Notes and Queries, Number 181, April 16, 1853 online

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so long as they keep to their _metaphisicall_ and _Paracelsian_ studies;
but _science is felony committed by any comixture to multiply either
gold or silver_; the alchymist is therefore a suspected character, and
to be looked after by the jury.

9. Vagrants to be resolutely put down, the Statute against whom had
worked well.

10. The stage-players find no favour with this stern judge, who tells
the jury that as they, the players, cannot perform without leave, it is
easy to be rid of them, remarking, _that the country is much troubled by

11. Taverns, Inns, Ale-houses, Bowling Allies, and such like thriftless
places of resort for tradesmen and artificers, to be under strict

12. Gallants, or riotous young gents, to be sharply looked after, and
their proceedings controlled.

13. Gentlemen with greyhounds and birding-pieces, who would elude the
_statutes against gunnes_, to be called to account "for the
shallow-brain'd idlenesse of their ridiculous foolery."

14. The statute against _ryotous expence in apparel_ to be put in force
against _unthriftie infractors_.

There is room here for a few Queries, but I content myself with asking
for a further reference to No. 4., "The Salt-peter-man."

J. O.

[Footnote 1: No doubt the author of an ultra-Protestant poem,
entitled _Times Anatomie, made by Robert Prickett, a Souldier_.
Imprinted, 1606.]

* * * * *


_Dogberry's Losses or Leases._ - _Much Ado about Nothing_, Act IV. Sc.

"_Dogberry._ A rich fellow enough, go to: and a fellow that hath
had losses; and one that hath two gowns, and everything handsome
about him."

I can quite sympathise with the indignation of some of my cotemporaries
at the alteration by MR. PAYNE COLLIER'S mysterious corrector, of
"losses" into "leases." I am sorry to see a reading which we had
cherished without any misgiving as a bit of Shaksperian quaintness, and
consecrated by the humour of Gray and Charles Lamb, turned into a clumsy
misprint. But we must look at real probabilities, not at fancies and
predilections. I am afraid "leases" is the likelier word. It has also a
special fitness, which has not been hitherto remarked. Many of the
wealthy people of Elizabeth's reign, particularly in the middle class,
were "fellows that had had leases." It will be recollected that
extravagant leases or fines were among the methods by which the
possessions of the church were so grievously dilapidated in the age of
the Reformation. Those who had a little money to invest, could not do so
on more advantageous terms than by obtaining such leases as the
necessity or avarice of clerical and other corporations induced them to
grant; and the coincident fall in the value of money increased the gain
of the lessees, and loss of the corporations, to an extraordinary
amount. Throughout Elizabeth's reign parliament was at work in
restraining this abuse, by the well-known "disabling acts," restricting
the power of bishops and corporations to lease their property. The last
was passed, I think, only in 1601. And therefore a "rich fellow" of
Dogberry's class was described, to the thorough comprehension and
enjoyment of an audience of that day, as one who "had _had_ leases."


May I be allowed a little space in the pages of "N. & Q." to draw MR.
COLLIER'S attention to some passages in which the old corrector appears
to me to have corrupted, rather than improved, the text? Possibly on
second thoughts MR. COLLIER may be induced to withdraw these readings
from the text of his forthcoming edition of our great poet. I give the
pages of MR. COLLIER'S recent volume, and quote according to the old

_Two Gentlemen of Verona_, Act II. Sc. 2., p. 21.:

"That I, unworthy body, as I _can_,
Should censure thus a _loving_ gentleman."

_Can_ for _am_ spoils the sense; it was introduced unnecessarily to make
a perfect rhyme, but such rhymes as _am_ and _man_ were common in
Shakspeare's time. _Loving_ for _lovely_ is another modernism; _lovely_
is equivalent to the French _aimable_. "Saul and Jonathan were _lovely_
and pleasant in their lives," &c. The whole passage, which is indeed
faulty in the old copies, should, I think, be read thus:

"'Tis a passing shame
That I, unworthy body that I am,
Should censure _on a_ lovely _gentleman_.

_Jul._ Why not on Proteus as _on_ all the rest?

_Luc._ Then thus, - of many good I think him best."

_Thus_ crept in after _censure_ from the next line but one. In Julia's
speech, grammar requires _on_ for _of_.

_Measure for Measure_, Act IV. Sc. 5., p. 52.:

"For my authority bears _such_ a credent bulk," &c.

Fols. "_of_ a credent bulk," read "_so_ credent bulk."

