Notes and Queries, Number 28, May 11, 1850 online

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printed in Latin with a translation on the same page, and which is very
similar in appearance to Udal's), printed at Zurich in 1535, 4to., with
a Preface by Johansen Zwikk of Constance, the 7th verse is given (as it
was in the Latin); but is distinguished by being printed in brackets,
and in both verses we have -

"Unnd die drey dienend in eins."

Erasmus having admitted the verse into his third edition, gave occasion
perhaps to the liberty which has been taken in later times to print both
verses, with this distinction, in editions of the Lutheran version. The
earliest edition, I believe, in which it thus appears, is one at
Wittemberg in 1596, which was repeated in 1597, 1604, 1605[2], and 1625.
It also appears, but printed in smaller type, in the Hamburgh Bible by
Wolder in 1597, in that of Jena 1598, and in Hutter's Nuremburg, 1599.

In a curious edition of the N.T. printed at Wandesbeck in 1710, in 4to.,
in which four German versions, the Catholic, the Lutheran, the Reformed,
a new version by Reitz, and the received Dutch version, are printed in
parallel columns, both verses are given in every instance; but a note
points out that Luther uniformly omitted the 7th verse, and the words
_auf erde_.

There cannot be a doubt, therefore, that the insertion is entirely
unwarranted in any edition of the New Testament professing to be
_Luther's_ translation.


April 25. 1850.

[Footnote 1: "Ich bitte alle meine Freunde, und Feinde, meine
Meister Drücker und Leser, wolten dis Newe Testament lassen mein
sein, Haben sie aber mangel dran, das sie selbs ein eigens für
sich machen; Ich weiss wol was ich mache, Sehe auch wol was
andere machen, Aber dis Testament sol des Luther's Deudsch
Testament sein, Denn Meisterns und Klugelus ist jtzt weder masse
noch ende. Und sey jederman gewarnet für andern Exemplaren, Denn
ich bisher wol erfaren wie unfvleissig und falsch uns andere

[Footnote 2: Fr. Er. Kettner, who printed at Leipsic, in 1696, a
long and strenuous defence of the authenticity of the 7th verse,
exults in the existence of this verse in an edition of the
Bible, Wittemberg, 1606, which is falsely said on the title-page
to be _juxta ultimum a Luthero revisum exemplar correctum_.]

_Luther's Translation of the Bible_ (No. 25, p. 309.). - De Wette, in his
critical Commentary on the verse 1 John, after stating his opinion that
the controverted passage is a spurious interpolation, gives a list of
the codices and editions in which the passage is not found, and of those
in which it is found.

The passage is _wanting_ in all Greek Codd. except Codd. 34. 162. 172.
(of his introduction, where it is introduced from the Vulgate), and in
all MS. {454} of the Vulgate before the tenth century; in Erasmus' edit.
of 1516 and 1518; in Ald. Ed. Venet. 1518; in all editions of Luther's
translation published by him during his life-time, and up to 1581; in
the edit. Withenb., 1607; Hamb. 1596. 1619. 1620.

The passage is _found_ in all the editions printed of the Vulgate, and
in all translations from it before Luther; and the edit. complut.; in
Erasmus' of 1522, and in his paraphrase; in the edit. of Rob. Stephens,
1546-69; and Beza, 1565-76. 1582; in the Lutheran translations reprinted
by Froschauer, Zurich, 1529-31. (but in small type); edit. 1536-89. in
brackets; edit. 1597, without the brackets; in the edit. Frankf. 1593;
Wittenb. 1596-97, and many later ones. I may add, that the passage is in
every edition of recent date that I have seen of the Lutheran Bible, but
not, of course, in De Wette's translation.


* * * * *


In reply to one of the Queries of "W." (No. 24. p. 383.), I transcribe
from the MSS. of Mr. Chewning Blackmore, a Presbyterian minister of
Worcester, the "Lines on London Dissenting Ministers of a former Day,"
which I have never seen entire in print: -

"Behold how Papal Wright with lordly pride
Directs his haughty eye to either side,
Gives forth his doctrine with imperious nod,
And fraught with pride addresses e'en his God.

"Not so the gentle Watts, in him we find
The fairest pattern of a humble mind;
In him the meekest, lowliest virtue dwells,
As mild as light, as soft as ev'ning gales.

"Tuning melodious nonsense, Bradbury stands,
With head uplifted and with dancing hands,
Prone to sedition, and to slander free,
Sacheverell sure was but a type of thee.

"Mark how the pious matrons flock around,
Pleased with the noise of Guyse's empty sound;
How sweetly each unmeaning period flows
To lull the audience to a gentle doze!

