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{373}
NOTES AND QUERIES:

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION FOR LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES,
GENEALOGISTS, ETC.

* * * * *

"When found, make a note of." - CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

* * * * *

No. 181.]
SATURDAY, APRIL 16. 1853.
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition, 5d.

* * * * *


CONTENTS.

NOTES: - Page
"The Shepherd of Banbury's Weather-Rules," by
W. B. Rye 373
Notes on several misunderstood Words, by the Rev. W.
R. Arrowsmith 375
Lord Coke 376
Shakspeare Correspondence, by C. Mansfield Ingleby,
&c. 377

MINOR NOTES: - Alleged Cure for Hydrophobia - Epitaph
at Mickleton - Charade attributed to Sheridan -
Suggested Reprint of Hearne - Suggestions of Books
worthy of being reprinted - Epigram all the Way from
Belgium - Derivation of "Canada" - Railway Signals
- A Centenarian Trading Vessel 379
QUERIES: -
Bishop Ken 380
MINOR QUERIES: - Canute's Reproof to his Courtiers
- The Sign of the Cross in the Greek Church - Rev.
Richard Midgley, Vicar of Rochdale, temp. Eliz. -
Huet's Navigations of Solomon - Sheriff of Worcestershire
in 1781 - Tree of the Thousand Images - De
Burgh Family - Witchcraft Sermons at Huntingdon -
Consort - Creole - Shearman Family - Traitors' Ford
- "Your most obedient humble Servant" - Version
of a Proverb - Ellis Walker - "The Northerne Castle"
- Prayer-Book in French - "Navita Erythræum," &c.
- Edmund Burke - Plan of London - Minchin 380

MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS: - Leapor's "Unhappy
Father" - Meaning of "the Litten" or "Litton"
- St. James' Market House 382

REPLIES: -
Grub Street Journal, by James Crossley 383
Stone Pillar Worship 383
Autographs in Books 384
Grindle 384
Roger Outlawe, by Dr. J. H. Todd, &c. 385
Prospectus to Cibber's "Lives of the Poets," by James
Crossley 386
Pic-nic, by John Anthony, M.D., and Henry H. Breen 387
Peter Sterry and Jeremiah White, by James Crossley 388

PHOTOGRAPHIC NOTES AND QUERIES: - Colouring Collodion
Portraits - On some Points in the Collodion
Process - Economical Iodizing Process 388

REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES: - Bishop Juxon's Account
of Vendible Books in England - Dutensiana - Vicars-Apostolic
- Tombstone in Churchyard - "Her face is
like," &c. - Annuellarius - Ship's Painter - True Blue
- "Quod fuit esse" - Subterranean Bells - Spontaneous
Combustion - Muffs worn by Gentlemen -
Crescent - The Author of "The Family Journal" -
Parochial Libraries - Sidney as a Christian Name -
"Rather" - Lady High Sheriff - Nugget - Epigrams
- Editions of the Prayer-Book - Portrait of Pope -
Passage in Coleridge - Lowbell - Burn at Croydon 390

MISCELLANEOUS: -
Notes on Books, &c. 394
Books and Odd Volumes wanted 394
Notices to Correspondents 394
Advertisements 395

* * * * *


NOTES.


"THE SHEPHERD OF BANBURY'S WEATHER-RULES."

_The Shepherd of Banbury's Rules to judge of the Changes of the
Weather_, first printed in 1670, was long a favourite book with the
country gentleman, the farmer, and the peasant. They were accustomed to
regard it with the consideration and confidence which were due to the
authority of so experienced a master of the art of prognostication, and
dismissing every sceptical thought, received his maxims with the same
implicit faith as led them to believe that if their cat chanced to wash
her face, rainy weather would be the certain and inevitable result.
Moreover, this valuable little manual instructed them how to keep their
horses, sheep, and oxen sound, and prescribed cures for them when
distempered. No wonder, then, if it has passed through many editions.
Yet it has been invariably stated that _The Banbury Shepherd_ in fact
had no existence; was purely an imaginary creation; and that the work
which passes under his name, "John Claridge," was written by Dr. John
Campbell, the Scottish historian, who died in 1775. The statements made
in connexion with this book are curious enough; and it is with a view of
placing the matter in a clear and correct light that I now trouble you
with a Note, which will, I hope, tend to restore to this poor
weather-wise old shepherd his long-lost rank and station among the rural
authors of England.

