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LIPPINCOTT'S MAGAZINE OF POPULAR LITERATURE AND SCIENCE

March, 1876.

Vol. XVII, No. 99.







TABLE OF CONTENTS

ILLUSTRATIONS

THE CENTURY—ITS FRUITS AND ITS FESTIVAL.

III. - PAST EXPOSITIONS.

SKETCHES OF INDIA.
III.

LIFE-SAVING STATIONS by REBECCA HARDING DAVIS.

THE EUTAW FLAG.
II.
III.

CONVENT LIFE AND WORK by LADY BLANCHE MURPHY.

THE ATONEMENT OF LEAM DUNDAS.
BY MRS. E. LYNN LINTON, AUTHOR OF "PATRICIA KEMBALL."

CHAPTER XXV. SMALL CAUSES.

CHAPTER XXVI. THE GREEN YULE.

CHAPTER XXVII. IN THE BALANCE.

CHAPTER XXVIII. ONLY A DREAM.

LOVE'S SEPULCHRE by KATE HILLARD.

LETTERS FROM SOUTH AFRICA by LADY BARKER.

A SYLVAN SEARCH by MARY B. DODGE.

THE SONGS OF MIRZA-SCHAFFY by AUBER FORESTIER.

TO CHARLOTTE CUSHMAN by SIDNEY LANIER.

CHARLES KINGSLEY: A REMINISCENCE by ELLIS YARNALL.

OUR MONTHLY GOSSIP.

A WOMAN'S OPINION OF PARIS AND THE PARISIANS by L.H.H.

THE COLLEGIO ROMANO by T.A.T.

TRADES UNIONISM IN ITS INFANCY.

MORAL TRAINING IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS.

THE EARLIEST PRINTED BOOKS by M.H.

FLOWERS VS. FLIES.

LITERATURE OF THE DAY.

Books Received.




ILLUSTRATIONS

THE GREAT ANNUAL FAIR AT NIZHNEE-NOVGOROD.

CRYSTAL PALACE - LONDON EXHIBITION BUILDING, 1851.

INTERIOR VIEW OF THE TRANSEPT OF CRYSTAL PALACE.

NEW YORK EXHIBITION BUILDING, 1853.

CORK EXHIBITION BUILDING, 1853.

DUBLIN EXHIBITION BUILDING, 1853.

MUNICH EXHIBITION BUILDING, 1854.

MANCHESTER EXHIBITION BUILDING, 1857.

FLORENCE EXHIBITION BUILDING, 1861

PARIS EXPOSITION BUILDING AND GROUNDS, 1867.

GRAND VESTIBULE OF THE PARIS EXPOSITION BUILDING, 1867.

VIENNA EXPOSITION BUILDING AND GROUNDS, 1873.

ROTUNDA OF THE VIENNA EXPOSITION BUILDING, 1873.

MUSSULMAN WOMAN OF BHOPAL.

A NAUTCH-GIRL (OR BAYADÈRE) OF ULWUR.

A NAUTCHNI (OR BAYADÈRE) OF BARODA.

THE CATHACKS (OR DANCING MEN) OF BHOPAL.

BURIAL PLACE OF THE RAJAHS OF JHANSI.

TOMB OF ALLUM SAYED.

PEASANTS OF THE DOUAB.

HINDU BANKERS OF DELHI.

THE GRAND HALL OF THE DEWANI KHAS IN THE PALACE OF DELHI.

THE JAMMAH MASJID AT DELHI.




LIPPINCOTT'S MAGAZINE

OF

_POPULAR LITERATURE AND SCIENCE._


MARCH, 1876.

Vol. XVII, No. 99.




THE CENTURY - ITS FRUITS AND ITS FESTIVAL.

III. - PAST EXPOSITIONS.

[Illustration: THE GREAT ANNUAL FAIR AT NIZHNEE-NOVGOROD.]

We have presented a feeble sketch of a century that stands out from
its fellows, not as a mere continuation, or even intensification, of
them - a hundred annual circuits of the earth in its orbit as little
distinguished by intellectual or material achievement as those
repetitions of the old beaten track through space are by astronomical
incident - but as an epoch _sui generis_, a century _d'elite_, picked
out from the long ranks of time for special service, charged by
Fate with an extraordinary duty, and decorated for its successful
performance. Those of its historic comrades even partially so honored
are few indeed. They will not make a platoon - scarce a corporal's
guard. We should seek them, for instance, in the Periclean age,
when eternal beauty, and something very like eternal truth, gained
a habitation upon earth through the chisel and the pen; in the first
years of the Roman empire, when the whole temperate zone west of China
found itself politically and socially a unit, at rest but for the
labors of peace; and in the sixteenth century, when the area fit for
the support of man was suddenly doubled, when the nominal value of his
possessions was additionally doubled by the mines of Mexico and
Peru, and when his mental implements were in a far greater proportion
multiplied by the press.