_Much Ado about Nothing_, Act IV. Sc. 1., p 72.:

"Myself would on the _hazard_ of reproaches
Strike at thy life."

When fathers kill their children, they run the risk not merely of being
reproached, but of being hanged; but this reading is a mere
sophistication by some one who did not understand the true reading,
_rearward_. Leonato threatens to take his daughter's life _after having_
reproached her.

_Taming of the Shrew_, p. 145.:

"O, yes, I saw sweet beauty in her face,
Such as the daughter of _Agenor's race_," &c.

"The daughter of Agenor's race" for "the daughter of Agenor" is awkward,
but there is a far more decisive objection to this alteration. To
compare the beauty of Bianca with the beauty of Europa is a legitimate
comparison; but to compare the beauty of Bianca with Europa herself, is
of course inadmissible. Here is another corruption introduced in order
to produce rhyming couplet; restore the old reading, "the daughter of
Agenor _had_."

_The Winter's Tale_, Act IV. Sc. 2., p. 191.:

"If, &c., let me be _enrolled_, and any name put in the book of

We have here an abortive attempt to correct the nonsensical reading of
the old copies, _unrolled_; but if _enrolled_ itself makes sense, it
does so only by introducing tautology. Besides, it leads us away from
what I believe to be the true reading, _unrogued_.

_King John_, Act V. Sc. 7., p. 212.:

"Death, having prey'd upon the outward parts,
Leaves them _unvisited_; and his siege is now
Against the mind."

How could death prey upon the king's outward parts without visiting
them? Perhaps, however, we have here only a corruption of a genuine
text. Query, "_ill_-visited."

_Troilus and Cressida_, Act I. Sc. 3., p. 331.:

"And, with an accent tun'd in self-same key,
Replies to chiding fortune."

This, which is also Hanmer's reading, certainly makes sense. Pope read
_returns_. The old copies have _retires_. I believe Shakspeare wrote
"_Rechides_ to chiding fortune." This puzzled the compositor, who gave
the nearest common word without regard to the sense.

_Troilus and Cressida_, Act V. Sc. 1., p. 342. - The disgusting speeches
of Thersites are scarcely worth correcting, much less dwelling upon; but
there can be little doubt that we should read "male _harlot_" for "male
_varlet_;" and "preposterous _discoverers_" (not discolourers) for
"preposterous discoveries."

_Coriolanus_, Act V. Sc. 5., p. 364.:

"I... holp to reap the fame
Which he did _ear_ all his."

To _ear_ is to _plough_. Aufidius complains that he had a share in the
harvest, while Coriolanus took all the ploughing to himself. We have
only, however, to transpose _reap_ and _ear_, and this nonsense is at
once converted into excellent sense. The old corrector blindly copied
the blunder of a corrupt, but not sophisticated, manuscript. This has
occurred elsewhere in this collection.

_Antony and Cleopatra_, Act I. Sc. 5., p. 467.:

"And soberly did mount an _arm-girt_ steed."

This reading was also conjectured by Hanmer. The folios read
_arme-gaunt_. This appears to me a mere misprint for _rampaunt_, but
whether _rampaunt_ was Shakspeare's word, or a transcriber's
sophistication for _ramping_, is more than I can undertake to determine.
I believe, however, that one of them is the true reading. At one period
to _ramp_ and to _prance_ seem to have been synonymous. Spenser makes
the horses of night "fiercely _ramp_," and Surrey exhibits a _prancing_

This communication is, I am afraid, already too long for "N. & Q.;" I
will therefore only add my opinion, that, though the old corrector has
reported many bad readings, they are far outnumbered by the good ones in
the collection.

W. N. L.

_Mr. Collier's "Notes and Emendations:" Passage in "The Winter's
Tale."_ - At p. 192. of MR. PAYNE COLLIER'S new volume, he cites a
passage in _The Winter's Tale_, ending -

"... I should blush
To see you so attir'd, sworn, I think
To show myself a glass."

The MS. emendator, he says, reads _so worn_ for _sworn_; and adds:

"The meaning therefore is, that Florizel's plain attire was 'so
worn,' to show Perdita, as in a glass, how simply she ought to
have been dressed."

