Various.

McClure's Magazine, Vol. XXXI, No. 3, July 1908. online

. (page 1 of 19)
Online LibraryVariousMcClure's Magazine, Vol. XXXI, No. 3, July 1908. → online text (page 1 of 19)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


Produced by Juliet Sutherland, Katherine Ward and the
Online Distributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net









[Transcriber's Note: The Table of Contents and the list of
illustrations were added by the transcriber.
Hyphenation standardized within articles.
Quotation marks added to standardize usage.
Updated spelling on possible typos: ninteenth, beafsteak,
and embarassed.
Replaced caƱon (with tilde) with canyon.
Preserved other original punctuation and spelling.
Passages in italics indicated by underscore _.]




McCLURE'S MAGAZINE

VOL. XXXI JULY, 1908 No. 3


_Copyright, 1908, by The S. S. McClure Co. All rights reserved_


TABLE OF CONTENTS

ILLUSTRATIONS 241
GUARDIANS OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH. By Samuel Hopkins Adams. 241
Our Health Boards and Their Powers 242
Our Absurd Vital Statistics 244
The Criminal Negligence of Physicians 246
"Business Interests" and Yellow Fever 246
Newspapers, Politicians, and the Bubonic Plague 248
Fighting Prejudice and the Death Rate in Charleston 250
Killing Off the City Negro 251
Private Interests in Public Murder 251
A LITTLE VICTORY FOR THE GENERAL. By Josephine Daskam Bacon. 253
AMERICAN IMPRESSIONS. By Ellen Terry. 263
THE HERITAGE OF HAM. By Lieutenant Hugh M. Kelly, U. S. A. 277
THE SINGER'S HEART. By Harris Merton Lyon. 291
THE REPUDIATION OF JOHNSON'S POLICY. By Carl Schurz. 297
The Fourteenth Amendment 298
A Campaign to Destroy a President 298
Killing of Negroes at Memphis and New Orleans 300
Johnson "Swings Around the Circle" 301
New Congress Overwhelmingly Anti-Johnson 304
The Movement Toward Negro Suffrage 304
Reconstruction Under Military Control 305
The Public Fear of Johnson 306
The Fatal Bungling of Reconstruction 307
THE THIRTEENTH MOVE. By Alberta Bancroft. 308
GIFFORD PINCHOT, FORESTER. By Will C. Barnes. 319
CHIEF KITSAP, FINANCIER. By Joseph Blethen. 328
THE WAYFARERS. By Mary Stewart Cutting. 337
THE CATHEDRAL. By Florence Wilkinson. 357
THE NEW GOSPEL IN CRIMINOLOGY. By Judge McKenzie Cleland. 358