[Illustration: CRYSTAL PALACE - LONDON EXHIBITION BUILDING, 1851.]

The last of these periods comes nearest to our standard. The first had
undying brilliance in certain fields, but the scope of its influence
was geographically narrow, and its excessively active thought was not
what we are wont to consider practically productive, its conquests in
the domain of physical science being but slender. The second was in no
sense originative, mankind being occupied, quietly and industriously,
in making themselves comfortable in the pleasant hush after the
secular rattle of spear and shield. The third was certainly full of
results in art, science and the diffusion of intelligence through the
upper and middle strata of society. It might well have celebrated the
first centennial of the discovery of printing or of the discovery of
America by assembling the fresh triumphs of European art, so wonderful
to us in their decay, with the still more novel productions of
Portuguese India and Spanish America. But the length of sea - voyages
prosecuted in small vessels with imperfect knowledge of winds and
currents, and the difficulties of land-transportation when roads
were almost unknown, would have restricted the display to meagre
proportions, particularly had Vienna been the site selected. Few
visitors could have attended from distant countries, and the masses of
the vicinage could only have stared. The idea, indeed, of getting up
an exhibition to be chiefly supported by the intelligent curiosity of
the bulk of the people would not have been apt to occur to any one.
The political and educational condition of these was at the end of the
century much what it had been at the beginning. Labor and the laborer
had gained little.

The weapon-show, depicted in _Old Mortality_, and the market-fair, as
vivid in the _Vicar of Wakefield_, exemplify the expositions of
those days. To them were added a variety of church festivals, or
"functions," still a great feature of the life of Catholic countries.
Trade and frolic divided these among themselves in infinite gradation
of respective share, now the ell-wand, and now the quarter-staff or
the fiddler's bow, representing the sceptre of the Lord of Misrule.
"At Christe's Kirk on the Grene that day" the Donnybrook element would
appear to have predominated. The mercantile feature was naturally
preferred by gentle Goldy, and the hapless investor in green
spectacles may be counted the first dissatisfied exhibitor on record
at a modern exposition, for he skirts the century.

Looking eastward, we find these rallies of the people, the
time-honored stalking-grounds of tale-writers and students of
character generally, swell into more imposing proportions. The sea
dwindles and the land broadens. Transportation and travel become
difficult and hazardous. Merchant and customer, running alike a
labyrinthine gauntlet of taxes, tolls and arbitrary exactions by the
wolves of schloss and château, found it safest to make fewer trips and
concentrate their transactions. The great nations, with many secondary
trade-tournaments, as they may be termed, had each a principal one.
From the great fair of Leipsic, with the intellectual but very bulky
commodity of books for its specialty to-day, we pass to the two
Novgorods - one of them no more than a tradition, having been
annihilated by Peter the Great when, with the instinct of great rulers
for deep water, he located the new capital of his vast interior empire
on the only available harbor it possessed. Its successor, known from
its numerous namesakes by the designation of "New," draws convoys of
merchandise from a vast tributary belt bounded by the Arctic and
North Pacific oceans and the deserts of Khiva. This traffic exceeds
a hundred millions of dollars annually. The medley of tongues and
products due to the united contributions of Northern Siberia, China
and Turkestan is hardly to be paralleled elsewhere on the globe.
_Was_, insists the all-conquering railway as it moves inexorably
eastward, and relegates the New Novgorod, with its modern fairs,
to the stranded condition of the old one, with its traditional
expositions. As, however, the rail must have a terminus somewhere,
if only temporary, the caravans of camels, oxen, horses, boats and
sledges will converge to a movable entrepôt that will assume more
and more an inter-Asiatic instead of an inter-national character. The
furs, fossil ivory, sheepskins and brick tea brought by them after
voyages often reaching a year and eighteen months, come, strictly
enough, under the head of raw products. Still, it is the best they
can bring; which cannot be said of what Europe offers in
exchange - articles mostly of the class and quality succinctly
described as "Brummagem." It is obvious that prizes, diplomas, medals,
commissioners and juries would be thrown away here. The palace
of glass and iron can only loom in the distant future, like the
cloud-castle in Cole's _Voyage of Life_. It may possibly be essayed in
a generation or two, when Ekaterinenborg, built up into a great
city by the copper, iron, gold, and, above all, the lately-opened
coal-mines of the Ural, shall have become the focus of the Yenisei,
Amour, Yang-tse and Indus system of railways. But here, again, we are
overstepping our century.