"Eternal Bragge in never-ending strains
Unfolds the mysteries Joseph's coat contains,
Of every hue describes a different cause,
And from each patch a solemn mystery draws.

"With soundest judgment and with nicest skill,
The learned Hunt explains his Master's will,
So just his meaning, and his sense to true,
He only pleases the discerning few.

"In Chandler's solid, well-composed discourse,
What wond'rous energy! what mighty force!
Still, friend to Truth, and strict to Reason's rules,
He scorns the censure of unthinking fools.

"But see the accomplish'd orator appear,
Refined his language, and his reasoning dear,
Thou only, Foster, has the pleasing art,
At once to please the ear and mend the heart!

"Lawrence, with clear and solid judgment speaks,
And on the sober mind impression makes,
The sacred truths with justness he explains,
And he from ev'ry hearer praise obtains."

Of the author of these lines I can give no information. He evidently
belonged to the Anti-Calvinistic party. His name does not appear to have
been known to Mr. Walter Wilson, the historian of the "Dissenting
Churches" of London, although he quotes a portion of them. But they were
probably composed between 1728 and 1738. In the former year, Dr. James
Foster's London popularity arose, on the occasion of his undertaking the
evening lecture at the Old Jewry. In the year 1738, Mr. Robert Bragge,
one of the subjects of the poem, died. Of this gentleman the story is
told (and to it the poem evidently alludes), that he was employed no
less than four months in developing the mysteries of Joseph's coat, from
Genesis, xxxvii. 3.: "And he made him a coat of many colours." In reply
to the sarcasm on Mr. Bragge, Mr. Walter Wilson states (_Hist. and Ant.
of Diss._ ch. i. p. 247.) that the following stanza was composed: -

"The unwearied Bragge, with zeal, in moving strains,
Unfolds the mysteries Scripture-Book contains;
Marks every truth, of error shows the cause,
And from each mystery useful doctrine draws."

The unfavourable notice of Dr. Sam. Wright in the opening stanza, is at
variance with the general report of biographers. In the copy of the
verses in the Blackmore MSS. is this note: - "I think this is too severe
on the Dr." Dr. Wright was admired for his pulpit elocution; and it is
said that Archbishop Herring was, in his younger years, a frequent
hearer of his, with a view to improve in elocution. The notice of the
celebrated Tom Bradbury is grossly unjust. He was a man of wit and
courage, though sometimes boisterous and personal. His unsparing
opponent, Dr. Caleb Fleming, wrote admiringly of "his musical voice, and
the flow of his periods, adapting scripture language to every
purpose." - _The Character of the Rev. Mr. Thos. Bradbury, taken from his
own Pen, &c._ Lond. 8vo. 1749, p. 35.



* * * * *


_Tracts by Dekker and Nash._ - _The Raven's Almanacke_, 1609, is the
production of Thomas Dekker, the dramatist, and one of the rarest of his
numerous works. A copy sold in the _Gordonstown_ sale for seven guineas;
and another occurred in Mr. J.H. Bright's collection (No. 1691.); but I
have not the sale catalogue at hand to quote the price. Dekker was also
the author of a similar work, entitled _The Owle's Almanacke_, 1618; but
it is not mentioned in the lists furnished by {455} Lowndes and Dr.
Nott. The latter is indeed very inaccurate, omitting many well-known
productions of the author, and assigning others to him for which he is
not answerable. Whilst upon the subject of Dekker, I cannot resist
mentioning a fraud upon his memory which has, I believe, escaped the
notice of bibliographers. In 1697 was published a small volume,
entitled, _The Young Gallant's Academy, or Directions how he should
behave himself in an Ordinary, in a Playhouse, in a Tavern, &c., with
the Character of a Town-Huff, by Samuel Vincent_. This is nothing more
than a reprint of Dekker's _Gull's Horn-book_, with some slight
alterations to adapt it to the times.

Nash's _Terrors of the Night, or a Discourse of Apparitions_, was
printed by John Danter for William Jones, 1594. It is a very interesting
tract, and contains many personal allusions to its unfortunate author. A
copy was sold in Heber's sale (Part IV. No. 1592.) for 5l. 18s. A note
in the handwriting of that distinguished collector gives us the
following information: -

"Only two other copies are known to exist, one in the Ashbridge
Library at Cleveland House, the other, not so fine as the
present, bought by Malone at Brand's, since James Boswell's, and
now (1825) _penes_ me, R.H."

All things considered, I think your correspondent "J.E." (p. 400.) _may_
congratulate himself on having "met with a prize."