Illustrations

DR. CHARLES HARRINGTON, SECRETARY OF THE MASS STATE BOARD OF HEALTH
DR. THOMAS DARLINGTON, COMMISSIONER OF HEALTH FOR NEW YORK CITY
DR. CHARLES V. CHAPIN, SUPERINTENDENT OF HEALTH IN PROVIDENCE, RI
DR. JOHN N. HURTY, SECRETARY OF THE BOARD OF HEALTH IN INDIANA
DR. GEORGE W. GOLER, HEALTH OFFICER OF ROCHESTER, NEW YORK
DR. J. MERCIER GREEN, HEALTH OFFICER OF CHARLESTON, SOUTH CAROLINA
THE SCAVENGERS OF CHARLESTON, SOUTH CAROLINA
CAROLINE WALKED AHEAD, HER CHIN WELL UP, HER NOSE SNIFFING PLEASURABLY
THE UNACCUSTOMED ASPHALT
YOUNG GIRLS ... CANTERED BY; THEIR LINEN HABITS ROSE AND FELL
DECOROUSLY, THEIR HAIR WAS SMOOTH
THE STANDING CROWD CRANED THEIR NECKS, AS DELIA SAT UP STRAIGHT AND
HELD OUT HER ARMS
'I'VE GOT TWO O' MY OWN'
'WHO - WHO - WHAT IS THE MEANING OF THIS?' HE WHISPERED HOARSELY
HENRY IRVING AS CARDINAL WOLSEY IN "HENRY VIII."
ELLEN TERRY
ELLEN TERRY WITH HER FOX-TERRIERS, DUMMY AND FUSSIE
MISS ROSA CORDER
SIR HENRY IRVING
MISS ELLEN TERRY
AUGUSTIN DALY AND HIS COMPANY OF PLAYERS
AUGUSTIN DALY
JOHN DREW AS PETRUCHIO IN "THE TAMING OF THE SHREW"
ADA REHAN AS KATHARINE IN "THE TAMING OF THE SHREW"
HELENA MODJESKA
MARY ANDERSON
JOSEPH JEFFERSON AS RIP VAN WINKLE
ALL DAY LONG OLD SERGEANT WILSON SAT IN THE CORNER OF THE SQUAD ROOM,
CLASPING AND UNCLASPING HIS STRAINING HANDS
CABLE THE PRESIDENT! WHAT A JOKE!
THE CIRCLE CLOSED IN AS THE SEA SURGES UP UPON THE LAND
HARRY BARNES, OLD ACTOR
HE GRINNED AND WINKED AND FRISKED AND CAPERED
'OH, YOU DIVVIL, YOU! YOU OLD, BLATHERSKITING DIVVIL'
HE SAT STARING INTO THE BLANKNESS OF THE LITTLE ROOM
JOHN POTTER STOCKTON, THE DEMOCRATIC SENATOR FROM NEW JERSEY
SENATOR CARL SCHURZ
SENATOR PRESTON KING
SENATOR JAMES LANE
SENATOR ZACHARIAH CHANDLER
'I'VE BEEN FOLLOWING YOU EVER SINCE YOU LEFT YOUR OFFICE,' HE SAID
'IT'S A DESPICABLE LETTER,' SHE TOLD HERSELF
'HOW DO YOU SUPPOSE I FEEL, BEING IN THIS POSITION - TO YOU?'
GIFFORD PINCHOT
A SECTION OF THE BIG HORN NATIONAL FOREST, WYOMING, SHOWING THE FOREST
SERVICE METHODS OF LUMBERING
SECTION OF A REDWOOD FOREST IN CALIFORNIA, SHOWING WASTEFUL AND
DESTRUCTIVE METHODS OF LUMBERING
THE EFFECT OF EROSION ON A HILLSIDE FROM WHICH THE FOREST COVER HAS
BEEN REMOVED
THE SAME HILLSIDE AFTER TWO YEARS OF CAREFUL AND SYSTEMATIC GRAZING
HERD OF SHEEP GRAZING UPON A NATIONAL FOREST
KITSAP, THE CLERK, DONNED THE TRIBAL FINERY OF HIS ANCESTORS
ON ALL SIDES THE HOP-PICKERS WERE MAKING MERRY
PICKING PROGRESSED TO AN END, AND THE INDIANS HELD THEIR LAST FEAST
AND DEPARTED
STOOD THERE LEANING AGAINST 'DADDY'S' SIDE
IT WAS SWEET TO BE CHAFFED, TO BE HEEDLESSLY YOUNG ONCE MORE
SHE CREPT OUT UPON THE LANDING OF THE STAIRS, AND SAT THERE DESOLATELY
ON THE TOP STEP
SHE TOOK THE PISTOL FROM HIS RELAXED HOLD
THE TWO WOMEN SITTING ON THE BENCH, WRAPPED AROUND BY THE LONELINESS
AND THE INTENSE STILLNESS OF THE ONCOMING NIGHT
'THEY'LL GET FULL OF EARTH AGAIN,' SHE PROTESTED
LOIS STOLE INTO THE ROOM




[Illustration: Copyright by Arnold Genthe]

[Illustration: THE DEVIL'S KITCHEN

ONE OF THE PLAGUE CENTERS IN SAN FRANCISCO'S OLD CHINATOWN]

[Illustration: GUARDIANS OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH BY SAMUEL HOPKINS ADAMS]


John Chinaman is the logician of hygiene. To his family doctor he says:
"I pay you to keep me well. Earn your money." Let him or his fall sick,
and the physician's recompense stops until health returns to that
household. Being fair-minded as well as logical, the Oriental obeys his
physical guardian's directions. Now, it may be possible to criticize
certain Chinese medical methods, such as burning parallel holes in a
man's back to cure him of appendicitis, or banging for six hours a day
on a brass tom-tom to eliminate the devil of headache; but the
underlying principle of "No health, no pay" is worthy of consideration.