I believe that the source of the error is to be traced to the second
edition of the _Biographia Britannica_, in a memoir of Dr. Campbell by
Kippis, in which, when enumerating the works of the learned Doctor,
Kippis says, "He was also the author of _The Shepherd of Banbury's
Rules_, - a favourite pamphlet with the common people." We next find the
book down to Campbell as the "author" in Watt's _Bibliotheca
Britannica_, which is copied both by Chalmers and Lowndes. And so the
error has been perpetuated, even up to the time of the publication of a
meritorious _History of Banbury_, by the late Mr. Alfred Beesley, in
1841. This writer thus speaks of the work:

"The far-famed shepherd of Banbury is only an apocryphal
personage. In 1744 there was published {374} _The Shepherd of
Banbury's Rules to judge of the Changes of the Weather, grounded
on forty Years' Experience. To which is added, a rational
Account of the Causes of such Alterations, the Nature of Wind,
Rain, Snow, &c., on the Principles of the Newtonian Philosophy.
By John Claridge. London: printed for W. Bickerton, in the
Temple Exchange, Fleet Street. Price 1s._ The work attracted a
large share of public attention, and deserved it. A second
edition appeared in 1748.... It is stated in Kippis's
_Biographia Britannica_ that, the real author was Dr. John
Campbell, a Scotchman."

In 1770 there appeared _An Essay on the Weather, with Remarks on "The
Shepherd of Banbury's Rules, &c."_: by John Mills, Esq., F.R.S. Mr.
Mills observes:

"Who the shepherd of Banbury was, we know not; nor indeed have
we any proof that the rules called his were penned by a real
shepherd. Both these points are, however, immaterial; their
truth is their best voucher.... Mr. Claridge published them in
the year 1744, since which time they are become very scarce,
having long been out of print."

Now all these blundering attempts at annihilating the poor shepherd may,
I think, be accounted for by neither of the above-mentioned writers
having a knowledge of the original edition, published in 1670, of the
real shepherd's book (the title of which I will presently give), which
any one may see in the British Museum library. It has on the title-page
a slight disfigurement of name, viz. John _Clearidge_; but it is
_Claridge_ in the Preface. The truth is, that Dr. John Campbell
_re-published_ the book in 1744, but without affixing his own name, or
giving any information of its author or of previous editions. The part,
however, which he bore in this edition is explained by the latter
portion of the title already given; and still more clearly in the
Preface. We find authorities added, to give weight to the shepherd's
remarks; and likewise additional rules in relation to the weather,
derived from the common sayings and proverbs of the country people, and
from old English books of husbandry. It may, in short, be called a
clever scientific commentary on the shepherd's observations. After what
has been stated, your readers will not be surprised to learn that one
edition of the work appears in Watt's very inaccurate book under
CLARIDGE, another under CLEARIDGE, and a third under CAMPBELL. I will
now speak of the original work: it is a small octavo volume of
thirty-two pages, rudely printed, with an amusing Preface "To the
Reader," in which the shepherd dwells with much satisfaction on his
peculiar vaticinating talents. As this Preface has been omitted in all
subsequent editions, and as the book itself is extremely scarce, I
conceive that a reprint of it in your pages may be acceptable to your
Folk-lore readers. The "Rules" are interlarded with scraps of poetry,
somewhat after the manner of old Tusser, and bear the unmistakeable
impress of a "plain, unlettered Muse." The author concludes his work
with a poetical address "to the antiquity and honour of shepheards." The
title is rather a droll one, and is as follows:

"The Shepheard's Legacy: or John Clearidge his forty Years'
Experience of the Weather: being an excellent Treatise, wherein
is shewed the Knowledge of the Weather. First, by the Rising and
Setting of the Sun. 2. How the Weather is known by the Moon. 3.
By the Stars. 4. By the Clouds. 5. By the Mists. 6. By the
Rainbow. 7. And especially by the Winds. Whereby the Weather may
be exactly known from Time to Time: which Observation was never
heretofore published by any Author. 8. Also, how to keep your
Sheep sound when they be sound. 9. And how to cure them if they
be rotten. 10. Is shewed the Antiquity and Honour of Shepheards.
With some certain and assured Cures for thy Horse, Cow, and
Sheep.