[Illustration: INTERIOR VIEW OF THE TRANSEPT OF CRYSTAL PALACE.]

To us it seems odd that in the days when an autocratic decree could
summarily call up "all the world" to be taxed, and when, in prompt
obedience to it, the people of all the regions gathered to a thousand
cities, the idea of numbering and comparing, side by side, goods,
handicrafts, arts, skill, faculties and energies, as well as heads,
never occurred to rulers or their counselors. If it did, it was never
put in practice. The difficulties to which we have before adverted
stood in the way of that combination of individual effort to which the
great displays of our day are mainly indebted for their success; but
what the government might have accomplished toward overcoming distance
and defective means of transport is evidenced by the mighty current
of objects of art, luxury and curiosity which flowed toward the
metropolis. Obelisks, colossal statues, and elephants and giraffes by
the score are articles of traffic not particularly easy to handle even
now.

[Illustration: NEW YORK EXHIBITION BUILDING, 1853.]

At the annual exposition of the Olympic games we have the feature of a
distribution of prizes. They were conferred, however, only on horses,
poets and athletes - a conjunction certainly in advance of the asses
and savants that constituted the especial care of the French army in
Egypt, but not up to the modern idea of the comprehensiveness of human
effort. While our artists confess it almost a vain hope to rival
the cameo brooch that fastened the scanty garment of the Argive
charioteer, or the statue spattered with the foam of his horses and
shrouded in the dust of his furious wheel - while they are content to
be teachable, moreover, by the exquisite embroidery and lacework
in gold and cotton thread displayed at another semi-religious and
similarly ancient reunion at Benares, - they claim the alliance and
support of many classes of craftsmen unrepresented on the Ganges or
Ilissus. These were, in the old days, ranked with slaves, many of whom
were merchants and tradesmen; and they labor yet in some countries
under the social ban of courts, no British merchant or cotton-lord,
though the master of millions, being presentable at Buckingham Palace,
itself the product of the counting-room and the loom. Little, however,
does this slight appear to affect the sensibilities of the noble army
of producers, who loyally rejoice to elevate their constitutional
sovereign on their implements as the Frankish prolétaries did upon
their shields.

The family of expositions with which we are directly concerned is,
like others of plebeian origin, at some loss as to the roots of its
ancestral tree. We may venture to locate them in the middle of the
eighteenth century. In 1756-57 the London Society of Arts offered
prizes for specimens of decorative manufactures, such as tapestry,
carpets and porcelain. This was part of the same movement with that
which brought into being the Royal Academy, with infinitely less
success in the promotion of high art than has attended the development
of taste, ingenuity and economy in the wider if less pretentious
field.

France's first exhibition of industry took place in 1798. It was
followed by others under the Consulate and Empire in 1801, 1802, 1806.
In 1819 the French expositions became regular. Each year attested an
advance, and drew more and more the attention of adjacent countries.
The international idea had not yet suggested itself. The tendency
was rather to the less than the more comprehensive, geographically
speaking. Cities took the cue from the central power, and got up each
its own show, of course inviting outside competition. The nearest
resemblance to the grand displays of the past quarter of a century
was perhaps that of Birmingham in 1849, which had yet no government
recognition; but the French exposition of five years earlier had a
leading influence in bringing on the London Fair of 1851, which
had its inception as early as 1848 - one year before the Birmingham
display.

The getting up of a World's Fair was an afterthought; the original
design having been simply an illustration of British industrial
advancement, in friendly rivalry with that which was becoming,
across the Channel, too brilliant to be ignored. The government's
contribution, in the first instance, was meagre enough - merely the use
of a site. Rough discipline in youth is England's system with all her
bantlings. She is but a frosty parent if at bottom kindly, and, when
she has a shadow of justification, proud. In the present instance
she stands excused by the sore shock caused her conservatism by the
conceit of a building of glass and iron four times as long as St.
Paul's, high enough to accommodate comfortably one of her ancestral
elms, and capacious enough to sustain a general invitation to all
mankind to exhibit and admire.