This principle it is which, theoretically, we have adopted in the matter
of the public health. To our city, State, or national doctors we pay a
certain stipend (when we pay them at all) on the tacit understanding
that they are to keep us free from illness. With the cure of disease
they have no concern. The minute you fall ill, Mr. Taxpayer, you pass
into the hands of your private physician. No longer are you an item of
interest to your health officer, except as you may communicate your
disease to your fellow citizens. If he looks after you at all, it is not
that you may become well, but that others may not become ill through
you. Being less logical in our conduct than the Chinese, we, as a
people, pay little or no heed to the instructions of the public doctors
whom we employ. We grind down their appropriations; we flout the wise
and by no means over-rigorous regulations which they succeed in getting
established, usually against the stupid opposition of unprogressive
legislatures; we permit - nay, we influence our private physicians to
disobey the laws in our interest, preferring to imperil our neighbors
rather than submit to the inconvenience necessary to prevent the spread
of disease; and we doggedly, despite counsel and warning, continue to
poison ourselves perseveringly with bad air, bad water, and bad food,
the three B's that account for 90 per cent. of our unnecessary deaths.
Then, if we are beset by some well-deserved epidemic, we resentfully
demand to know why such things are allowed to occur. For it usually
happens that the virtuous public which fell asleep with a germ in its
mouth, wakes up with a stone in its hand to throw at the health
officer. Considering what we, as a people, do and fail to do, we get, on
the whole, better public health service than we deserve, and worse than
we can afford.


_Our Health Boards and Their Powers_

As a nation, we have no comprehensive health organization. The crying
need for one I shall point out in a future article. Our only Federal
guardianship is vested in the United States Public Health and Marine
Hospital Service, which, by some mystery of governmental construction,
got itself placed in the Treasury Department, where it certainly does
not belong. It is, with the exception of a few ancient political
appointees now relegated to unimportant posts, a highly trained and
efficient body of hygienists and medical men, the best of whom have also
qualified as diplomats in trying crises. Any germ-beleaguered city may
call upon this Service for aid. It is a sort of flying squadron of
sanitative defence. When yellow fever broke out in New Orleans, it was
the M. H. S. men who, working quietly and inconspicuously with the local
volunteers, mapped out the campaign which rid the city of the scourge.
In the San Francisco panic eight years ago, when bubonic plague beset
the city, it was the Marine Hospital Service which restored confidence:
and a Service man has been there ever since as the city's chief adviser.
The Federal "surgeons," as they are called, may be in St. Louis helping
to check smallpox, or in Seattle, blocking the spread of a plague
epidemic, or in Mobile, Alabama, fighting to prevent the establishment
of an unnecessary and injurious quarantine against the city by
outsiders, because of a few cases of yellow jack; and all the while the
Service is studying and planning a mighty "Kriegspiel" against the
endemic diseases in their respective strongholds - malaria, typhoid,
tuberculosis, and the other needless destroyers of life which we have
always with us. In the Marine Hospital Service is the germ of a mighty
force for national betterment.

