kindly winter with external
chimneys that care not for the hoarding of heat. It is a bit of the
island peopled by some of the islanders. They are colonized here, from
commissioner in charge down to private, in a cheek-by-jowl fashion
that shows their ability to unbend and republicanize on occasion.
Great Britain's head-quarters are made particularly attractive, not
more by the picturesqueness of the buildings than by the extent and
completeness of her exhibit. In her preparations for neither the
French nor the Austrian exposition did she manifest a stronger
determination to be thoroughly well represented. Col. H.B. Sanford, of
the Royal Artillery, heads her commission.

Japan is a common and close neighbor to the two competitors for her
commercial good-will, England and New York. Modern Anglo-Saxondom and
old Cathay touch eaves with each other. Hemlock and British oak rub
against bamboo, and dwellings which at first sight may impress one as
chiefly chimney stand in sharp contrast with one wholly devoid of that
feature. The difference is that of nails and bolts against dovetails
and wooden pins; of light and pervious walls with heavy sun-repelling
roof against close and dense sides and roofs whose chief warfare is
with the clouds; of saw and plane that work in Mongol and Caucasian
hands in directions precisely reversed. To the carpenters of both
England and Japan our winter climate, albeit far milder than usual,
was alike astonishing. With equal readiness, though not with equal
violence to the _outer man_, the craftsmen of the two nations
accommodated themselves to the new atmospheric conditions. The
moulting process, in point of dress, through which the _Japanese_
passed was not untypical of the change the _institutions_ of
their country have been undergoing in obedience to similarly stern
requirements. It did not begin at quite so rudimental a stage of
costume as that of the porters and wrestlers presented to us on fans,
admirably adapted as that style might be to our summer temperature.
In preparing for that oscillation of the thermometer the English are
called on for another change, whereas the Orientals may meet it by
simply reverting to first principles.

[Illustration: NEW YORK BUILDING.]

The delicacy of the Asiatic touch is exemplified in the wood-carving
upon the doorways and pediments of the Japanese dwelling. Arabesques
and reproductions of subjects from Nature are executed with a
clearness and precision such as we are accustomed to admire on the
lacquered-ware cabinets and bronzes of Japan. With us, wood has almost
completely disappeared as a glyptic material. The introduction of
mindless automatic machinery has starved out the chisel. Mouldings are
run out for us by the mile, like iron from the rolling-mill or tunes
from a musical-box, as cheap and as soulless. Forms innately beautiful
thus become almost hateful, because hackneyed. If all the women we
see were at once faultlessly beautiful and absolute duplicates of
each other in the minutest details of feature, complexion, dress and
figure, we should be in danger of conceiving an aversion to the sex.
So there is a certain pleasure in tracing in a carven object, even
though it be hideous, the patient, faithful, watchful work of the
human hand guided at every instant by the human eye. And this Japanese
tracery is by no means hideous. The plants and animals are well
studied from reality, and truer than the average of popular designs in
Europe a century ago, if not now. It is simple justice to add that for
workmanlike thoroughness this structure does not suffer in comparison
with those around it.

Besides this dwelling for its employés, the Japanese government has
in a more central situation, close to the Judges' Pavilion, another
building. The style of this is equally characteristic. Together, the
two structures will do what houses may toward making us acquainted
with the public and private ménage of Japan.

[Illustration: PENNSYLVANIA BUILDING.]

In the neat little Swedish School-house, of unpainted wood, that
stands next to the main Japanese building, we have another meeting of
antipodes. Northern Europe is proud to place close under the eye of
Eastern Asia a specimen of what she is doing for education. Sweden
has indeed distinguished herself by the interest she has shown in the
exposition. At the head of her commission was placed Mr. Dannfeldt,
who supervised her display at Vienna. His activity and judgment
have obviously not suffered from the lapse of three years.
This school-house is attractive for neatness and peculiarity of
construction. It was erected by Swedish carpenters. The descendants of
the hardy sea-rovers, convinced that their inherited vigor and
thrift could not be adequately illustrated by an exclusively in-doors
exhibition, sent their portable contributions in a fine steamer of
Swedish build, the largest ever sent to sea from the Venice of the
North, and not unworthy her namesake of the Adriatic. To compete in
two of its specialties with the cradle of the common school and the
steamship is a step that tells of the bold Scandinavian spirit.

The contemporaries and ancient foes of the Northmen, who overthrew the
Goths on land and checkmated the Vikings in the southern seas, have
a memorial in the beautiful Alhambra-like edifice of the Spanish
government. Spain has no architecture so distinctive as that of the
Moors, and the selection of their style for the present purpose was in
good taste. It lends itself well to this class of building, designed
especially for summer use; and many other examples of it will be found
upon the grounds. The Mohammedan arch is suited better to materials,
like wood and iron, which sustain themselves in part by cohesion, than
to stone, which depends upon gravitation alone. Although it stands
in stone in a long cordon of colonnades from the Ganges to the
Guadalquivir, the eye never quite reconciles itself to the suggestion
of untruth and feebleness in the recurved base of the arch. This
defect, however, is obtrusive only when the weight supported is great;
and the Moorish builders have generally avoided subjecting it to that
test.

[Illustration: PLAN OF EXHIBITION GROUNDS.]

Spain also has taken the liberty of widening the range of her
contributions. Soldiers, for instance, find no place in the official
classification of subjects for exhibition. She naturally thought it
worth while to show that the famous _infanteria_ of Alva, Gonsalvo,
and Cuesta "still lived." So she sends us specimens of the first, if
not just now the foremost, of all infantry. This microscopic invasion
of our soil by an armed force will be useful in reminding us of the
untiring tenacity which takes no note of time or of defeat, and which,
indifferent whether the struggle were of six, fifty, or seven hundred
years, wore down in succession the Saracens, the Flemings and the
French.

[Illustration: JAPANESE BUILDING.]

Samples in this particular walk of competition come likewise from the
battle-ground of Europe, Belgium sending a detachment of her troops
for police duty. We may add that the Centennial has brought back
the red-coats, a detachment of Royal Engineers, backed by part of
Inspector Bucket's men, doing duty in the British division.

After these first drops of the military shower one looks instinctively
for the gleam of the spiked helmet at the portals of the German
building, seated not far from that of Spain, and side by side with
that of Brazil. It does not appear, however. Possibly, Prince Bismarck
scorns to send his veterans anywhere by permission. Neither does he
indulge us, like Brazil, with the sight of an emperor, or even with
cæsarism in the dilute form of a crown prince. Such exotics do not
transplant well, even for temporary potting, in this republican soil.
It is impossible, at the same time, not to reflect what a capital card
for the treasury of the exposition would have been the catching of


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Online LibraryVariousLippincott's Magazine of Popular Literature and Science Volume 17, No. 101, May, 1876 → online text (page 1 of 20)