Notes and Queries, Number 08, December 22, 1849 online

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* * * * *

"When found, make a note of." - CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

* * * * *

NO. 8.]
[Price Threepence. Stamped Edition, 4d.

* * * * *


Otloh, the Scribe, by S.W. Singe
Notes on Cunningham's London, by E. Rimbault
Wives of Ecclesiastics
Tower Royal
Ancient Inscribed Dish, by Albert Way
Barnacles, by W. B. MacCabe
Dorne the Bookseller
Rev. W. Stephen's Sermons
Roger de Coverley
Minor Notes: - Omission of Dei Gratia - Grace's
Card - Florins - John Hopkins the Psalmist
Notes in answer to Minor Queries: - Genealogy of
European Sovereigns - Countess of Pembroke's Letter,
Drayton's Poems, &c. - Viz. the corruption of
Videlicot - Authors of Old Plays - Birthplace of
Coverdale - Caraccioli

Love, the King's Fool
Mare de Saham, &c.
The Advent Bells
The Poets
Mr. Poore's Literary Collections, &c., by S. Britton
The Middle Temple, by E. Foss
Minor Queries: - Henry Lord Darnley - Coffee the
Lacedaemonian Black Broth - Letters of Mrs.
Chiffinch - Sangred - Dowts of Scripture - Catsup - Nation's
Ballads - To endeavour Oneself - Date of
Anonymous Ravennas - Battle of Towton - A Peal of
Bells - Lines quotes by Goethe - MS. Sermons by
Jeremy Taylor - Papers of John Wilkes - John Ross

Notes on Books, Catalogues, Sales, &c.
Books and Odd Volumes wanted
Notices to Correspondents

* * * * *


Sir, - In Dr. Maitland's able vindication of the _Dark Ages_ (p. 419. 1st
ed.), he concludes his interesting extract from the scribe Otloh's
account of himself by saying: - "One would like to know what books they
were which Otlohnus thus multiplied; but this, perhaps, is now
impossible." I have it accidentally in my power to identify two at least
of the number; and if it was his universal practice to subscribe his
name, as he does in these instances, a search into the principal
repositories of MSS. would, no doubt, give a large list. A valuable MS.
volume in my possession has been thus described by a learned
Benedictine: "Codex Membranaceus constans foliis 223 numerando; sæculis
ix. desinente, x. et xi. incipiente, variis manibus scriptus, per partes
qui in unum collectus, ex scriptis variis natidæ scripturæ carlovingicæ,
varia continens: 1° Vita et Passio, seu Martirium S. Dionisii; scripta
fuit ab Hilduino Abbate Coenobii S. Dionisii in Francia sub Ludovico
Pio." It is said that Hilduinus was the first writer who gave the
marvellous story of the saint carrying his own head in his hand for
nearly two miles after his decapitation. But he tells us that he
abridged his narration _ex Græcam et Latinorum Historiis_.

2° Revelatio facta S. Stephano Papæ de consecratione altaris SS. Petri
et Pauli ante Sepulchrum S. Martirii Dionisii quæ consecratio facta fuit
v. kal. Aug. 754. This part of the MS. is remarkable for containing in
one place the date written in Roman ciphers, thus - dccLiiii. v. kl.
aug.; a circumstance so rare in MSS. of this age, as to have astonished
the learned diplomatists Papebroch and Germon.

3° Historia S. Simeonis Trevirensis Solitarii. Of whom it is recorded
that he lived _sub Poppone Episcopo Trevirense, in quædam cellula ad
portam nigram sitâ_. At fol. 36. an interesting account of the death of
the saint is given by the author, who was present, and with the
assistance of two other monks, piously performed his obsequies. It
appears that the abbey of S. Maximin was about 120 paces from the cell
of the saint at Treves, and it is therefore most probable that the
writer was a monk of the Benedictine order then belonging to that
foundation; but he puts his name out of doubt by the following couplet,
inscribed at the end of the narrative: -

"Presbiter et monachus OTLOH quidam vocitatus
Sancte tibi librum BONIFACII tradidit istum."