An Almanack is out at twelve months day,
My Legacy it doth endure for aye.
But take you notice, though 'tis but a hint,
It far excels some books of greater print.

London: printed and are to be sold by John Hancock, Junior, at
the Three Bibles in Popes-head Ally, next Cornhill, 1670."

In the Preface he tells us that -

"Having been importun'd by sundry friends (some of them being
worthy persons) to make publique for their further benefit what
they have found by experience to be useful for themselves and
others, I could not deny their requests; but was willing to
satisfie them, as also my own self, to do others good as well as
myself; lest I should hide my talent in a napkin, and my skill
be rak'd up with me in the dust. Therefore I have left it to
posterity, that they may have the fruit when the old tree is
dead and rotten. And because I would not be tedious, I shall
descend to some few particular instances of my skill and
foreknowledge of the weather, and I shall have done.

"First, in the year 1665, at the 1st of January, I told several
credible persons that the then frost would hold till March, that
men could not plow, and so it came to pass directly.

"2. I also told them that present March, that it would be a very
dry summer, which likewise came to pass.

"3. The same year, in November, I told them it would be a very
open winter, which also came to pass, although at that time it
was a great snow: but it lasted not a week.

"4. In the year 1666, I told them that year in March, that it
would be a very dry spring; which also came to pass.

"5. In the year 1667, certaine shepheards ask'd my councel
whether they might venture their sheep any more in the
Low-fields? I told them they might safely venture them till
August next; and they sped very well, without any loss.

"6. I told them, in the beginning of September the same year,
that it would be a south-west wind for two or {375} three months
together, and also great store of rain, so that wheat sowing
would be very difficult in the Low-fields, by reason of wet;
which we have found by sad experience. And further, I told them
that they should have not above three or four perfect fair days
together till the shortest day.

"7. In the year 1668, in March, although it was a very dry
season then, I told my neighbours that it would be an
extraordinary fruitful summer for hay and grass, and I knew it
by reason there was so much rain in the latter end of February
and beginning of March: for by that I ever judge of the summers,
and I look that the winter will be dry and frosty for the most
part, by reason that this November was mild: for by that I do
ever judge of the winters.

"Now, I refer you unto the book itself, which will sufficiently
inform you of sundry other of my observations. For in the
ensuing discourse I have set you down the same rules which I go
by myself. And if any one shall question the truth of what is
here set down, let them come to me, and I will give them further
satisfaction.

JOHN CLARIDGE, SEN.

"Hanwell, near Banbury."

It appears, from inquiries made in the neighbourhood, that the name of
Claridge is still common at Hanwell, a small village near Banbury - that
"land o'cakes," - and that last century there was a John Claridge, a
small farmer, resident there, who died in 1758, and who might have been
a grandson of the "far-famed," but unjustly defamed, "shepherd of
Banbury."

_Apropos_ of the "cakes" for which this flourishing town has long been
celebrated, I beg to inform your correspondent ERICA (Vol. vii., p.
106.) and J. R. M., M.A. (p. 310.) that there is a receipt "how to make
a very good Banbury cake," printed as early as 1615, in Gervase
Markham's _English Hus-wife_.

W. B. RYE.

* * * * *


NOTES ON SEVERAL MISUNDERSTOOD WORDS.

(_Continued from_ p. 353.)

_To miss_, to dispense with. This usage of the verb being of such
ordinary occurrence, I should have deemed it superfluous to illustrate,
were it not that the editors of Shakspeare, according to custom, are at
a loss for examples:


"We cannot _miss_ him."

_The Tempest_, Act I. Sc. 2. (where see Mr. Collier's note, and
also Mr. Halliwell's, Tallis's edition).

"All which things being much admirable, yet this is most, that
they are so profitable; bringing vnto man both honey and wax,
each so wholesome that we all desire it, both so necessary that
we cannot _misse_ them." - _Euphues and his England._

"I will have honest valiant souls about me;
I cannot _miss_ thee."

Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Mad Lover_, Act II. Sc. 1.

"The blackness of this season cannot _miss_ me."

The second _Maiden's Tragedy_, Act V. Sc. 1.

"All three are to be had, we cannot _miss_ any of them." - Bishop
Andrewes, "A Sermon prepared to be preached on Whit Sunday, A.D.
1622," _Library of Ang.-Cath. Theology_, vol. iii. p. 383.

"For these, for every day's dangers we cannot _miss_ the
hand." - "A Sermon preached before the King's Majesty at
Burleigh, near Oldham, A.D. 1614," _Id._, vol. iv. p. 86.

"We cannot _miss_ one of them; they be necessary all." - _Id._,
vol. i. p. 73.

It is hardly necessary to occupy further room with more instances of so
familiar a phrase, though perhaps it may not be out of the way to
remark, that _miss_ is used by Andrewes as a substantive in the same
sense as the verb, namely, in vol. v. p. 176.: the more usual form being
_misture_, or, earlier, _mister_. Mr. Halliwell, in his _Dictionary_,
most unaccountably treats these two forms as distinct words; and yet,
more unaccountably, collecting the import of _misture_ for the context,
gives it the signification of misfortune!! He quotes Nash's _Pierce
Pennilesse_; the reader will find the passage at p. 47. of the
Shakspeare Society's reprint. I subjoin another instance from vol. viii.
p. 288. of Cattley's edition of Foxe's _Acts and Monuments_:

"Therefore all men evidently declared at that time, both how
sore they took his death to heart; and also how hardly they
could away with the _misture_ of such a man."

In Latin, _desidero_ and _desiderium_ best convey the import of this
word.

_To buckle_, bend or bow. Here again, to their great discredit be it
spoken, the editors of Shakspeare (Second Part of _Hen. IV._, Act I. Sc.
1.) are at fault for an example. Mr. Halliwell gives one in his
_Dictionary_ of the passive participle, which see. In Shakspeare it
occurs as a neuter verb:

"... And teach this body,
To bend, and these my aged knees to _buckle_,
In adoration and just worship to you."
Ben Jonson, _Staple of News_, Act II. Sc. 1.

"For, certainly, like as great stature in a natural body is some
advantage in youth, but is but burden in age: so it is with
great territory, which, when a state beginneth to decline, doth
make it stoop and _buckle_ so much the faster." - Lord Bacon, "Of
the True Greatness of Great Britain," vol. i. p. 504. (Bohn's
edition of the _Works_).

And again, as a transitive verb:

"Sear trees, standing or felled, belong to the lessee, and you
have a special replication in the book of 44 E. III., that the
wind did but rend them and _buckle_ them." - _Case of Impeachment
of Waste_, vol. i. p. 620.

_On the hip_, at advantage. A term of wrestling. So said Dr. Johnson at
first; but, on second {376} thoughts, referred it to _venery_, with
which Mr. Dyce consents: both erroneously. Several instances are adduced
by the latter, in his _Critique of Knight and Collier's Shakspeare_; any
one of which, besides the passage in _The Merchant of Venice_, should
have confuted that origin of the phrase. The hip of a chase is no term
of woodman's craft: the haunch is. Moreover, what a marvellous
expression, to say, A hound has a chase _on_ the hip, instead of _by_.
Still more prodigious to say, that a hound _gets_ a chase _on_ the hip.
One would be loth to impute to the only judicious dramatic commentator
of the day, a love of contradiction as the motive for quarrelling with
Mr. Collier's note on this idiom. To the examples alleged by Mr. Dyce,
the three following may be added; whereof the last, after the opinion of
Sir John Harington, rightly refers the origin of the metaphor to
wrestling:

"The Divell hath them _on the hip_, he may easily bring them to
anything." - _Michael and the Dragon_, by D. Dike, p. 328.
(_Workes_, London, 1635).

"If he have us at the advantage, _on the hip_ as we say, it is
no great matter then to get service at our hands." - Andrewes, "A
Sermon preached before the King's Majesty at Whitehall, 1617,"
_Library of Ang.-Cath. Theology_, vol. iv. p. 365.