Novelty and innovation attended the first step of the great movement.
The design of the structure made architects rub their eyes, and
yet its origin was humble and practical enough. The Adam of crystal
palaces, like him of Eden, was a gardener. When Joseph Paxton raised
the palm-house at Chatsworth he little suspected that he was building
for the world - that, to borrow a simile from his own vocation, he was
setting a bulb which would expand into a shape of as wide note as the
domes of Florence and St. Sophia. And the cost of his new production
was so absurdly low - eighty thousand pounds by the contract.
The cheapness of his plan was its great merit in the eyes of the
committee, and that which chiefly determined its selection over
two hundred and forty-four competitors. This new cathedral for the
apotheosis of industry resembled those of the old worship in the
attributes of nave, aisles and transepts; and these features have
been, by reason in great degree of the requirements of construction,
continued in its successors. Galleries were added to the original
design to secure space additional to what was naturally deemed at
first an ample allowance for all comers. Before ground had been well
broken the demands of British exhibitors alone ran up to four hundred
and seventeen thousand superficial feet instead of the two hundred and
ten thousand - half the whole area - allotted them. The United States
were offered forty thousand feet; France, fifty thousand, afterward
increased to sixty-five; the Zollverein, thirty thousand, and
India the same. A comparison of the whole number of exhibitors, as
distributed between Great Britain and other countries, indicates that
the equal division of the superficial space was a tolerably accurate
guess. They numbered 7381 from the mother-country and her colonies,
and 6556 from the rest of the world. Certainly, a change this from the
first French exhibition, held in the dark days of the Directory, when
the list reached but 110 names. We shall dismiss the statistics of
this exhibition with the remark that it has precedence of its fellows
in financial success as well as in time, having cleared a hundred
and seventy-odd thousand pounds, and left the Kensington Museum as
a memorial of that creditable feat, besides sending its cast-off but
still serviceable induviæ to Sydenham, where it enshrines another
museum, chiefly of architectural reproductions in plaster, in a
sempiternal coruscation of fountains, fireworks and fiddle-bows. The
palace of industry has become the palace of the industrial - abundantly
useful still if it lure him from the palace of gin. The chrism of
Thackeray's inaugural ode will not have been dishonored.

[Illustration: CORK EXHIBITION BUILDING, 1853.]

The first of the great fairs, in so many respects a model to all
that came after, was beset at the outset by the same difficulty in
arrangement encountered by them. How to reconcile the two headings of
subjects and nations, groups of objects and groups of exhibitors, the
endowments and progress of different races and the advance of mankind
generally in the various fields of effort, was, and is, a problem only
approximately to be solved. It was yet more complicated in 1851 from
the compression of the entire display into one building of simple and
symmetrical form, instead of dispersing certain classes of objects,
bulky and requiring special appliances for their proper display, into
subsidiary structures - the plan so effectively employed in Fairmount
Park. A sort of compromise was arrived at which rendered possible the
mapping of both countries and subjects, especially in the reports, and
to some extent in the exhibition itself, without making the spectacle
one of confusion. The visitor was enabled to accomplish his double
voyage through the depths of the sea of glass without a great deal
of backing and filling, and to find his log, after it was over,
reasonably coherent.

The articles displayed were ranged under thirty heads. The
preponderance of matter of fact was shown in the concession of four of
these to raw material, nineteen to manufactures, and _one_ to the
fine arts. Twenty-nine atoms of earth to one of heaven! Of course the
one-thirtieth whereinto the multiform and elastic shape of genius was
invited, like the afreet into his chest, to condense itself, had to
be subdivided - an intaglio and a temple, a scarabæus and a French
battle-picture, being very different things. This was accomplished,
and the Muses made as comfortable as could be expected. They soon
asserted the pre-eminence theirs by right divine, and came to be the
leading attraction of the affair, next to the Koh-i-noor. On this
barbaric contribution of the gorgeous East the French observers, a
little jealous perhaps, were severe. One of them says: "They rely on
the sun to make it sparkle," and, when the fog is too thick, on gas.
The curiosity about it, in the eyes of this incisive Gaul, was "not
the divinity, but the worshipers." All day long a crowd filed solemnly
by it under the supervision of a detachment of police, each pilgrim
bestowing upon the fetish, "an egg-shaped lump of glass," half a
second's adoration, and then moving reluctantly on. Thousands of far
more beautiful things were around it, but none embodying in so small
a space so many dollars and cents, and none therefore so brilliant in
the light of the nineteenth century. As this light, nevertheless, is
that in which we live, move and have our being, we must accept it, and
turn to substantials, wrought and unwrought.