This dedication of his labours to S. Boniface may only indicate his
veneration for the national saint; but, as he tells us he worked a great
deal in the monastery at Fulda (of which S. Boniface was the patron
saint and founder), may not this have been one of his labours there? At
a subsequent period, it appears, he revised and amplified Wilibald's
_Life of Boniface_.

I must summarily indicate the other contents of this interesting MS.,
which are: 4. Passio SS Sebastiani et Vincentii. 5. Vita S. Burchardi.
6. Vita et Passio S. Kiliani (genere Scoti). 7. Vita S. Sole. 8. Vita S.
Ciri. 9. Depositio S. Satiri. 10. Alphabetum Græcum. 11. Officio pro
Choro cum notis musicis, pro festo S. Pancratii; sequitur ipsiis
martiriis passio. 12. Vita S. Columbani [this is anonymous, but is
attributed to his disciple Jonas, and contains much valuable historical
matter]. Lastly, 13. Vita S. Wolfgangi, by the hand of our interesting
scribe OTLOH, written at the instance of the Benedictine Coenobites of
his monastery of S. Emmeram, at Ratisbon, where the saint was buried.
This, as in the case of the _Life of S. Boniface_, is a _rifaccimento_;
it was made from two older lives of S. Wolfgang, as Otloh himself tells
us, one of them by a certain monk named Arnolfus, the other having been
brought out of France. He is here, therefore, more an author than a
scribe; but he declares modestly that it was a task he would willingly
avoid for the future. The passage of his Preface is worth transcribing:
"Fratrum quorundam nostrorum hortatu sedulo infimus ego, O coenobitarum
S. Emmerammi compulsus sum S. Wolfgangi vitam in libellulis duobus
dissimili interdum, et impolita materie descriptam in unum colligere, et
aliquantulum sublimiori modo corrigere.... Multa etiam quæ in libro
neutro inveniebantur, fidelium quorundam attestatione compertâ addere
studui, sicque quædam addendo, quædam vero fastidiose vel inepte dicta
excerpendo, pluraque etiam corrigendo, sed et capitularia præponendo.
Vobis O fratres mei exactoresque hujus rei prout ingenioli mei parvitas
permisit obedivi. Jam rogo cessate plus tale quid exigere a me." At the
end of the Life he has written: -

"Presul Wolfgange cunctis semper vererande
Hæc tua qui scripsi jam memor esto milii
Presbiter et Monachus Otloh quidam vocitatus
Sancte tibi librum Bonifacii tradidit istum."

We have here sufficient evidence that Otloh was a worthy predecessor of
the distinguished Benedictines to whom the world of letters has been so
deeply indebted in more recent times.

Dr. Maitland's mention of the calligraphic labours of the nun Diemudis,
Otloh's contemporary, is not a solitary instance: in all ages, the world
has been indebted to the pious zeal of these recluse females for the
multiplication of books of devotion and devout instruction. An instance,
of so late a date as the eve of the invention of printing, now lies
before me, in a thick volume, most beautifully written by fair hands
that must have been long practised in the art. As the colophon at the
end preserves the names of the ladies, and records that the parchment
was charitably furnished by their spiritual father, I think it worth
transcribing: -

"Expliciunt, Deo laus omnipotente, quinque libri de VITA &
TRICI et GHEEZE YSENOUDI in festivus diebus suis consororibus
dilectis in memoriam earum. Finiti ano dni M° CCCC° XLIX° in festo
decollationis Sci Johannis baptiste ante sumam missam. Et habebant
ad hoc pergamenum sibi ex caritate provisum de venerabi li
presbitero Dno NICOLAO WYT tunc temporis earundem patre spirituali
& sibi ipsiis spiritualiter ac in Dno sat reverenter dilectio. Ex
caritativo amore sitis propter Deum memores eorum cum uno AVE