_Nash's Terrors of the Night._ - Excessively rare. Boswell had a copy,
and another is in the library of the Earl of Ellesmere, described in Mr.
Collier's _Bridgewater Catalogue_ as one of the worst of Nash's tracts.


_Tureen_ (No. 25. p. 407.). - The valuable reference to Knox proves the
etymology from the Latin. _Terrene_, as an adjective, occurs in old
English. See quotation in Halliwell, p. 859.


_English Translations of Erasmus' Encomium Moriæ_ (No. 24. p.
385.). - Sir Thomas Challoner's translation of Erasmus' _Praise of Folly_
was first printed, I believe, in 1540. Subsequent impressions are dated
1549, 1569, 1577. In 1566, William Pickering had a license "for
pryntinge of a mery and pleasaunt history, donne in tymes paste by
Erasmus Roterdamus," which possibly might be an impression of the
_Praise of Folly_. (See Collier's _Extracts from the Registers of the
Stationers' Company_, vol. i. p. 125.). This popular work was again
translated in the latter part of the following century, by White Kennet.
It was printed at Oxford in 1683, under the title of _Wit against
Wisdom, or a Panegyric upon Folly_. This is in all probability the
intermediate translation inquired after by your correspondent.


In answer to "JARLZBERG," I beg to inform him of the following
translation of Erasmus' _Praise of Folly_: -

"Moriæ Encomium, or the Praise of Folly, made English from the
Latin of Erasmus by W. Kennet, of S. Edm. Hall, Oxon, now Lord
Bishop of Peterborough. Adorn'd with 46 copper plates, and the
effigies of Erasmus and Sir Thos. More, all neatly engraved from
the designs of the celebrated Hans Holbeine. 4th edition. 1724."

Kennett, however, in his preface, dated 1683, alludes to two other
translations, and to Sir Thomas Challoner's as the _first_. He does not
mention the name of the second translator, but alludes to him as "_the
modern translator_," and as having lost a good deal of the wit of the
book by having "tied himself so strictly to a literal observance of the
Latin." This is his excuse for offering to the public a third
translation, in which he professes to have allowed himself such
"elbow-room of expression as the humoursomeness of the subject and the
idiom of the language did invite."


The intermediate translation of the _Moriæ Encomium_ of Erasmus, to
which your correspondent refers, is that by John Wilson, 8vo. London
1661, of which there is a copy in the Bodleian.



_Court of Wards._ - I cannot tell "J.B." (No. 11. p. 173.) anything about
Mr. D'Israeli's researches in the Court of Wards; but "J.B." may be glad
to know that there is among the MSS. in the British Museum a treatise on
the Court of Wards. I remember seeing it, but have not read it. I dare
say it might be usefully published, for we know little in detail about
the Court of Wards.


_Scala Coeli_ (No. 23. p. 366.). - In Foxe's _Acts and Mon._, vol. v. p.
364., Lond. 1838, your Querist may see a copy of a grant from Pope
Clement VII. in 1526, to the brethren of a Boston guild, assuring them
that any member thereof who should enter the Lady Chapel in St.
Botolph's Church, Boston, once a quarter, and say there "a Paternoster,
Ave Maria, and Creed, shall have the full remission due to them that
visit the Chapel of Scala Scoeli."


_Twm Shawn Cattie_ (No. 24, p. 383.). - The following extract from
Cliffe's _Book of South Wales_, furnishes a reply to this Query.

In describing the beautiful mountain scenery between Llandovery and
Tregaron, he says: -

"High in the rock above the fall yawns a hole, hardly a cavern,
where once lurked a famous freebooter of Wales, Twm Sion Catti:
the entrance to this cave is through a narrow aperture, formed
of two immense slate rocks, which face each other, and the space
between them is narrower at the bottom than the top, so {456}
that the passage can only be entered sideways, with the figure
inclined according to the slanting of the rock.

"The history of Twm Sion Catti (pronounced Toom Shone Catti),
alias Thomas Jones, Esq., is very romantic. He was a natural son
of John ap David Moethe, by Catharine, natural daughter of
Meredydd ap Ivan ap Robert, grandfather of Sir John Wynne, of
Gwydir (see _The Heraldic Visitations of Wales_, published by
the Welsh MSS. Society), and is said to have died in 1630, at
the age of 61. In early life, 'he was a notorious freebooter and
highwayman,' and levied black mail on the country within reach
of his mountain abode, with the aid of a small band of
followers. He soon reformed, married a rich heiress, was then
created a justice of peace for Brecon, and ultimately became
sheriff of that county and Carmarthenshire. He was, observes Sir
S.R. Meyrick, esteemed as an antiquarian and poet, but is more
known for the tricks attributed to him as a robber."