Now MR. COLLIER, in this instance, has not, according to his usual
practice, alluded to any commentator who has suggested the same
emendation. The inference would be, that this emendation is a novelty.
This it is not. It has been before the world for thirty-four years, and
its merits have failed to give it currency. At p. 142. of Z. Jackson's
miscalled _Restorations_, 1819, we find this emendation, with the
following note:

"_So worn_, i. e. _so reduced_, in your external appearance,
that I should think you intended to remind me of my own
condition; for, by looking at you thus attired, I behold myself,
as it were, reflected in a glass, habited in robes becoming my
obscure birth, and equally obscure fortune."

Jackson's emendations are invariably bad; but whatever may be thought of
the sense of Florizel being _so worn_ (instead of his dress), it is but
fair to give a certain person his due. The passage has long seemed to me
to have this meaning:

"But that we are acquiescing in a custom, I should blush to see
you, who are a prince, attired like a swain; and still more
should I blush to look at myself in the glass, and see a peasant
girl pranked up like a princess."

_& more_, in MS., might very easily have been mistaken for _sworn_ by
the compositor. Accordingly, I would read the complete passage thus:

"... But that our feasts
In every mess have folly, and the feeders
Digest it with a custom, I should blush
To see you so attir'd, and more, I think,
To show myself a glass."



* * * * *


_Alleged Cure for Hydrophobia._ - From time to time articles have
appeared in "N. & Q." as to the cure of hydrophobia, a specific for
which seems still to be a desideratum.

In the _Miscellanea Curiosa_ (vol. iii. p. 346.) is a paper on Virginia,
from the Rev. John Clayton, rector of Crofton in Wakefield, in which he
states the particulars of several cures which he had effected of persons
bitten by mad dogs. His principal remedy seems to have been the
"volatile salt of amber" every four hours, and in the intervals, "Spec.
Pleres Archonticon and Rue powdered ana gr. 15." I am not learned enough
to understand what these drugs are called in the modern nomenclature of

C. T. W.

_Epitaph at Mickleton._ - The following inscription is copied from a
monument on the north wall of the chancel of Mickleton Church, co.

"_The Ephitath of John Bonner._

Heare lyeth in tomed John Bonner by name,
Sonne of Bonner of Pebworth, from thence he came.
The :17: of October he ended his daies,
Pray God that wee leveing may follow his wayes.
1618 by the yeare.
Scarce are such Men to be found in this shere.
Made and set up by his loveing frend
Evens his kindesman and [so I] doe end.
John Bonner, Senior. Thomas Evens, Junior.

The words in brackets are conjectural, the stone at that point being
much corroded.


_Charade attributed to Sheridan._ - You have given a place to enigmas in
"N. & Q.," and therefore the following, which has been attributed to R.
B. Sheridan, may be acceptable. Was he the author?

"There is a spot, say, Traveller, where it lies,
And mark the clime, the limits, and the size,
Where grows no grass, nor springs the yellow grain,
Nor hill nor dale diversify the plain;
Perpetual green, without the farmer's toil,
Through all the seasons clothes the favor'd soil,
Fair pools, in which the finny race abound,
By human art prepar'd, enrich the ground.
Not India's lands produce a richer store,
Pearl, ivory, gold and silver ore.
Yet, Britons, envy not these boasted climes,
Incessant war distracts, and endless crimes
Pollute the soil: - Pale Avarice triumphs there,
Hate, Envy, Rage, and heart-corroding Care,
With Fraud and Fear, and comfortless Despair.
There government not long remains the same,
Nor they, like us, revere a monarch's name.
Britons, beware! Let avarice tempt no more;
Spite of the wealth, avoid the tempting shore;
The daily bread which Providence has given,
Eat with content, and leave the rest to heaven."


_Suggested Reprint of Hearne._ - It has often occurred to me to inquire
whether an association might not be formed for the republication of the
works edited by Tom Hearne? An attempt was made some years ago by a
bookseller; and, as only Robert of Gloucester and Peter Langtoft
appeared, "Printed for Samuel Bagster, in the Strand, 1810," we must
infer that the spirited publisher was too far in advance of the age, and
that the attempt did not pay. Probably it never would _as a bookseller's
speculation_. But might not a society like the Camden be formed for the
purpose with some probability, in these altered times and by such an
improved method of proceeding, of placing these curious and valuable
volumes once more within reach of men of ordinary means? At present the
works edited by Hearne are rarely to be met with in catalogues, and when
they do occur, the prices are almost fabulous, quite on the scale of
those affixed to ancient MSS.