I omitted to mention that Massmann, in his _Kleinen Sprachdenkmale des
VIII. bis XII. Jahrhunderts_, Leipsig, 1830, p. 50, says: "The
Benedictine priest Otloh, of Regensburg, left behind him a work, _De
Ammonicione Clericorum et Laicorum_, in which is twice given a Latin
prayer (Cod. Monacens. Emmeram. f. cxiii. mbr. sæc. xi.), at fol. 51.
_d_., as _Oratio ejus qui et suprascripta et sequentia edidit dicta_,
and at fol. 158. as _Oratio cuidam peccatoris_." On fol. 161. _b_. is an
old German version, first printed by Pez (Thes. i. 417.), corrected by
Graff. Diutiska, 111. 211., by Massmann, at p. 168. Otloh mentions in
this prayer the destruction of his monastery of St. Emmeram, which took
place in 1062.

I have advisedly called him Otloh, and not Otlohnus.


Mickleham, Dec. 10. 1849.

* * * * *


No. 1. "_Gerrard Street, Soho._ * * * At the Turk's Head, in Gerrard
Street, Johnson and Sir Joshua Reynolds founded, in the year 1764, 'The
Literary Club.'"

It would appear from the following extracts in my Common-place Book,
that the _original_ Turk's Head, at which the Literary Club first held
their meetings, was in _Greek_ Street, Soho, not in Gerrard Street: -

"The Literary Club was first held at the Turk's Head in Greek
Street, which tavern was almost half a century since removed to
Gerrard Street, where it continued nearly as long as the house was
kept open." - _European Mag._ Jan. 1803.

"The Turk's Head, in Gerrard Street, Soho, was, more than fifty
years since, removed from a tavern of the same sign the corner of
Greek and Compton Streets. This place was a kind of head-quarters
for the Loyal Association during the rebellion of 1745." - Moser's
_Memorandum Book_, MS. dated 1799.

No. 2. _Storey's Gate, Birdcage Walk, St. James's Park._ - I have seen it
stated, but do not recollect where, that "Storey's" was a house of
public entertainment. "Webb's," mentioned in the following extracts, was
also a place of a similar description: -

"April 25. 1682. - About nine, this night, it began to lighten,
thunder, and rain. The next morning, there was the greatest flood
in St. James's Park ever remembered. It came round about the
fences, and up to the gravel walks - people could not walk to
_Webb's_ and _Storie's_.

"April 3, 1685. - This afternoon nine or ten houses were burned or
blown up, that looked into S. James's Park, between _Webb's_ and
_Storie's_." - _Diary of Phillip Madox_, MS. formerly in the
possession of Thorpe the bookseller.

No. 3. _Capel Court_. - So named from Sir William Capell, draper, Lord
Mayor in 1503, whose mansion stood on the site of the present Stock
Exchange. - Pennant's _Common-place Book_.

No. 4. _Bloomsbury Market_. - This market, built by the Duke of Bedford,
was opened in March, 1730. Query, was there a market on the site
before? - _Ibid_.

No. 5. _Bartlet's Buildings_. - _Mackeril's Quaker Coffee-house_,
frequently mentioned at the beginning of the last century, was in these
buildings. - _Ibid_.

No. 6. _St. Olave's, Crutched Friars_. - Names of various persons who
have occupied houses in this parish: Lady Sydney, 1586 - Lady Walsingham,
1590 - Lady Essex, 1594 - Lord Lumley, 1594 - Viscount Sudbury,
1629 - Philip Lord Herbert, 1646 - Dr. Gibbon, 1653 - Sir R. Ford,
1653 - Lord Brounker, 1673 - Sir Cloudesley Shovel, 1700 - _Extracts from
the Registers made by the Rev. H. Goodhall_, 1818.


* * * * *


In reply to your correspondent's query as to the "wives of
ecclesiastics," I find amongst my notes one to this effect: -

ERROR, to assume in ancient genealogies that a branch is
necessarily extinct, simply because the last known representative
is described as "Clericus," and _ergo_, must have died S.P.L.