[Illustration: DR. CHARLES HARRINGTON

SECRETARY OF THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BOARD OF HEALTH, WHICH, BY THE
DISTRIBUTION OF VACCINE AND ANTITOXIN ALONE, HAS SAVED THE STATE
$210,000]

Of the State boards, perhaps a fourth may be regarded as actively
efficient. The rest are honorary and ornamental. Undoubtedly a majority
would be ready and willing to perform the services for which they are
not (as a rule) paid anything; but they lack any appropriation upon
which to work. South Carolina, for example, has an excellent State
board. Its president, Dr. Robert Wilson, is an able and public-spirited
physician of the highest standing; an earnest student of conditions, and
eager for the sanitary betterment of his State. But when he and his
board undertook to get one thousand dollars from the legislature to
demonstrate the feasibility of enforcing the pure food law and of
turning away the decayed meat for which the State is a dumping-ground,
they were blandly informed that there was no money available for that
purpose. It was in South Carolina, by the way, that a medical
politician who served on the public health committee of the legislature
addressed this question to a body of physicians who had come there to
appeal for certain sanitary reforms: "What do you want of laws to
prevent folks being sick? Ain't that the way you make your livin'?"
Which is, I fear, typical of the kind of physicians that go into
politics and get into our legislatures, where, unhappily, they are
usually assigned to the public health committees.

Under the State boards, in the well-organized States, are the county
boards and officers, who report to the State boards and may call upon
the latter for advice or help in time of epidemic or danger.

In certain circumstances the State officials may arbitrarily take
charge. This is done in Indiana, in Maryland, in Pennsylvania, and in
Massachusetts. The last State not only grants extraordinary powers to
its health executive, Dr. Charles Harrington, but it appropriated last
year for the work the considerable sum of $136,000. By the issuance
alone of vaccine and antitoxin, the Board saved to the citizens of the
State $210,000, or $74,000 more than the total appropriation for all the
varied work of the institution. Some vague idea of the economy in lives
which it achieves may be gained from the established fact that death
results in only sixteen out of every thousand cases of diphtheria, when
the antitoxin is given on or before the second day of the illness; 110,
when given on the third day; and 210 when the inoculation is performed
later. The old death rate from diphtheria, before antitoxin was
discovered, ranged from 35 to 50 per cent. of those stricken.

[Illustration: DR. THOMAS DARLINGTON

COMMISSIONER OF HEALTH FOR NEW YORK CITY, WHICH HAS THE MOST THOROUGHLY
ORGANIZED CITY HEALTH DEPARTMENT IN THE UNITED STATES]

Finally, there are the city bureaus, with powers vested, as a
rule, in a medical man designated as "health officer," "agent," or
"superintendent." What Massachusetts is to the State boards, New York
City is to the local boards, but with even greater powers. Under the
charter it has full power to make a sanitary code. Matters ranging from
flat wheels on the Metropolitan Street Railway Company's antiquated
cars, to soft coal smoke belched forth from factory chimneys, are
subject to control by the New York City Department of Health. The Essex
Street resident who keeps a pig in the cellar, and the Riverside Drive
house-holder who pounds his piano at 1 A.M. to the detriment of his
neighbor's slumber, are alike amenable to the metropolis' hired doctors.

[Illustration: DR. CHARLES V. CHAPIN

SUPERINTENDENT OF HEALTH IN PROVIDENCE, RHODE ISLAND, ONE OF THE CITIES
WHICH HAS BEEN FOREMOST IN PROSECUTING PHYSICIANS FOR FAILURE TO GIVE
NOTICE OF INFECTIOUS DISEASE]

The province of the city, State, and Federal health organization is
broad. "Control over all matters affecting the public health" is a
comprehensive term. "All the powers not already given to the school
committees," observed a Massachusetts judge, "are now ceded to the
Boards of Health." In theory, then, almost unlimited powers are vested
in the authorities. But how carefully they must be exercised in order
not to excite public jealousy and suspicion, every city health official
well knows. More serious than interference and opposition, however, is
the lack of any general equipment. At the very outset the loosely allied
army of the public health finds itself lacking in the primal weapon of
the campaign; comprehensive vital statistics.