"Full oft the valiant knight his hold doth shift,
And with much prettie sleight, the same doth slippe;
In fine he doth applie one speciall drift,
Which was to get the Pagan on the _hippe_:
And hauing caught him right, he doth him lift,
By nimble sleight, and in such wise doth trippe:
That downe he threw him, and his fall was such,
His head-piece was the first that ground did tuch."
Sir John Harington's Translation of _Orlando
Furioso_, Booke xlvi. Stanza 117.

In some editions, the fourth line is printed "_namely_ to get," &c.,
with other variations in the spelling of the rest of the stanza.

W. R. ARROWSMITH.

(_To be continued._)

* * * * *


LORD COKE.

Turning over some old books recently, my attention was strongly drawn to
the following:

"The Lord Coke, his Speech and Charge, with a Discouerie of the
Abuses and Corruptions of Officers. 8vo. Lond. N. Butter, 1607."

This curious piece appears to have been published by one R. P.[1], who
describes himself, in his dedication to the Earl of Exeter, as a "poore,
dispised, pouertie-stricken, hated, scorned, and vnrespected souldier,"
of which there were, doubtless, many in the reign of James the Pacific.
Lord Coke, in his address to the jury at the Norwich Assizes, gives an
account of the various plottings of the Papists, from the Reformation to
the Gunpowder Treason, to bring the land again under subjection to Rome,
and characterises the schemes and the actors therein as he goes along in
the good round terms of an out-and-out Protestant. He has also a fling
at the Puritans, and all such as would disturb the church and hierarchy
as by law established. But the most remarkable part of the book is that
which comes under the head of "A Discouerie of the Abuses and Corruption
of Officers;" and believing an abstract might interest your readers, and
furnish the antiquary with a reference, I herewith present you with a
list of the officials and others whom my Lord Coke recommends the
_Jurie_ to present, assuring them, at the same time, that "by God's
grace they, the offenders, shall not goe unpunished for their abuses;
for we have," says he, "a COYFE, which signifies a _scull_, whereby, in
the execution of justice, wee are defended against all oppositions, bee
they never so violent."

1. The first gentleman introduced by Lord Coke to the Norwich jury is
the _Escheator_, who had power to demand upon what tenure a poor yeoman
held his lands, and is an officer in great disfavour with the judge. He
gives some curious instances of his imposition, and concludes by
remarking that, for his rogueries, he were better described by striking
away the first syllable of his name, the rest truly representing him a
_cheator_.

2. _The Clarke of the Market_ comes in for his share of Lord Coke's
denouncements. "It was once," he says, "my hap to take a clarke of the
market in his trickes; but I aduanst him higher than his father's sonne,
by so much as from the ground to the toppe of the pillorie" for his
bribery.

3. "A certaine ruffling officer" called a _Purveyor_, who is
occasionally found _purveying money_ out of your purses, and is
therefore, says Lord Coke, "on the highway to the gallowes."

4. As the next officer is unknown in the present day, I give his
character _in extenso_:

"There is also a Salt-peter-man, whose commission is not to
break vp any man's house or ground without leaue. And not to
deale with any house, but such as is vnused for any necessarie
imployment by the owner. And not to digge in any place without
leauing it smooth and leuell: in such case as he found it. This
Salt-peter-man vnder shew of his authoritie, though being no
more than is specified, will make plaine and simple people
beleeue, that hee will without their leaue breake vp the floore
of their dwelling house, vnlesse they will compound with him to
the contrary. Any such fellow, if you can meete with all, let
his misdemenor be presented, that he may be taught better to
vnderstand his office: For by their abuse the country is
oftentimes troubled."

5. There is another troublesome fellow called a _Concealor_, who could
easily be proved no better {377} than a _cosioner_, and whose
pretensions are to be resisted.

6. A _Promoter_, generally both a beggar and a knave. This is the modern
informer, "a necessarie office," says Lord Coke, "but rarely filled by
an honest man."

7. The _Monopolitane_ or _Monopolist_; with these the country was
overrun in James' reign. "To annoy and hinder the public weale, these
for their own benefit have sold their lands, and then come to beggarie
by a _starch_, _vinegar_, or _aqua vitæ_ monopoly, and justly too," adds
his lordship.

8. Lord Coke has no objection to those _golden fooles_, the _Alcumists_,


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