On our way to this feast of solids we must step for a moment into St.
Paul's and listen to the great commemorative concert of sixty-five
hundred voices that swept all cavilers, foreign and domestic, off
their feet, brought tears to the most sternly critical eye, and caused
the composer, Cramer, to exclaim, as he looked up into the great dome,
filled with the volume of harmony, "Cosa stupenda! stupenda! La gloria
d'Inghilterra!"

A transition, indeed, from this to coal and iron - from a concord of
sweet sounds to the rumble into hold, car and cart of thirty-five
millions of tons of coal and two and a half millions of iron, the
yearly product at that time of England! She has since doubled that of
iron, and nearly trebled her extract of coal, whatever her progress
in the harvest of good music and good pictures. Forced by economical
necessity and assisted by chemistry, she makes her fuel, too, go a
great deal farther than it did in 1851, when the estimate was that
eighty-one per cent. of that consumed in iron-smelting was lost, and
when the "duty" of a bushel of coal burnt in a steam-engine was less
than half what it now is. The United States have the benefit of these
improvements, at the same time that their yield of coal has swelled
from four millions of tons at that time to more than fifty now, and
of iron in a large though not equal ratio. The Lake Superior region,
which rested its claims on a sample of its then annual product of one
hundred tons of copper, now exports seven hundred thousand tons of
iron ore.

Steel, now replacing iron in some of its heaviest uses, appeared as
almost an article of luxury in the shape of knives, scissors and the
like. The success of the Hindus in its production was quite envied and
admired, though they had probably advanced little since Porus deemed
thirty pounds a present fit for Alexander; their rude appliances
beating Sheffield an hour and a half in the four hours demanded by the
most adroit forgers of the city of whittles for its elimination from
the warm bath of iron and carbon. Bessemer, with his steel-mines, as
his furnaces at the ore-bank may be termed, was then in the future.
The steel rails over which we now do most of our traveling were
undreamed of. Bar iron did duty on all the eighty-eight hundred miles
of American and sixty-five hundred of British railway; not many, if
at all, more than are now laid, in this country at least, with steel.
This poetic and historic metal has become as truly a raw product as
potatoes. The poets will have to drop it. The glory of Toledo - of
her swords bent double in the scabbard, of her rapiers that bore into
one's interior only the titillating sensation of a spoonful of vanilla
ice, and of her decapitating sabres that left the culprit whole so
long as he forbore to sneeze - is trodden under foot of men.

[Illustration: DUBLIN EXHIBITION BUILDING, 1853.]

In crude materials the Union is at home. It was so in 1851, and is
still; but then it was not so much at home in anything else as now.
We have advanced in that field too, since we sent no silver, and from
Colorado no gold, no canned fruits, meats or fish, and no wine but
some Cincinnati Catawba, thin and acid, according to the verdict
of the imbibing jury. We adventured timidly into manufacturing
competition with the McCormick reaper, which all Europe proceeded
straightway to pirate; ten or twelve samples of cotton and three of
woolen goods; Ericsson's caloric-engine; a hydrostatic pump; some
nautical instruments; Cornelius's chandeliers for burning lard
oil - now the light of other days, thanks to our new riches in
kerosene; buggies of a tenuity so marvelous in Old-World eyes that
their half-inch tires were likened to the miller of Ferrette's legs,
so thin that Talleyrand pronounced his standing an act of the most
desperate bravery; soap enough to answer Coleridge's cry for a
detergent for the lower Rhine; and one bridge model, forerunner of the
superb iron erections that have since leaped over rivers and ravines
in hundreds.

Meagre enough was the display of our craftsmen by the side of that
made by their brethren of the other side. It could have been scarce
visible to Britannia, looking down from a pinnacle of calico ready for
a year's export over and above her home consumption, long enough, if
unrolled, to put a girdle thirty times round the globe, though not all
of it warranted to stand the washing-test that would be imposed by the
briny part of the circuit.

And yet there were visible in the American department germs
of original inventions and adaptations, the development and
fructification of which in the near future were foreseen by acute
observers. Our metallic life-boats were then unknown to other
countries, those of England being all of wood. The screw-propeller
was quite a new thing, though the Princeton had carried it, or been
carried by it, into the Mediterranean ten years before. Engines
designed for its propulsion attracted special attention. The


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