_Suggestions of Books worthy of being reprinted._ - Fabricius,
_Bibliotheca Latina Mediæ et Infimæ Ætatis_, 6 vols. 8vo. (Recommended
in _The Guardian_ newspaper.)

J. M.

_Epigram all the way from Belgium._ - Should you think the following
epigram, written in the travellers' book at Hans-sur-Lesse, in Belgium,
worth preserving, it is at your service:

"Old Euclid may go to the wall,
For we've solved what he never could guess,
How the fish in the river are _small_,
But the river they live in is _Lesse_."

H. A. B.

_Derivation of "Canada."_ - I send you a cutting from an old newspaper,
on the derivation of this word:

"The name of Canada, according to Sir John Barrow, originated in
the following circumstances. When the Portuguese, under Gasper
Cortcreal, in the year 1500, first ascended the great river St.
Lawrence, they believed it was the strait of which they were in
search, and through which a passage might be discovered into the
Indian Sea. But on arriving at the point whence they could
clearly ascertain it was not a strait but a river, they, with
all the emphasis of disappointed hopes, exclaimed repeatedly
'Canada!' - Here nothing; words which were remembered and
repeated by the natives on seeing Europeans arrive in 1534, who
naturally conjectured that the word they heard employed so often
must denote the name of the country."


St. Lucia.

_Railway Signals._ - An effective communication from the guard to the
engineman, for the prevention of railway accidents, seems to be an
important desideratum, which has hitherto baffled the ingenuity of
philosophers. The only proposed plan likely to be adopted, is that of a
cord passing below the foot-boards, and placing the valve of the steam
whistle under the control of the guard. The trouble attending this
scheme, and the liability to neglect and disarrangement, render its
success doubtful. What I humbly suggest is, that the guard should be
provided with an independent instrument which would produce a sound
sufficiently loud to catch the ear of the engineman. Suppose, for
instance, that the mouth-piece of a clarionet, or the windpipe of a
duck, or a metallic imitation, were affixed to the muzzle of an air-gun,
and the condensed air discharged through the confined aperture; a shrill
sound would be emitted. Surely, then, a small instrument might be
contrived upon this principle, powerful enough to arrest the attention
of the engineer, if not equal to the familiar shriek of the present

It is hoped that this hint will be followed up; that your publication
will sustain its character by thus providing a medium of
intercommunication for these worthies, who can respectively lay claim to
the titles of men of science and men of _letters_, and that some
experimenter "when found will make a _note_" - a stunning one.

T. C.

_A Centenarian Trading Vessel._ - There is a small smack now trading in
the Bristol Channel, in excellent condition and repair, and likely to
last for many years, called the "Fanny," which was built in 1753. This
vessel belongs to Porlock, in the port of Bridgewater, and was
originally built at Aberthaw in South Wales. Can any of your readers
refer to any other _trading_ vessel so old as this?


* * * * *



At what place, and by what bishop, was he ordained, in 1661? His
ordination probably took place in the diocese of Oxford, London,
Winchester, or Worcester. The discovery of it has hitherto baffled much

Jon Ken, an elder brother of the Bishop, was Treasurer of the East India
Company in 1683. Where can anything be learned of him? Is there any
mention of him in the books of the East India Company? Was he the Ken
mentioned in Roger North's _Lives of the Norths_, as one of the
court-rakes? When did he die, and where was he buried? This Jon Ken
married Rose, the daughter of Sir Thomas Vernon, of Coleman Street, and
by her is said (by Hawkins) to have had a daughter, married to the
Honorable Christopher Frederick Kreienberg, Hanoverian Resident in
London. Did M. Kreienberg die in this country, or can anything be
ascertained of him or his wife?

The Bishop wrote to James II. a letter of intercession on behalf of the
rebels in 1685. Can this letter be found in the State-Paper Office, or

In answer to a sermon preached by Bishop Ken, on 5th May, 1687, one F.
I. R., designating himself "a most loyal Irish subject of the _Company
of Jesuits_," wrote some "Animadversions." Could this be the "fath. Jo.
Reed," a _Benedictine_, mentioned in the Life of A. Wood, under date of
July 21, 1671? Father Reed was author of _Votiva Tabula_. Can any one
throw any light on this?

J. J. J.

* * * * *


_Canute's Reproof to his Courtiers._ - Opposite the Southampton Docks, in
the Canute Road, is the Canute Hotel, with this inscription in front:
"Near this spot, A.D. 1028, Canute reproved his courtiers." The building
is of very recent date.