[Illustration: DR. JOHN N. HURTY

SECRETARY OF THE BOARD OF HEALTH IN INDIANA, WHICH HAS RECENTLY PASSED A
LAW FORBIDDING THE MARRIAGE OF IMBECILES, EPILEPTICS, AND PERSONS
SUFFERING FROM CONTAGIOUS DISEASE]


_Our Absurd Vital Statistics_

Vital statistics in this country are an infant science. Yet they are the
very basis and fundament of any attempt to better the general health.
Knowledge of what is killing us before our time is the first step toward
saving our lives. The Census Bureau does its best to acquire this
essential information. For years Director North has been persistently
hammering away at this point. But progress is slow. Only fifteen States,
representing 48 per cent. of our population, are comprised in the
"registration area"; that is, record all deaths, and forbid burial
without a legal permit giving the cause of death and other details.
Outside of this little group of States, the decedent may be tucked away
informally underground and no one be the wiser for it. This is
convenient for the enterprising murderers, and saves trouble for the
undertakers. Indeed, so interested are the latter class, that in Iowa
they secured the practical repeal of a law which would have brought that
State within the area; and in Virginia this year they snowed under a
similar bill in the legislature, by a flood of telegrams. Ohio, the
third largest State in the Union, keeps no accurate count of the ravages
of disease. Probably not more than 60 per cent. of its deaths are
reported. Why? Inertia, apparently, on the part of the officials who
should take the matter in charge. Governor Harris in his January message
made a strong plea for registration, but without result. As for births,
there is no such thing as general registration of them. So this matter
is neglected, upon which depend such vital factors as school attendance,
factory employment, marriage, military duty, and the very franchise
which is the basis of citizenship. It is curious to note that Uruguay,
in its official tables of comparative statistics, regrets its inability
to draw satisfactory conclusions regarding the United States of America,
because that nation has not yet attained to any scientific method of
treating the subject. Patriotism may wince; but let us not haughtily
demand any explanation from our sneering little neighbor. Explanations
might be embarrassing. For the taunt is well founded.

[Illustration: DR. GEORGE W. GOLER

HEALTH OFFICER OF ROCHESTER, NEW YORK, WHO REFUSES CHILDREN CERTIFICATES
TO WORK IN FACTORIES, UNLESS THE APPLICANTS ARE IN SOUND PHYSICAL
CONDITION]

Is it strange that, having no basis in national statistics, our local
health figures "speak a varied language"? We have no standards even of
death on which to base comparisons. But a dead man is a dead man, isn't
he, whether in Maine or California? Not necessarily and unqualifiedly.
In some Southern cities he may be a "dead colored man," hence thrown out
of the figures on the "white death rate" which we are asked to regard as
the true indication of health conditions. In New Orleans, until
recently, he might be a "death in county hospital," and as such not
counted - this to help produce a low death rate. In Salt Lake City he's a
"dead stranger," and unpopular on account of raising the total figures
for the city. They reckon their total rate there as 16.38, but their
home rate or "real" rate as 10.88. That is to say, less than 11 out of
every 1,000 _residents_ die in a year. If this be true, the Salt Lake
citizens must send their moribund into hasty exile, or give them rough
on rats, so that they may not "die in the house." As for the "strangers
within our gates" who raise the rate over 50 per cent. by their
pernicious activity in perishing, the implication is clear: either Salt
Lake City is one of the deadliest places in the world to a stranger, or
else the newcomers simply commit suicide in large batches out of a
malevolent desire to vitiate the mortality figures. The whole thing is
an absurdity; as absurd as the illiterate and fallacious three-page
leaflet which constitutes this community's total attempt at an annual
health report.