It will be obvious to many of your readers that Clericus is _nomen
generale_ for all such as were learned in the arts of reading and
writing, and whom the old law deemed capable of claiming benefit of
clergy, - a benefit not confined to those in orders, if the ordinary's
deputy standing by could say "_legit ut clericus_."

The title of Clericus, then, in earlier times as now, belonged not only
to those in the holy ministry of the Church, and to whom more strictly
applied the term Clergy, either regular or secular, but to those as well
who by their function or course of life practised their pens in any
court or otherwise, as Clerk of the King's Wardrobe, Clerks of the
Exchequer, &c. Though in former times clerks of this description were
frequently in holy orders and held benefices, it must be evident that
they were not all so of necessity; and the instances are so numerous
where persons having the title of "Clericus" appear nevertheless to have
been in the married state, and to have discharged functions incompatible
with the service of the Church, that the assertion will not be denied
that the restrictions as to contracting matrimonial alliances did not
extend to clerks not in holy orders or below the grade of _subdiaconus_.
The _Registrum Brevium_ furnishes a precedent of a writ, "_De clerico
infra sacros ordines constituto non eligendo in officium_." This
distinction alone would prove that other clerks were not ineligible to
office. The various decrees of the Church may be cited to show that the
prohibition to marry did not include all clerks generally. Pope Gregory
VII., in a synod held in 1074, "interdixit clericis, maxime divino
ministerio consecratis uxores habere, vel cum mulicribus habitare, nisi
quas Nicena Synodus vel alii canones exceperunt."

The statutes made by Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas,
Archbishop elect of York, and all the other bishops of England, in 1108,
in presence of King Henry I., and with the assent of his barons, confine
the interdiction respecting marriages to _Presbyteri, Diaconi et
Subdiaconi_, and a provision is made by them for those cases where
marriages had been contracted since the interdict at the Council of
London (that probably in 1103), viz. that such should be precluded
thereafter from celebrating mass, if they persist in retaining their
wives. "Illi vero presbyteri, diaconi, subdiaconi, qui post interdictum
Londoniensis Concilii foeminas suas tenuerunt vel alins duxcrunt, si
amplius missam celebrare voluerint, eas a se omnino sic facient alienas,
ut nec illae in domos eorum, nec ipsi in domos earum intrent.... Illi
autem presbyteri qui divini altaris et sacrorum ordinum contemptores
praelegerint cum mulicribus habitare a divino officio remoti, omnique
ecclesiastico beneficio privati, extra chorum ponantur, infames
pronunciati. Qui vero rebellis et contemptor foeminam non reliquerit, et
missam celebrare presumpserit, vocatus ad satisfactionem si neglexerit,
viiij. die excommunicetur. Eadem sententia archidiaconos et cononicos
omnes complectitur, et de mulieribus relinquendis et de vitanda carum
conversatione, et de districtione censurae si statuta transgressi
fuerint.... Presbyteri vero qui relictis mulieribus, Deo et sacris
altaribus servire elegerint, xl. dies ab officio cessantes, pro se
interim vicarios habebunt, injuncta eis poenitentia secundum hoc quod
episcopis corum visum fuerit." In 1138 the penalty for priests marrying
was deprivation of their benefices, and exclusion from the celebration
of divine service: - "Sanctorum patrum vestigiis inhaerentes,
presbyteros, diaconos, subdiaconos uxoratos, aut concubinarios,
ecclesiasticis officiis et beneficiis privamus, ac ne quis eorum missam
audire praesumat Apostolica auctoriate prohibemus."