Query, Is there any and what authority for the statement?


_The Sign of the Cross in the Greek Church._ - The members of the Greek
Church sign themselves with the sign of the cross in a different manner
from those of the Western Church. What is the difference?

J. C. B.

_Reverend Richard Midgley, Vicar of Rochdale, temp. Eliz._ - Dr. T. D.
Whitaker mentions, in a note in his _Life of Sir George Radcliffe,
Knt._, p. 4., 4to. 1810, that at an obscure inn in North Wales he once
met with a very interesting account of Midgley in a collection of lives
of pious persons, {381} made about the time of Charles I.; but adds,
that he had forgotten the title, and had never since been able to obtain
the book. Can any reader of "N. & Q." identify this "collection," or
furnish any particulars of Midgley not recorded by Brook, Calamy, or

F. R. R.

_Huet's Navigations of Solomon._ - Can you or any of your readers inform
me if the treatise referred to in the accompanying extract was ever
published? and, if so, what was the result as to the assertions there

_The History of the Commerce and Navigation of the Ancients. Written in
French by Monsieur Huet, Bishop of Avranches. Made English from the
Paris Edition. London: Printed for B. Lintot, between the Temple Gates,
in Fleet Street, and Mears, at the Lamb, without Temple Bar._ 1717.

"2dly. It is here we must lay down the most important remark, in
point of commerce; and I shall undeniably establish the truth of
it in a treatise which I have begun concerning the navigations
of Solomon, that the Cape of Good Hope was known, often
frequented, and doubled in Solomon's time, and so it was
likewise for many years after; and that the Portuguese, to whom
the glory of this discovery has been attributed, were not the
first that found out this place, but mere secondary
discoverers." - P. 20.



_Sheriff of Worcestershire in 1781._ - Will any one of your
correspondents inform me who was sheriff of Worcestershire in the year
1781*, and give his arms, stating the source of his knowledge on these
points, to much oblige


[* John Darke of Breedon, Esq. See Nash's _Worcestershire_,
Supplement, p. 102. - ED.]

_Tree of the Thousand Images._ - Father Huc, in his journey to Thibet,
gives an account of a singular tree, bearing this title, and of which
the peculiarity is that its leaves and bark are covered with
well-defined characters of the Thibetian alphabet. The tree seen by MM.
Huc and Gabet appeared to them to be of great {385} age, and is said by
the inhabitants to be the only one of its kind known in the country.
According to the account given by these travellers, the letters would
appear to be formed by the veins of the leaves; the resemblance to
Thibetian characters was such as to strike them with astonishment, and
they were inclined at first to suspect fraud, but, after repeated

observations, arrived at the conclusion that none existed. Do botanists
know or conjecture anything about this tree?

C. W. G.

_De Burgh Family._ - I shall feel much obliged for references to the
early seals of the English branch of the family of De Burgh, descended
from Harlowen De Burgh, and Arlotta, mother of William the Conqueror,
especially of that English branch whose armorial bearings were - Or a
cross gules: also for information whether the practice, in reference to
the spelling of names, was such as to render _Barow_, of the latter part
of the fifteenth century, Aborough some fifty years afterwards.

E. D. B.

_Witchcraft Sermons at Huntingdon._ - In an article on Witchcraft in the
_Retrospective Review_ (vol. v. p. 121.), it is stated that, in 1593 -

"An old man, his wife and daughter, were accused of bewitching
the five children of a Mr. Throgmorton, several servants, the
lady of Sir Samuel Cromwell, and other persons.... They were
executed, and their goods, which were of the value of forty
pounds, being escheated to Sir S. Cromwell, as lord of the
manor, he gave the amount to the mayor and aldermen of
Huntingdon, for a rent-charge of forty shillings yearly, to be
paid out of their town lands, for an annual lecture upon the
subject of witchcraft, to be preached at their town every
Lady-Day, by a doctor or bachelor of divinity, of Queen's
College, Cambridge."

Is this sum yet paid, and the sermon still preached, or has it fallen
into disuse now that it is unpopular to believe in witchcraft and
diabolic possession? Have any of the sermons been published?


Bottesford, Kirton in Lindsey.

_Consort._ - A former correspondent applied for a notice of Mons.
Consort, said to have been a mystical impostor similar to the famous
Cagliostro. I beg to renew the same inquiry.

A. N.

_Creole._ - This word is variously represented in my Lexicons. Bailey
says, "The descendant of an European, born in America," and with him

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