_Twm Sion Catti._ - The noted robber, Twm Sion or Shôn Catti, referred to
at No. 24. p. 383., was a Welshman who flourished between the years 1590
and 1630. He was the natural son of Sir John Wynne, and obtained his
surname of Catti from the appellation of his mother Catherine. In early
life he was a brigand of the most audacious character, who plundered and
terrified the rich in such a manner that his name was a sufficient
warrant for the raising of any sum which he might desire; while his
unbounded generosity to the poor or unprotected, joined to an innate
love of fun and frolic - for he was a very Eulenspiegel - made him the
darling of the people. His chosen dwelling-place was in the almost
inaccessible cave situated near Llandovery, at the junction of the Tywi
and the Dethia (the Toothy of Drayton), which still bears his name. As
time passed on, he wooed and won the heiress of Ystrad-ffin, in the vale
of Tywi; and on becoming possessed of her property, abandoned his wild
life, and with it the name of Catti; and quietly subsiding into Thomas
Jones, Esq., became a poet and antiquary of high reputation. In addition
to which, and as if to mark their sense of the value of a man so
powerful for good or for evil, the government appointed him high sheriff
for the county of Carmarthen. He died universally respected, and left a
name which yet kindles many a Welsh heart, or amuses many a cottage
circle in the long nights of winter.

His life has been published in an 8vo. volume, which was probably the
work to which the "Note" of "MELANION" referred.


_Cheshire Round_ (No. 24. p. 383.). - A dance so called, peculiar to the
county from whence it takes its name. The musical notes of the _Cheshire
Round_ may be seen in _The Dancing Master_, 1721, vol. i., and in Edward
Jones' _Cheshire Melodies_. It was sometimes danced "longways for as
many us will" (as described in _The Dancing Master_), but more
frequently by one person. A handbill of the time of William the Third
states, "In Bartholomew Fair, at the Coach-House on the Pav'd stones at
Hosier-Lane-End, you shall see a Black that dances the _Cheshire Rounds_
to the admiration of all spectators." Michael Root and John Sleepe, two
clever caterers of "Bartlemy," also advertise "a little boy that dances
the _Cheshire Round_ to perfection." There is a portrait of Dogget the
celebrated comedian (said to be the only one extant, but query if it is
not Penkethman?), representing him dancing the _Cheshire Round_, with
the motto "_Ne sutor ultra crepidam_."


_Horns to a River._ - Why the poets give horns to rivers, must be sought
for in the poet's book, nature. I like the interpretation given by a
glance up some sinuous and shelving valley, where the mighty stream,
more than half lost to the eye, is only seen in one or two of its bolder
reaches, as it tosses itself here to the right, and there to the left,
to find a way for its mountain waters.

The third question about horns I am not able to answer. It would be
interesting to know where your correspondent has found it in late Greek.


Oxford, April 16. 1850.

_Horns._ - For answer to the third Query of "L.C." (No. 24. p. 383.), I
subscribe the following, from Coleridge: -

"Having quoted the passage from Shakspeare,

"'Take thou no scorn
To wear the horn, the lusty horn;
It was a crest ere thou wert born."

_As You Like It_, Act iv. sc. 2.

"I question (he says), whether there exists a parallel instance of a
phrase, that, like this of 'Horns,' is universal in all languages, and
yet for which no one has discovered even a plausible origin." - _Literary
Remains_, vol. i. p. 120. Pickering, 1849.


_Coal Brandy_ (No. 22. p. 352.). - This is only a contraction of "coaled
brandy," that is, "burnt brandy," and has no reference to the _purity_
of the spirit. It was the "universal pectoral" of the last century; and
more than once I have seen it prepared by "good housewives" and
"croaking husbands" in the present, pretty much as directed in the
following prescription. It is only necessary to remark, that the
orthodox method of "coaling," or setting the brandy on fire, was
effected by dropping "a live coal" ("_gleed_") or red-hot cinder into
the brandy. This is copied from a leaf of paper, on the other side of
which are written, in the hand of John Nourse, the great publisher of
scientific books in his day, some errata in the first 8vo. edit. of
Simsons's Euclid, and hence may be referred to the year 1762. It was
written evidently by some {457} "dropper-in," who found "honest John"
suffering from a severe cold, and upon the first piece of paper that
came to hand. The writer's caligraphy bespeaks age, and the punctuation
and erasures show him to have been a literary man, and a careful though
stilted writer. It is not, however, a hand of which I find any other
exemplars amongst Nourse's correspondence.

"Take two glasses of the best brandy, put them into a cup which
may stand over the fire; have two long wires, and put an ounce
of sugar-candy upon the wires, and set the brandy on fire. Let
it burn till it is put out by itself, and drink it before you go
to bed.