Many such decrees have been made at various synods and councils holden
for reformation of the clergy, but I can find none wherein marriage is
interdicted to clerks generally. I will refer to one more only, viz.
that made in the Council of London, held at Westminster in 1175. Here it
will be seen most distinctly that the prohibition against entering the
marriage state was confined expressly to _Clerici in sacris ordinibus
constituti_, and that is was not only lawful for clerks below the grade
of subdeacon to marry, but that having subsequently once entered the
marriage state and being subsequently desirous _ad religionem transire_,
and to continue in the service of the Church, they could not do so and
be separated from their wives unless _de communi consensu_; if they
continued, however, to live with their wives, they could not hold an
ecclesiastical benefice: "Si quis sacerdos vel clericus in sacris
ordinibus constitutus, ecclesiam vel ecclesiasticum beneficium habens
publice fornicarium habeat," &c.... "Si qui vero infra subdiaconatum
constituti matrimonia contraxerint, ab uxoribus sius nisi de communi
consensu ad religionem transire voluerint, et ibi in Dei servitio
vigilanter permanere, nullatenus separentur: sed cum uxoribus viventes,
ecclesiastica benficia nullo modo percipiant. Qui autem in subdiaconatu,
vel supra, ad matrimonia convolaverint, mulieres etiam invitas et
renitentes relinquant."

This it will be seen that the title "Clericus" under some circumstances,
affords no certain indication that a lawful marriage may not have been
contracted by the person so described and consequently that he might not
have _prolem legitimam_.


It does not follow that William de Bolton was an ecclesiastic because he
was called Clericus; that designation being, even in that early time,
often used in a lay sense.

I have just come across an instance of a prior date. In the Liberate
Roll of 26 Henry III. the king directs a payment to be made "to
Isabella, the wife of our beloved clerk, Robert of Canterbury, to
purchase a robe for our use." Even in the reign of Richard I. it may be
doubtful whether the term was not used with both meanings; for in the
charter of Walter Mapes, granting certain lands, among the witnesses are
"Rogero, capellano, Willelmo, capellano, Thoma, _clerico meo_, Waltero,
clerico, Jacobo, clerico, Bricio, fermario meo."

[Symbol: Phi]

[In addition to the information afforded by the preceding
communications "A SUBSCRIBER" will find much curious illustration
of this subject in Beveridge's _Discourses on the Thirty-Nine
Articles_, where he treats of the Thirty-second article "On the
Marriage of Priests."

He must however consult the edition printed at the Oxford
University Press in 1840, which contains for the first time
Beveridge's _Discourses on the last Nine Articles_.]

* * * * *


Sir, - In your second number I find a query by Mr. Cunningham, respecting
the origin of the name of _Tower Royal_; although I cannot
satisfactorily explain it, I enclose a few notes relative to the early
history of that place, which may, perhaps, afford a clue to its

In early records it is invariably called "la Real," "la Reole," "la
Riole," or "la Ryal or Ryole;" and it is described simply as a
"tenement;" I have never found an instance of its being called a
"tower". At the close of the reign of Henry III. it was held by one
Thomas Bat, citizen of London, who demised it to Master Simon of
Beauvais, surgeon to Edward I.; this grant was confirmed by that
sovereign by charter in 1277. (Rot. Cart. 5 Edw. I. m. 17. - Placita de
Quo Warranto, p. 461.) This Simon of _Beauvais_ figures in Stow and
Pennant as Simon de Beawmes. In 1331 Edward III. granted "la Real" to
his consort Philippa, for the term of her life, that is might be used as
a depository for her wardrobe. (Rot. Pat. 4 Edw. III. 2nd part, m. 15.)
By Queen Philippa it was extensively repaired, if not rebuilt, and the
particulars of the works executed there by her direction, may be seen in
the Wardrobe Account of the sixth year of her reign, preserved in the
Cottonian MS. Galba E iii. fo. 177, et seq.; this account is erroneously
attributed in the catalogue to Eleanor, consort of Edward I. One Maria
de Beauvais, probably a descendant of Master Simon, received
compensation for quitting a tenement which she held at the time
Philippa's operations commenced. In 1365 Edward III. granted to Robert
de Corby, in fee, "one tenement in the street of la Ryole, London" to
hold by the accustomed services. Finally, in 1370 Edward gave the "inn
(hospitium) with its appurtenances called le Reole, in the city of
London," to the canons of St. Stephen's, Westminster, as of the yearly
value of 20_l_. (Rot. Pat. 43 Edw. III. m. 24.)