[Illustration: DR. J. MERCIER GREEN

HEALTH OFFICER OF CHARLESTON, SOUTH CAROLINA, WHO STAMPED OUT A SMALLPOX
EPIDEMIC AND REFORMED THE CITY'S WATER SUPPLY]

St. Joseph, Missouri, claimed, one year, a rate of 6.5 deaths out of
every 1,000 inhabitants. Were this figure authentic, the thriving
Missouri city, by the law of probability, should be full of
centenarians. It isn't. I essayed to study the local reports, hoping to
discover some explanation of the phenomenon, but was politely and
regretfully informed that St. Joseph's health authorities issued no
annual reports. The natural explanation of the impossibly low rate is
that the city is juggling its returns. In the first place, that favorite
method of securing a low per capita death rate - estimating a population
greatly in advance of its actual numbers - is indicated; since the
community has fewer lines of sewers and a smaller area of parks than
other cities of the size it claims - two elements which, by the way,
would in themselves tend to militate against a low mortality. Perhaps,
too, the city has that ingenious way of eliminating one disturbing
feature, the deaths under one week or ten days, by regarding them as
"still-births." Chicago used to have this habit; also the trick of
counting out non-residents, who were so thoughtless as to die in the
city. At present, it is counting honestly, I believe. Buffalo used to
pad for publication purposes. One year it vaunted itself as the
healthiest large city in the country. The boast was made on the original
assumption of a population nearly 25,000 in excess of the United States
Census figures, to which 20,000 more was added arbitrarily, the given
reason being a "general belief" that the city had grown to that extent.

Perhaps as complete returns as any are obtained in Maryland, where the
health official, Dr. Price, culls the death notices from 60 papers,
checks up the returns from the official registrars, and if any are
missing, demands an explanation by mail. It behooves the registrar to
present a good excuse. Otherwise he is haled to court and fined. The
Board has thus far never failed to secure a conviction.

Now, if the most concrete and easily ascertainable fact in public health
statistics, the total of deaths, is often qualified or perverted, it
follows that dependent data, such as the assigned causes of death, as
required by law, are still more unreliable; so I shall keep as far away
from statistics as possible except where some specific condition can be
shown by approved figures or by figures so inherently self-disproved
that they carry their own refutation.


_The Criminal Negligence of Physicians_

This unreliability may be set down to the account of the medical
profession. Realizing though they do the danger of concealment from the
proper authorities, and in the face of the law which, as it gives them
special privileges, requires of them a certain return, a considerable
percentage of physicians falsify the returns to protect the
sensibilities of their patrons. That they owe protection rather to the
lives of the public, they never stop to think. Tuberculosis is the
disease most misreported. In many communities it is regarded as a
disgrace to die of consumption. So it is. But the stigma rests upon the
community which permits the ravage of this preventable disease; not upon
the victims of it, except as they contribute to the general lethargy. In
order to save the feelings of the family, a death from consumption is
reported as bronchitis or pneumonia. The man is buried quietly. The
premises are not disinfected, as they should be, and perhaps some
unknowing victim moves into that germ-reeking atmosphere, as into a
pitfall. Let me give an instance. A clergyman in a New York city told me
of a death from consumption in his parish. The family had moved away,
and the following week a young married couple with a six-months-old baby
moved in.

"What can I do about it?" asked the clergyman. "Mr. Blank's death was
said to be from pneumonia; but that was only the final cause. He had
been consumptive for a year."

"Warn the new tenants," I suggested, "and have them ask the Health Board
to disinfect."

More than a year later I met the clergyman on a train and recalled the
case to him. "Yes," he said, "those people thought it was too much
trouble to disinfect, particularly since the reports did not give
tuberculosis as the cause of death. Now their child is dying of
tuberculosis of the intestines."

In this case, had the death been properly reported by the dead man's
physician, as the law required, the City Board would have compelled
disinfection of the house before the new tenants were allowed to move
in. The physician who obligingly falsified that report is morally guilty
of homicide through criminal negligence.

In Salt Lake City, in 1907, 43 deaths were ascribed to
tuberculosis - undoubtedly a broad understatement. And in the face of the
ordinance requiring registration of all cases of consumption, only five
persons were reported as ill of the disease. By all the recognized rules
of proportion, 43 deaths in a year meant at least 500 cases, which,
unreported, and hence in many instances unattended by any measures for
prevention of the spread of infection, constituted so many separate
radiating centers of peril to the whole community.


1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

Online LibraryVariousMcClure's Magazine, Vol. XXXI, No. 3, July 1908. → online text (page 1 of 19)