"To make it more pectoral, take some rosemary and put it in the
brandy, infused for a whole day, before you burn it."

This is the fundamental element of all the quack medicines for "coughs,
colds, catarrhs, and consumption," from Ford's "Balsam of Horehound" to
Dr. Solomon's "Balm of Gilead."


Shooter's Hill, April 4.

_Howkey or Horkey_ (No. 17. p. 263.). - Does the following passage from
Sir Thomas Overbury's _Witty Descriptions of the Properties of sundry
Persons_, first published, I believe, in 1614, afford any clue to the
etymology of this word? It occurs in the description of a Frankling or
Yeoman: -

"He allows of honest pastime, and thinks not the bones of the
dead anything bruised or the worse for it, though the country
lasses dance in the church-yard after even-song. Rock-Monday,
and the wake in summer shrovings, the wakeful catches on
Christmas eve, _the hoky or seed-cake_, these he yearly keeps,
yet holds them no relics of Popery."

As I have not the book by me, and am only quoting from an extract, I am
unable to give a more precise reference.


Chancery Lane.

It may be possible further the purpose of the noble Querist as to the
word _Howkey_ or _Horkey_, if I state, that when in my boyhood I was
accustomed to hear this word, it was pronounced as if spelt _Hockey_. As
_Howkey_ I should not have recognised it, nor hardly as _Horkey_.


_Hockey_, a game played by boys with a stick bent at the end, is very
likely derived from _hook_, an Anglo-Saxon word too. But we cannot
suppose that anything else was derived from that, and especially when we
come to words apparently more genuine than that. It seems natural to
connect them with a hock-tide, Hoch-zeit (German), and Heoh-tid (A.-S.),
a name given to more than one season when it was usual to have games and
festivities. Now surely this is nothing else than _high_ tide, a time of
some high feast; as we vulgarly say, "high days and holidays." So in the
Scripture, "that Sabbath day was a high day." So high Mass. We
Protestants have no conception of the close connection between the
superior sanctity and the superior jollity of a particular season. Among
the heathen Romans, _festicus_ is derived from _festus_.[3] We say high
romps, high jinks.

See Wachter, who applies Hoch-zeit to Christmas, Easter, and
Whitsuntide, and says it may be derived either from high, or from
_Hogen_, "gaudere," which also see. He says that the lower Saxons "hodie
utuntur '_Höge_'" to mean "gaudium privatum et publicum convivale et
nuptiale." See also Hohen. See Lye, who has also heah, freols summa
festivitas, summum festum.

Ihre (_Lex. Suio Goth._) says _Hugna_ is "to make glad." But in Hog-tid
he observes, that gladness is only the secondary meaning of
_Hogen_, - "_Hokanat_ vocabatur a Borealibus festum quod media hieme
celebrabatur;" and he shows that hawks were formerly sacrificed at it.


[Footnote 3: Is not the derivation of "feast" and "fast" originally the
same? that which is appointed, connected with "_fas_," and that from

_Howkey or Horkey_ (No. 17. p. 263.). - Is not this word simply a
corruption of _Hockey_? Vide under "Hock-cart," in _Brand's Antiquities_
by Ellis, where the following quotation from _Poor Robin's Almanack_ for
1676 occurs: -

"_Hoacky_ is brought home with hallowing,
Boys with plum-cake the cart following."


_Luther's Portrait at Warwick Castle_ (No. 25. p. 400.). - The Portrait
by Holbein, in Warwick Castle, certainly erroneously stated to be that
of Luther, was, I believe, engraved as such in Knight's _Portrait
Gallery_, published by the Society for the Diffusion of Useful
Knowledge. I cannot find in any account of Helbein's works a mention of
a portrait of Luther by him.


_Symbolism of Flowers, etc._ - In reference to works illustrative of
poetical, mythological, scriptural, and historical associations
connected with animals and plants, inquired for in No. 11. p. 173., many
a literary man must equally desire an interpreter, -

"T' unbind the charms that in slight fables lie,
And teach that truth is truest poesy."

Yet, in the English language there is, I believe, no work of this
description; and I therefore beg leave to suggest, that your learned
correspondents may contribute to a very useful compilation by furnishing
illustrations, or references to illustrations, critical and poetical,
collected from the most valuable authors, ancient and modern; and that
this "sacred eloquence," {458}

"Where'er 'tis found
On Christian or on heathen ground,"

if transplanted into learned pages, would to many readers, afford much
pleasure. Meanwhile, I would refer Querist to the useful work of
Camerarius on _Symbols and Emblems_.

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