It is sufficiently clear that in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries
this place was not called _Tower Royal_; nor does there appear to be any
ground for supposing it was so named in earlier times, or, indeed, that
it was ever occupied by royalty before it became Philippa's wardrobe.
The question, therefore is narrowed to this point: - what is the
significance of "la Real, Reole, or Riole?" I should be glad if any of
your correspondents would give their opinions on the subject. I may add,
that the building was in the parish of St. Thomas Apostle, not in that
of St. Michael Pater Noster Church, as Stow wrote. (Rot. Pat. 4 Edw.
III. 2nd part, m. 38.)


Let me refer Mr. P. Cunningham to "Stow's _Survey_, p. 27. 92. Thoms'
Edition," for a full answer to his query. The passages are too long to
cite, but Mr. C. will find sufficient proof of the part of a royal
residence having once stood in this obscure lane, now almost demolished
in the sweeping city improvements, which threaten in time to leave us
hardly a fragment of the London of the old chronicler.

The Tower was also called the Queen's Wardrobe, and it was there,
Froissart tells us, that Joan of Kent, the mother of Richard II., took
refuge during Wat Tyler's rebellion, when forced to fly from the Tower
of London. The old historian writes that after the defeat of the rebels
"pour le premier chemin que le Roy fit, il vint deuers sa Dame de mère,
la Princesse, qui estoit en un chastel _de la Riolle_ (que l'on dit la
Garderobbe la Reyne) et là s'estoit tenue deux jours et deux nuits,
moult ébahie; et avoit bien raison. Quand elle vit le Roy son fils, elle
fut toute rejouye, et luy dit, 'Ha ha beau fils, comment j'ay eu
aujourd'huy grand peine et angoisse pour vous.' Dont respondit le Roy,
et dit, 'Certes, Madame, je le say bien. Or vous rejouissez et louez
Dieu, car il est heure de le louer. J'ay aujourd'huy recouvré mon
heritage et le royaume d'Angleterre, que j'avoye perdu.' Ainsi se tint
le Roy ce jour delez sa mère." (Froissart, ii 123. Par. 1573.)

In Stow's time this interesting locality had been degraded into stable
for the king's horses, and let out in divers tenements.


[We are indebted to J.E., R.T.S., and other correspondents for
replies to Mr. Cunningham's Query; but as their answers contain
only general references to works which it is reasonable to suppose
that gentleman must have consulted during the preparation of his
_Handbook for London_ we have not thought it necessary to insert

* * * * *


Mr. Editor, - The subject of inscribed dishes of latten, of which so many
varieties have recently been imported, appears to be regarded with
interest by several of your readers. I am indebted to the Rev. William
Drake, of Coventry, for a rubbing from one of these mysterious
inscriptions, upon an "alms-plate" in his possession. In the centre is
represented the Temptation. There are two inscribed circles;
on the inner and broader one appear letters, which have been
read, - RAHEWISHNBY. They are several times repeated. On the exterior
circle is the legend On the exterior circle is the legend - ICH. SART.
GELUK. ALZEIT. This likewise is repeated, so as to fill the entire
circle. I have never before met with these inscriptions in the large
number of dishes of this kind which I have examined. The have been
termed alms-dishes, and are used still in parochial collections in
France, as doubtless they have been in England. They were also used in
ancient times in the ceremony of baptism, and they are called baptismal
basins, by some foreign writers. This use is well illustrated by the
very curious early Flemish painting in the Antwerp Gallery, representing
the seven sacraments. The acolyte, standing near the font, bears such a
dish, and a napkin. The proper use of these latten dishes was, as I

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